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Intracoronal sealing comparison of mineral trioxide aggregate and glass ionomer

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The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mineral trioxide aggregate and glass ionomer when placed coronally as double-sealing materials over gutta percha. Seventy extracted anterior teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta percha and Sealapex. After removing 4 mm of coronal gutta percha, the teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups. In two experimental groups of 30 teeth each, 4 mm of either mineral trioxide aggregate or glass ionomer was placed in the chamber over gutta percha. A positive control group of 5 teeth received no barrier. A negative control group of 5 teeth was covered completely with sticky wax. All teeth, except the negative controls, were covered with 2 layers of sticky wax except for the access openings. Teeth were immersed in Pelikan ink for 48 hours, and then were decalcified, dehydrated, and cleared. Leakage into the canals was measured in millimeters and statistically analyzed between the two experimental groups using the Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the glass ionomer group leaked significantly more than the mineral trioxide aggregate group (P < .001). It was concluded from this study that mineral trioxide aggregate may be preferred over glass ionomer as a seal intracoronally following root canal treatment to prevent coronal microleakage.

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... O MTA também apresenta algumas desvantagens, como um longo tempo de presa, dificuldade de manipulação e alto custo [25]. Além disso, o MTA não possui boa adesão com a dentina, não é resistente às forças oclusais e pode causar discoloração da estrutura dentária, a qual pode ocorrer tanto com a formulação branca quanto com a cinza [2,6,37]. Tais propriedades devem ser levadas em consideração, uma vez que podem interferir negativamente no seu uso como barreira intraorifício. ...
... Essa diferença pode causar uma adesão inadequada do material às paredes dentinárias ou romper a união na interface dente/restauração, levando à microinfiltração [43]. O CIV apresenta ainda dificuldade de inserção nas cavidades; a falta de condensação do CIV pode causar bolhas de ar e/ou adaptação inadequada no orifício do canal radicular [6,44]. Tendo em vista o exposto, deve-se avaliar criteriosamente a utilização do cimento de ionômero de vidro como barreira intraorifício, já que apresenta diversas propriedades não favoráveis. ...
... Dessa forma, materiais com coloração diferente da estrutura dentária são interessantes, pois podem evitar iatrogenias [27]. Além disso, alguns materiais, mesmo que não visíveis na porção externa da coroa dentária, podem induzir à descoloração do dente, como o MTA, independentemente do tipo utilizado [6]. Por conseguinte, mesmo que colocado apenas na porção intrarradicular, o MTA pode ocasionar descoloração dentária, levando ao descontentamento do paciente em relação ao tratamento realizado pelo clínico. ...
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Introduction: The coronary shield, known as the intra-orifice barrier, is defined as a placement of a restorative material at the entrance of the root canal orifice after 3mm of gutta-percha and aiming to increase the resistance of the tooth to the fracture in addition to preventing coronary infiltration. Objective: to report and discuss the existing data in the dental literature regarding the materials available to perform the intra-orifice barrier in endodontically treated teethand to indicate if the desired coronary shield is really achievable. Literature review: The materials analyzed were composite resin, glass ionomer cement (CIV), zinc oxide based materials, silver amalgam and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Results: composites of resin and bulkfill / flow in their results when compared with other materials like MTA. Silver amalgam, zinc oxide-based materials, and CIV do not result in terms of intra-orifice barrier. MTA was favorable in relation to microleakage, but did not reinforce a root structure. Conclusion: No material restorer is able to completely protect the infiltrations.However, as conventional composite resins and bulk-fill flow are the materials with the best properties associated with satisfactory results, however, the need for scientific studies comparing the materials used as an intra-orifice barrier.
... MTA was placed into the canal, using a spoon excavator and a small plastic instrument, and then condensed using endodontic plugger. [12] Access was covered with cotton pellet moistened with water. ...
... Glass ionomer has been recommended as an effective intracanal barrier to prevent coronal microleakage. [12] It has demonstrated good sealing [16] and antibacterial properties. [17] Conventional glass ionomer cement (Fuji II) was chosen as an intracanal plug in Groups A1 and B1 as it has been found to have better sealing ability than resin-modified glass ionomer cement. ...
