Nitric oxide released by accessory cells mediates the gastrin-releasing peptide effect on murine lymphocyte chemotaxis
Department of Physiology (Animal Physiology), Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Madrid, SpainRegulatory Peptides (Impact Factor: 1.83). 12/2005; 131(1-3):46-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.regpep.2005.06.005
Several neuropeptides, including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), modulate the immune response, specifically lymphocyte chemotaxis. In the present work the effect of GRP on the chemotaxis of murine lymphocytes from different immune locations in both, total leukocyte populations and populations depleted of adherent cells have been studied. Specificity of the GRP effect on chemotaxis using an antagonist of the GRP receptor, as well as the implication of nitric oxide (NO), using inhibitors of NO synthase and donors of NO, were investigated. The effects of GRP stimulating the chemotaxis of lymphocytes from peritoneum, axillary nodes and spleen and decreasing the chemotaxis from thymus were receptor-specific and disappeared in lymphocytes from populations depleted of adherent cells. NO synthase inhibitors blocked the GRP effect on lymphocyte chemotaxis, and this action was reversed in the presence of l-arginine. Thus, the effect of GRP on murine lymphocyte chemotaxis appears to be mediated by NO secreted by adherent cells.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aging is accompanied by chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which lead to a marked impairment of immune function and therefore increased mortality. This study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation, for 15 wk, with 5% and 20% (w/w) of biscuits enriched with nutritional doses of vitamins C and E, zinc, selenium, and beta-carotenes on function and oxidative stress parameters of peritoneal leukocytes from middle-aged, prematurely aging mice (PAM) and non-prematurely aging mice (NPAM). After supplementation we measured leukocyte functions (adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, lymphoproliferation, natural killer activity, and interleukin-2 release), antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione), oxidant compounds (extracellular O(2)(-), glutathione disulfide, glutathione disulfide/reduced glutathione ratio, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E(2)), and lipid and DNA oxidative damage, measured by malondialdehyde and 8-oxo,7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine levels, respectively. In general, leukocyte functions were improved and redox homeostasis was restored after intake of antioxidants. In consequence, malondialdehyde and 8-oxo,7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in PAM and NPAM were strikingly decreased after 5% and 20% supplementation (malondialdehyde, P < 0.001 in PAM; P < 0.01 in NPAM after both treatments; 8-oxo,7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, P < 0.01 after 5% supplementation and P < 0.001 after 20% supplementation in PAM and NPAM). Moreover, the effect of the antioxidants was stronger in PAM than in NPAM, and 20% supplementation was more effective than 5%. Our data suggest that improvement of leukocyte function and restoration of redox balance after consumption of adequate levels of antioxidants from adulthood may be useful to attain healthy aging, especially in animals with premature aging.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neutrophil migration to inflamed sites is crucial for both the initiation of inflammation and resolution of infection, yet these cells are involved in perpetuation of different chronic inflammatory diseases. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that acts through G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in signal transmission in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Its receptor, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), is expressed by various cell types, and it is overexpressed in cancer cells. RC-3095 is a selective GRPR antagonist, recently found to have antiinflammatory properties in arthritis and sepsis models. Here we demonstrate that i.p. injection of GRP attracts neutrophils in 4 h, and attraction is blocked by RC-3095. Macrophage depletion or neutralization of TNF abrogates GRP-induced neutrophil recruitment to the peritoneum. In vitro, GRP-induced neutrophil migration was dependent on PLC-β2, PI3K, ERK, p38 and independent of Gαi protein, and neutrophil migration toward synovial fluid of arthritis patients was inhibited by treatment with RC-3095. We propose that GRPR is an alternative chemotactic receptor that may play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated respiratory inflammation in chickens is associated with accumulation of leukocytes in the tracheal submucosa. However the molecular mechanisms underpinning these changes have not been well described. We hypothesized that the initial inflammatory events are initiated upon ligation of mycoplasma lipid associated membrane proteins (LAMP) to TLRs expressed on chicken tracheal epithelial cells (TEC). To test this hypothesis, live bacteria or LAMPs isolated from a virulent (R-low) or a non-virulent (R-high) strain were incubated with primary TECs or chicken tracheae ex vivo. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of several inflammatory and chemokine genes in TECs as early as 1.5 hours post-exposure. Kinetic analysis using RT-qPCR identified the peak of expression for most genes to be at either 1.5 or 6 hours. Ex-vivo exposure also showed up-regulation of inflammatory genes in epithelial cells by 1.5 hours. Among the commonly upregulated genes were IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, CCL-20, and NOS-2, all of which are important immune-modulators and/or chemo-attractants of leukocytes. While these inflammatory genes were up-regulated in all four treatment groups, R-low exposed epithelial cells both in vitro and ex vivo showed the most dramatic up-regulation, inducing over 100 unique genes by 5-fold or more in TECs. Upon addition of a TLR-2 inhibitor, LAMP-mediated gene expression of IL-1 beta and CCL-20 was reduced by almost 5-fold while expression of IL-12p40, IL-6, IL-8 and NOS-2 mRNA was reduced by about 2-3 fold. Conversely, an NF-kappa B inhibitor abrogated the response entirely for all six genes. miRNA-146a, a negative regulator of TLR-2 signaling, was up-regulated in TECs in response to either R-low or R-high exposure. Taken together we conclude that LAMPs isolated from both R-high and R-low induced rapid, TLR-2 dependent but transient up-regulation of inflammatory genes in primary TECs through an NF-kappa B dependent pathway.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.