Article

Diverse biological effect and Smad signaling of bone morphogenetic protein 7 in prostate tumor cells

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 08/2005; 65(13):5769-77. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0289
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We found that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 7, a member of the BMP family, was strikingly up-regulated during the development of primary prostatic adenocarcinoma in the conditional Pten deletion mouse model. To determine the relevance of this finding to human prostate cancer, we examined the expression of BMPs and BMP receptors (BMPR) as well as the responsiveness to recombinant human BMP7 in a series of human prostate tumor cell lines. All prostatic cell lines tested expressed variable levels of BMP2, BMP4, and BMP7 and at least two of each type I and II BMPRs. In all cases, BMP7 induced Smad phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, with Smad5 activation clearly demonstrable. However, the biological responses to BMP7 were cell type specific. BPH-1, a cell line representing benign prostatic epithelial hyperplasia, was growth arrested at G1. In the bone metastasis-derived PC-3 prostate cancer cells, BMP7 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation with classic changes in morphology, motility, invasiveness, and molecular markers. Finally, BMP7 inhibited serum starvation-induced apoptosis in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line and more remarkably in its bone metastatic variant C4-2B line. Each of the cell lines influenced by BMP7 was also responsive to BMP2 in a corresponding manner. The antiapoptotic activity of BMP7 in the LNCaP and C4-2B cell lines was not associated with a significant alteration in the levels of the proapoptotic protein Bax or the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis. However, in C4-2B cells but not in LNCaP cells, a starvation-induced decrease in the level of survivin was counteracted by BMP7. Taken together, these findings suggest that BMPs are able to modulate the biological behavior of prostate tumor cells in diverse and cell type-specific manner and point to certain mechanisms by which these secreted signaling molecules may contribute to prostate cancer growth and metastasis.

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    • "We demonstrate that over-expression of noggin in cE1 cells results in inhibition of in vitro cell proliferation. This is consistent with our previous findings that BMP7 is able to stimulate growth of human prostate cancer cell lines (Yang et al. 2005Yang et al. , 2006). It was demonstrated that BMP7 stimulates "
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have focused on the impact of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) on prostate cancer homing and growth at distant metastatic sites, but very little on impact at the primary site. Here we used two cell lines, one (E8) isolated from a primary tumor and the other (cE1) from a recurrent tumor arising at the primary site, both from the conditional Pten deletion mouse model of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Over-expression of the BMP antagonist Noggin inhibited proliferation of cE1 cells in vitro while enhancing their ability to migrate. On the other hand cE1/Noggin grafts grown in vivo showed a greater mass and a higher proliferation index than the cE1/Control grafts. For suppression of BMP activity in the context of cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), we used Noggin-transduced CAFs from the same mouse model to determine their effect on E8 or cE1 induced tumor growth. CAF/Noggin led to increased tumor mass and greater de-differentiation of the E8 cell as compared to tumors formed in the presence of CAF/Control cells. A trend in increase in the size of the tumor was also noted for cE1 cells when inoculated with CAF/Noggin. Together, the results may point to a potential inhibitory role of BMP in the growth or re-growth of prostate tumor at the primary site. Additionally, results for cE1/Noggin, and cE1 mixed with CAF/Noggin suggested that suppression of BMP activity in the cancer cells may have a stronger growth enhancing effect on the tumor than its suppression in the fibroblastic compartment of the tumor microenvironment.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Endocrine Related Cancer
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    • "This group has also shown that BMPRII and ActRIIA differentially regulate signaling and function downstream of BMP4 and BMP7, and that this effect is dependent on the level of receptor expression [70]. Moreover BMP ligands regulate diverse facets of PCa biology, with some studies find tumor promoting effects [71]–[75], while others suggest inhibitory roles [76]–[78]. Of note, BMPRII is frequently lost from prostate cancer epithelium [46], [47], as is BMP7 [47]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mortality from prostate cancer (PCa) is due to the formation of metastatic disease. Understanding how that process is regulated is therefore critical. We previously demonstrated that endoglin, a type III transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily receptor, suppresses human PCa cell invasion and metastasis. Endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion was also shown by us to be dependent upon the type I TGFβ receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ALK2), and the downstream effector, Smad1. In this study we demonstrate for the first time that two type II TGFβ receptors are required for endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion: activin A receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) and bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPRII). Downstream signaling through these receptors is predominantly mediated by Smad1. ActRIIA stimulates Smad1 activation in a kinase-dependent manner, and this is required for suppression of invasion. In contrast BMPRII regulates Smad1 in a biphasic manner, promoting Smad1 signaling through its kinase domain but suppressing it through its cytoplasmic tail. BMPRII's Smad1-regulatory effects are dependent upon its expression level. Further, its ability to suppress invasion is independent of either kinase function or tail domain. We demonstrate that ActRIIA and BMPRII physically interact, and that each also interacts with endoglin. The current findings demonstrate that both BMPRII and ActRIIA are necessary for endoglin-mediated suppression of human PCa cell invasion, that they have differential effects on Smad1 signaling, that they make separate contributions to regulation of invasion, and that they functionally and physically interact.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Additionally, we have identified Runx2, the master transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation as a key regulator of survivin transcription in prostate cancer cells, and observed that BMP signaling is also involved in up-regulation of Runx2 protein expression in these cells [16,20]. In this regard, it was interesting to note that in the conditional Pten deletion model of prostate cancer, protein levels of BMPs, Runx2, and survivin all increase with the tumor growth [16,20,21], implicating a potentially central role of survivin in prostate cancer. To determine the extent of survivin contribution to prostate tumor progression in this model system, we first document here that prostatic epithelium-specific deletion of Survivin has no significant effect on prostate organogenesis and function. "
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    ABSTRACT: The inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin is expressed in most cancers. Using the conditional PTEN deletion mouse model, we previously reported that survivin levels increase with prostate tumor growth. Here we evaluated the functional role of survivin in prostate tumor growth. First, we demonstrated that mice lacking the survivin gene in prostate epithelium were fertile and had normal prostate growth and development. We then serially, from about 10-56 weeks of age, evaluated histopathologic changes in the prostate of mice with PTEN deletion combined with survivin mono- or bi-allelic gene deletion. While within this time period most of the animals with wild-type or monoallelic survivin deletion developed adenocarcinomas, the most severe lesions in the biallelic survivin deleted mice were high-grade prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia with distinct histopathology. Many atypical cells contained large hypertrophic cytoplasm and desmoplastic reaction in the prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia lesions of this group was minimal until the late ages. A reduced proliferation index as well as apoptotic and senescent cells were detected in the lesions of mice with compound PTEN/survivin deficiency throughout the time points examined. Survivin deletion was also associated with reduced tumor expression of another inhibitor of apoptosis member, the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis. Our findings suggest that survivin participates in the progression of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia to adenocarcinoma, and that survivin interference at the prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia stages may be a potential therapeutic strategy to halt or delay further progression.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · PLoS ONE
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