... [22] In this in vitro study, MTA was condensed in coronal 4 mm of root canal using endodontic plugger. [12] There was adequate accessibility to this region; therefore, readily available plastic filling instrument and spoon excavator were used to place the material to the site. [12] It was thoroughly compacted with a small endodontic plugger to ensure a dense fill. ...
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The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) when used over gutta-percha as intracanal sealing materials. The study also evaluated the sealing ability of Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) cement and Acroseal sealer. Teeth were obturated with gutta-percha using sealer ZOE (group A, C, D) and Acroseal (group B). The groups were further divided into 2 subgroups (15 premolars each) on the basis of intracanal sealing material used: GIC subgroups (A1, B1) and MTA in subgroups (A2, B2). The clearing technique was used in this study for leakage evaluation. Seventy mandibular premolars were prepared using step-back technique and divided into experimental groups A and B (30 premolars each) and the positive and negative control groups C and D (5 premolars each). Coronal microleakage was determined under stereomicroscope using 15X magnification. Data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Post-Hoc Multiple comparison (Bonferroni). MTA group leaked significantly less than GIC group (P < 0.05). Acroseal exhibited better sealing ability than ZOE sealer. Teeth with no intracanal barrier showed almost complete leakage. MTA may be preferred over GIC as an intracanal barrier.
... (6) Among the various sealing materials used to produce a coronal barrier, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has gained much attention in recent years. (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14) The original formulation of MTA, developed at Loma Linda University, is manufactured by Dentsply International (ProRoot MTA and Tooth Colored MTA; Dentsply-Tulsa Dental, Tulsa-USA; Dentsply-Johnson City-USA) (15) . Other MTA types available are white and gray Angelus mineral trioxide aggregates (WAM-TA, GAMTA; Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil). ...
... There are a limited number of studies investigating the coronal sealing ability of MTA and most of them compare the properties of 3 mm thick WMTA with other materials (7)(8)(9) . Two investigators evaluated the coronal sealing ability of 2 mm thick ProRoot MTA (10,11) , whereas others compared the coronal sealing ability of 4 mm thick ProRoot MTA with other materials (12,13) . Only, Jenkins et al (14) compared the sealing ability of 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm thicknesses of cavit, ProRoot MTA and tetric as intra-orifice barriers. ...
... Moreover, the sealing efficiency of Fuji Triage and a similar glass ionomer, Fuji II LC, have been found to be analogous to those of grey and white MTA intraorifice barriers, as verified with the bacterial leakage (26) and fluid transport (27) models, respectively. However, when a dye penetration method was employed, it was found that even a 4mm-thick glass-ionomer intraorifice barrier leaked more than MTA (14). The present results corroborate with those of the latter study, demonstrating that Fuji Triage displayed significantly less sealing capacity compared with MTA and the hybrid resin composite barriers. ...
... Methods utilized for leakage assessment during intracoronal bleaching include dye penetration (13,14), fluid filtration (15), chemical (16) and microbial (16,17) tests. Thus, this study utilized fluid filtration and dye penetration tests to evaluate the effect of different bleaching agents on the sealing properties of different intraorifice barriers and root filling materials. ...
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To evaluate the effect of intracoronal bleaching agents on the sealing properties of different intraorifice barriers and root filling materials. The root canals of extracted human premolars (n=180) were prepared by using System GT rotary files and filled with either gutta-percha+AH Plus or Resilon+Epiphany sealer. In both groups, the coronal 3mm of root filling was removed and replaced with one of the following materials applied as intraorifice barriers (n=30/group): 1. ProProot-MTA; 2. Conventional Glass ionomer cement; and 3. Hybrid resin composite. In each subgroup, intracoronal bleaching was performed using either sodium perborate with distilled water or 35% hydrogen peroxide gel for 3 weeks. The leakage of specimens was measured using fluid-filtration and dye penetration tests. The data were analyzed statistically with One-way ANOVA, Repeated Measures t-test and Independent Samples t-test (p=0.05). The fluid conductance values of the test groups were not influenced by the type of the bleaching agent, the intraorifice barrier, or the root filling material (all p>0.05). However, the extent of dye leakage was significantly affected by the type of intraorifice barrier material (p<0.05), which showed the following statistical ranking: glass ionomer cement > resin composite > ProRoot-MTA (p<0.05). The effect of 35% hydrogen peroxide gel or sodium perborate/distilled water on the sealing properties of tested intraorifice barriers and root filling materials varied conforming leakage assessment. These properties were not affected by using fluid filtration test, while the glass ionomer barrier showed the greatest amount of dye leakage in both gutta-percha and Resilon root-filled teeth.
