Debes JD, Comuzzi B, Schmidt LJ, Dehm SM, Culig Z, Tindall DJ.. p300 regulates androgen receptor-independent expression of prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer cells treated chronically with interleukin-6. Cancer Res 65: 5965-5973

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 08/2005; 65(13):5965-73. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-2837
Source: PubMed


Prostate cancer is the most frequent non-skin cancer in men. Although the mechanisms involved in the progression of prostate cancer are not entirely understood, androgen receptor has been shown to play an important role. Androgen receptor is expressed in both early and late-stage prostate cancer. Also, androgen-regulated pathways are thought to be active as evidenced by elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In addition, several androgen receptor coactivators and cytokines are involved in prostate cancer progression. In this regard, we have shown previously that the coactivator p300 plays a major role in the androgen-independent activation of PSA by interleukin 6 (IL-6), a cytokine involved in late-stage prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of p300 and its homologue CREB-binding protein in prostate cancer cells treated chronically with IL-6. We found that p300 but not CREB-binding protein induced activation of PSA in these cells and that the histone acetyltransferase activity of p300 was critical. This effect was independent of the presence of androgens or antiandrogens. Moreover, we found markedly reduced levels of androgen receptor in these cells and p300 transfection did not affect those levels, suggesting that the p300 effect on PSA could be bypassing the androgen receptor. Transfection with exogenous androgen receptor showed minimal response of PSA to androgens but higher response to p300. We found similar effects of p300 on the androgen response element III, which mediates the androgen receptor-dependent activation of PSA. Finally, we showed that p300 alone regulates expression of the endogenous PSA gene in the IL-6-treated cells. These findings reveal a new insight in the progression of prostate cancer, suggesting that coactivators, such as p300, play more important roles in late-stage prostate cancer, and could regulate androgen-dependent genes in the absence or with very low levels of androgen receptor.

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    • "PSA transcription is inhibited by IL-6 treatment in the presence of androgen in LNCaP cells, by preventing recruitment of p300 to the PSA promoter.[99] However, prolonged IL-6 treatment of LNCaP cells leads to activation of AR and PSA expression, via STAT signaling, even in the absence of androgen.[100] STAT3 interacts directly with amino acids 234-558 in the NTD of AR,[101] and AR transcriptional activation is dependent on phosphorylation of STAT3 at Serine-772.[102] "
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    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis plays a critical role in the development, function and homeostasis of the prostate. The classical action of AR is to regulate gene transcriptional processes via AR nuclear translocation, binding to androgen response elements on target genes and recruitment of, or crosstalk with, transcription factors. Prostate cancer initiation and progression is also uniquely dependent on AR. Androgen deprivation therapy remains the standard of care for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Despite an initial favorable response, almost all patients invariably progress to a more aggressive, castrate-resistant phenotype. Considerable evidence now supports the concept that development of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is causally related to continued transactivation of AR. Understanding the critical events and complexities of AR signaling in the progression to CRPC is essential in developing successful future therapies. This review provides a synopsis of AR structure and signaling in prostate cancer progression, with a special focus on recent findings on the role of AR in CRPC. Clinical implications of these findings and potential directions for future research are also outlined.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Carcinogenesis
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    • "LNCaP-IL-6+ cells are a good model for studies of function of AR co-activators in prostate cancer. The AR coactivator p300 was found to increase expression of endogenous genes which are AR-regulated even in conditions where the receptor is strongly inhibited (Debes et al., 2005). Those findings may be of special interest because there is a subgroup of prostate cancer cells in which the AR is silenced as a result of epigenetic changes (Jarrard et al., 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: Several cytokines are involved in regulation of cellular events in prostate cancer. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was frequently investigated in prostate cancer models because of its increased expression in cancer tissue at early stages of the disease. In patients with metastatic prostate cancer, it is well-known that IL-6 levels increase in serum. High levels of IL-6 were measured in the supernatants of cells which do not respond to androgenic stimulation. IL-6 expression in prostate cancer increases due to enhanced expression of transforming growth factor-beta, and members of the activating protein-1 complex, and loss of the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor. IL-6 activation of androgen receptor (AR) may contribute to progression of a subgroup of prostate cancers. Results obtained with two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and MDA PCa 2b, indicate that IL-6 activation of AR may cause either stimulatory or inhibitory responses on proliferation. Interestingly, prolonged treatment with IL-6 led to establishment of an IL-6 autocrine loop, suppressed signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 activation, and increased mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. In several cell lines IL-6 acts as a survival molecule through activation of the signalling pathway of phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase. Expression of suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) has been studied in prostate cancer. SOCS-3 prevents phosphorylation of STAT3 and is an important anti-apoptotic factor in AR-negative prostate cancer cells. Experimental therapy against IL-6 in prostate cancer is based on the use of the monoclonal antibody siltuximab which may be used for personalised therapy coming in the future.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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    • "It was also observed that long-term treatment of cells with IL-6 leads to a strongly reduced expression of androgen receptor (AR) [12]. This is in contrast to the short-term treatment in which IL-6 increased expression and activity of AR [13] [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-6, -4, and -8 levels have been elevated in most patients suffering from prostate, breast, or colon cancer. There is a large body of evidence suggesting that chronic inflammation is one of the etiologic factors in these tumors. IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine which is known to influence proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in cancer. Its transcription factor STAT3 is known as an oncogene that is constitutively phosphorylated in these malignancies. However, IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation may result in growth arrest. IL-6 activation of androgen receptor in prostate cancer may yield either tumor cell proliferation or differentiation. Prolonged treatment with IL-6 results in generation of sublines which express a more malignant phenotype. Therapy options against IL-6 have been established and the antibody siltuximab has been applied in preclinical and clinical studies. Recently, investigations of the role of suppressors of cytokine signaling have been carried out. IL-4 and -8 are implicated in regulation of apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis in cancers associated with chronic inflammation. All cytokines mentioned above regulate cellular events in stem cells. These cells could not be targeted by most conventional cancer therapies.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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