Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. (Aizoaceae) is a Malian medicinal plant used against various types of illnesses related to the immune response, like joint pains, inflammations, fever, malaria and wounds. Two pectin type polysaccharides, GOA1 and GOA2, being isolated from a 50 degrees C water extract from the aerial parts of Glinus oppositifolius were investigated for their activity towards the complement system and different leukocyte subsets because of the assumed effects on conditions related to the immune system. The polysaccharide polymer in GOA1 was shown to contain considerable amounts of the neutral sugars arabinose (26.4 mol%) and galactose (42.9 mol%), and methylation analysis indicated the presence of arabinogalactans type I (AG-I) and type II (AG-II). GOA2 was rich in galacturonic acid (68.3 mol%), along with rhamnose, arabinose and galactose. Structural studies indicated that rhamnose and galacturonic acid might constitute a rhamnogalacturonan backbone, often found in pectic substances, with side chains consisting of arabinose and galactose. Both GOA1 and GOA2 were shown to exhibit potent dose-dependent complement fixating activities, and induced chemotaxis of macrophages, T cells and NK cells.
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"The hemolytic complement-fixing test carried out in this study is a commonly used method for screening samples for their influence on the classical complement pathway . The inhibition of hemolysis is a measure of the amount of complement that has reacted with the samples . A pectic polysaccharide from B. umbraculum (BPII), used as a positive control, has previously been shown to be highly active in the complement-fixing assay [20,21]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunomodulating effects of isolated proanthocyanidin-rich fractions, procyanidins C1, B5 and B2 and anthocyanins of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated. In this work, the complement-modulating activities, the inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and effects on cell viability of these polyphenols were studied. Several of the proanthocyanidin-rich fractions, the procyanidins C1, B5 and B2 and the cyanidin aglycone possessed strong complement-fixing activities. Cyanidin 3-glucoside possessed stronger activity than the other anthocyanins. Procyanidins C1, B5 and B2 and proanthocyanidin-rich fractions having an average degree of polymerization (PD) of 7 and 34 showed inhibitory activities on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. All, except for the fraction containing proanthocyanidins with PD 34, showed inhibitory effects without affecting cell viability. This study suggests that polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa may have beneficial effects as immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory agents.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
"Enhydra fluctuans was reported for antioxidant, analgesic, antimicrobial activity, and antibacterial activity     . Glinus oppositifolius (L.) was found to contain immunomodulating peptic polymer, terpinoid saponine having antiprotozoal activity, and bioactives having antioxidant property    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh.
The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with "Finney Programme".
All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL.
The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
"Fraction EP2/C comprised polygalacturonan chains with a very low proportion of ramified RG I regions, whereas, the most active DP4/C was built of partially methylesterified homogalacturonan chains with branched RG I regions (Košt'álová et al., 2011). The results were in accord with previous studies on immunoactive pectins isolated from various herbal plants (Yamada and Kiyohara, 1999; Paulsen and Barsett, 2005; Glaeserud et al., 2011; Inngjerdingen et al., 2005 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pectic polysaccharides have attracted great attention due to their health-promoting potential. From the Styrian oil-pumpkin biomass representing an alternative pectin source, two series of acidic polysaccharide fractions were isolated using in succession hot water, EDTA and dilute HCl. Chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, NMR) analyses of the fractions revealed the predominance of partially methylesterified and acetylated pectins containing homogalacturonan and ramified rhamnogalacturonan elements, and a minority of phenolic compounds, protein and hemicelluloses. The pectins exhibited moderate antioxidant activities tested by colorimetric DPPH and FRAP assays and EPR method. The activities correlated with the total phenolic content. In the complement-fixing test, most of the pectin fractions exhibited potent effects comparable to the positive control – a pectin from Plantago major. The oil-pumpkin pectins represent potential antioxidant and immunoenhancing additives applicable in food and nutraceuticals.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Industrial Crops and Products