... 25 produced by removing aluminoferrite to eliminate the coloration problem in gray MTA. 36 Because MTA has good clogging properties, 37 it is biocompatible, and it forms dentin bridges in human 13 and animal teeth, 38 it is used in vital pulp treatment 29 as gold standard. ...
... Forty-six different materials were evaluated as an intraorifice barrier in this review, as described in Table 2. Of these, fifteen studies evaluated different types of bioceramic materials [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Figure 2 summarizes the materials used in the included studies. ...
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The main cause of unsuccess in endodontically treated teeth (ETT) is due to bacterial recontamination. The placement of an intraorifice barrier (IOB) has been proposed for preventing this event in cases that the restoration is in an inadequate condition, enhancing the possibilities for predictable long-term success in endodontic therapy. Objectives. To evaluate through a systematic review and meta-analysis if it would be necessary to place an IOB in ETT. Materials and Methods. The present review is in accordance with the PRISMA 2020 Statement and is registered in the Open Science Framework. Two blinded reviewers carried out a comprehensive search in four databases up to July 10th, 2021: MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. Eligible studies were the ones which evaluated the use of an IOB in ETT in reducing microleakage with any material of choice and with any methods employed. Only in vitro studies published in English were included. Results. A total of thirty in vitro studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, and seven of those were included in the quantitative analyses evaluating the following materials: bioceramic cement, glass-ionomer cement (GIC), and resin-based composite (RBC). Most of the included studies placed an IOB at a 3 mm depth. Reduction in microleakage was observed when an IOB was placed, regardless of the material employed (p≤0.01). Among the materials, GIC and RBC performed similarly (p>0.05), with the bioceramic subgroup being statistically superior to the GIC subgroup (p≤0.05). Conclusions. Although well-designed randomized clinical trials are required, the placement of an intraorifice barrier can significantly reduce microleakage in endodontically treated teeth, and the use of bioceramics as IOB seems to be the best available material for this purpose.
... Studies evaluating microleakage [37,38] and sealing ability [39] have suggested the use of MTA which had placed in the coronal area of the root canal 1 mm below the CEJ as a cervical barrier during internal bleaching. In addition, easier removal of MTA in comparison with other cervical barriers makes it a good choice [38,40], although there is controversy with some studies that believe MTA removal is harder [41]. ...
Article
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Objective. This study aimed to colorimetric comparison of internal bleaching with and without removing mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on induced coronal tooth discoloration by MTA cement. In this experimental study, twenty human teeth were prepared. An OrthoMTA barrier was placed 1 mm below the CEJ. The teeth were restored with composite resin and were placed in the aging accelerator machine. Then, the specimens were divided into two groups (n = 10); in group A, part of the OrthoMTA was removed and the glass ionomer was placed on the OrthoMTA, and in group B, the OrthoMTA remained intact. Internal bleaching was performed 5 times in 6-day intervals using 37% carbamide peroxide gel. Color determination was performed in 5 stages: baseline, after OrthoMTA discoloration, before OrthoMTA removal, after OrthoMTA removal, and after bleaching treatment sessions. In group A, 8 specimens reached to ∆E < 3.3 after 2 times internal bleaching treatment, and in group B, 5 specimens reached to ∆E < 3.3 with almost 3 bleaching sessions p > 0.05 . Additionally, 5 specimens reached to the initial color (baseline) after bleaching treatment, 4 specimens in group A and 1 specimen in group B. After OrthoMTA removal, 2 specimens in group A reached to ∆E < 3.3. There was no significant difference between groups with or without OrthoMTA removal p = 0.06 . Although, the specimens with OrthoMTA removal required fewer bleaching treatment sessions, and the mean value of ∆E was lower in this group.
... Although intra-coronal bleaching is one of the most conservative treatment options that can be preferred for whitening of non-vital teeth, serious undesirable consequences like external root resorption may be encountered if protective measures such as intra-orifice barrier placement are not taken [5]. MTA is preferred as intra-orifice barrier as well as an endodontic sealer [21] due to its adequate marginal adaptation and resistance to leakage [22][23][24]. Furthermore, it has been reported that the alkaline pH of MTA and the presence of calcium hydroxide in its composition can be beneficial against external root resorption [14,15] However, bleaching agents can alter the chemical and physical properties of MTA that can affect its bond strength to composite resin. ...
Article
The objective of the present in vitro study was to evaluate micro-tensile bond strength (µSBS) of MTA cements to composite resin using a universal adhesive after internal bleaching procedure, and to examine surface characteristics of MTA cements exposed to bleaching agents. MTA specimens were divided into three subgroups according to the bleaching agent used which were, 37% carbamide peroxide (CP), 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP), and no exposure as a control group (n = 12). After exposure to bleaching agent, composite resins were applied to MTA surfaces using a universal adhesive in self-etch mode. The specimens were exposed to a shear force until failure to evaluate bond strength. MTA surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the effects of the bleaching agents. Differences between groups were analyzed using two-way ANOVA test and intergroup comparisons were assessed with Tukey test (p < 0.05). Although there was a slight difference in bond strength between bleaching agents (CP and HP), no significant difference was found, irrespective of MTA cement. After the HP application, the bond strength values decreased approximately by half compared with the controls. SEM results demonstrated distinct morphological differences between the intact MTA surface (control) and treated MTA surface. Distinct micro-cracks, surface irregularities, and capillary voids formed due to the superficial dissolution caused by peroxides. Exposure to the intra-coronal bleaching agents had a negative influence on the surface morphology of MTA cements and their bond strength to composite resin.
... 6. Application of a mechanical cervical seal (double barrier) in the form of a 1mm Coltosol cap, with a layer of light-curing glass-ionomer cement placed upon it, to minimise leakage of the bleaching agents. (7,8,9,11) 7. Acid conditioning with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds to remove the smear layer and to open the dentinal tubules. 8. Application of the bleaching agent. ...
Article
In 2009, a study was conducted for the purpose of comparing the effectiveness of two bleaching agents: sodium perborate and 37% carbamideperoxide gel. Thirteen patients diagnosed with “non-vital teeth with traumatic dyschromias” were treated at the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo School of Dentistry, Dominican Republic. The findings showed that both bleaching agents were effective; however, 37% carbamideperoxide worked more rapidly and was easier to administer. Because it comes in individualised pre-measured syringes, the gel is immediately ready for application, thereby giving patients the results they desire in a considerably shorter amount of time. After five years, the 13patients previously treated with the non-vital dental bleaching products were recalled to be re-evaluated for possible reversal of tooth discolouration and the development of cervical resorption. Only four patients came to this follow-up dental visit. In all four of the patients’ radiographic findings, there was a complete absence of external cervical resorption. Three of the patients had reversal of tooth discolouration; however, for one patient there were no observable dyschromias. Regardless of the bleaching agent used, if the patient had poor final dental restoration(s) post-bleaching procedure and a lifestyle counter to the maintenance of proper dental health (i.e. smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and excessive simple sugar consumption), the dyschromias tended to return.
... Hydraulic silicate cements (HSCs) such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) have been developed to be the material of choice for vital pulp therapy due to their excellent sealing ability [1] and biocompatibility, along with dentin bridge formation in animal or human teeth [2,3]. These HSCs form calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide in contact with water. ...
Article
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The use of hydraulic silicate cements (HSCs) for vital pulp therapy has been found to release calcium and hydroxyl ions promoting pulp tissue healing and mineralized tissue formation. The present study investigated whether HSCs such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) affect their biological and antimicrobial properties when used as long-term pulp protection materials. The effect of variables on treatment outcomes of three HSCs (ProRoot MTA, OrthoMTA, and RetroMTA) was evaluated clinically and radiographically over a 48–78 month follow-up period. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan–Meier survival curves. Fisher’s exact test and Cox regression analysis were used to determine hazard ratios of clinical variables. The overall success rate of MTA partial pulpotomy was 89.3%; Cumulative success rates of the three HSCs were not statistically different when analyzed by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. None of the investigated clinical variables affected success rates significantly. These HSCs showed favorable biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties in partial pulpotomy of permanent teeth in long-term follow-up, with no statistical differences between clinical factors.
... Many studies have shown that MTA, due to its microleakage resistance, high marginal adaptation, and high concentrations of calcium hydroxide, is a suitable material to use as a plug to prevent root cervical resorptions. It is assumed that MTA prevents cervical resorptions due to its alkaline properties [13][14][15][16][17][18]. However, the potential for color change, the presence of toxic elements in the composition of the material, the difficult application procedure, long setting time of 165 ± 5 minutes, high cost, lack of solubility, and difficulty in removing the set material are among its disadvantages [19,20]. ...
Article
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Background: Internal bleaching is a choice of treatment in discolored endodontically treated teeth. Cervical root resorption is one of the important complications of this treatment. A suggested procedure to prevent this type of resorption is using a coronal barrier under the bleaching materials. The aim of the study was to compare the microleakage of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and Biodentine. Materials and methods: In this in vitro study, a total of 60 single canal incisors were included. They were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 16), one positive control group (n = 6), and one negative control group (n = 6). Coronal portion of the canals in the experimental groups was sealed with 3 mm of MTA, CEM cement, or Biodentine as a coronal barrier. After 3 days, specimens were bleached. A fresh Enterococcus faecalis suspension was added to the samples. The culture tubes were observed for 45 days, and the daily turbidity was recorded. Statistical analysis was accomplished by the Kaplan-Meier test and SPSS 22. Results: All positive samples showed turbidity, whereas none of the negative samples allowed bacterial leakage. Results showed no significant difference between MTA, CEM cement, and Biodentine groups. (P value = 0.304, 0.695, and 0.217). The bacterial microleakage for the two groups also did not show significant differences. Conclusions: CEM cement and Biodentine showed promising results as coronal plug, and clinical studies are needed to test these materials with MTA for avoiding microleakage in internal bleaching treatment.
... 12 Second, to prevent coronal leakage, a cervical barrier thickness of around 4 mm was necessary. 13 As the root is very short, no additional space was left for placement of another obturating material (e.g., gutta-percha and sealer). In clinical studies, it has been reported that obturation of the root canal with the MTA material favours the repair potential of the surrounding tissues as it can cause release of calcium ions through dentinal tubules into resorption sites. ...
Article
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Inflammatory root resorption is a serious complication of dental trauma, which leads to progressive loss of the root structure. It is challenging for a dental clinician to diagnose and plan the treatment for root resorption.This case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of a previously traumatized maxillary central incisor which was severely affected by inflammatory root resorption. This case was treated by conventional nonsurgical pulp space therapy. Calcium hydroxide dressing was given as an intra-canal medicament.The entire root was obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate. The radiographic follow up at 12 months showed arrest of root resorption and initiation of periapical healing in the absence of clinical symptoms and mobility. From the present case, it can be concluded that mineral trioxide aggregate obturation can be a viable option that can enhance the healing in cases of severe inflammatory root resorption.
... Although PMTA possesses bioactive and antibacterial activities with high sealing properties [7][8][9][10], it has some drawbacks such as a prolonged setting time, discoloration potential, and difficult handling properties [11]. Recently, calcium silicate cement development has helped to overcome these disadvantages in the search for bioactive dental materials. ...
Article
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This beagle pulpotomy study compared the inflammatory response and mineralization-inducing potential of three calcium silicate cements: ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA), OrthoMTA (BioMTA, Seoul, Korea), and Endocem MTA (Maruchi, Wonju, Korea). Exposed pulp tissues were capped with ProRoot MTA, OrthoMTA, or Endocem MTA. After 8 weeks, we extracted the teeth, then performed hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining with osteocalcin and dentin sialoprotein. Histological evaluation comprised a scoring system with eight broad categories and analysis of calcific barrier areas. We evaluated 44 teeth capped with ProRoot MTA (n = 15), OrthoMTA (n = 18), or Endocem MTA (n = 11). Most ProRoot MTA specimens formed continuous calcific barriers; these pulps contained inflammation-free palisading patterns in the odontoblastic layer. Areas of the newly formed calcific barrier were greater with ProRoot MTA than with Endocem MTA (p = 0.006). Although dentin sialoprotein was highly expressed in all three groups, the osteocalcin expression was reduced in the OrthoMTA and Endocem MTA groups. ProRoot MTA was superior to OrthoMTA and Endocem MTA in all histological analyses. ProRoot MTA and OrthoMTA resulted in reduced pulpal inflammation and more complete calcific barrier formation, whereas Endocem MTA caused a lower level of calcific barrier continuity with tunnel defects.
... 13,14 Flowable composites do not contain filler particles as a part of their composition and hence are known to eventually increase polymerization shrinkage and consequently a poor seal; also, there are chances of contraction gap formation after the setting of the material. [15][16][17] Intracoronal sealing ability of MTA and RMGI was tested by Barreshi-Nusair and Hammad 15 in a die leakage study. They observed that the lesser quantity of leakage of die was made up of the RMGIC group. ...
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Aim: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the bacterial micro-leakage of three different materials, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and flowable composite, as a coronal barrier against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods: A total of 100 human extracted single-rooted teeth were selected. Access opening done, working length determined, and canals were cleaned and shaped with ProTaper F3 and obturated with AH26 and gutta-percha (GP) using lateral condensation technique. Samples were divided into three experimental and two control groups. Approximately 3 mm GP was removed from the coronal orifice and restored with one of the test materials. Teeth were suspended in glass tubes containing brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and equipped with microcaps, which were used to check bacterial leakage. A 24-hour broth of E. faecalis was placed in the pulp chamber. Tubes were incubated and checked for turbidity for 90 days. Data were analyzed using chi-squared test between the test and control groups and Fisher test between the test groups. Results: Significantly lesser number of samples turned turbid in the RMGIC group followed by MTA group and the maximum number of samples turned turbid in the flowable composite group. Conclusion: The RMGIC is a better coronal sealer, followed by MTA and flowable composite. Clinical significance: Coronal sealing ability of RMGIC is more promising in comparison with the other agents.
... If cavities are successfully sealed, just like when using MTA [Barrieshi-Nusair and Hammad, 2005], this may prevent marginal leakage caused by the dissolution of the zinc phosphate cement used to cement the crowns. In pulpotomies with formocresol, the remaining cavity is often filled with IRM® (which is the commercial form of zinc oxide-eugenol with higher mechanical strength) before making a stainless steel crown. ...
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Aim The main goal of this study was to compare the coronal microleakage of MTA and IRM®, using the dye penetration technique in primary molars. Materials and methods Study design: 160 extracted primary molars (caries-free or not) were used and randomly distributed among four groups of study (n=30) and four groups of controls, two positive (n=10) and two negative (n = 10). Class II type cavities were created in 140 molar crowns and 120 of those were randomly restored with IRM or MTA. A dye penetration technique was used to evaluate the coronal microleakage. One group of each restorative material and one of each positive and negative control were kept submerged in a methylene blue solution for 24 hours, and the other groups and controls were kept in the solution for 28 days. The penetration of the colouring solution was examined under the microscope in two different locations, the coronal axial wall and the proximal cavity. Results The samples of the positive control group showed full penetration of blue methylene and the samples of the negative control group showed no penetration at all. MTA showed lower filtration than IRM; the results were statistically significant (p < 005) in both axial and proximal cavity. Both IRM and MTA groups did not revealed significant differences at 24 hours and 28 days. Statistics: The SPSS 13.0 software was used for the statistical analysis of the collected data. The study results were analysed using an independent sample t-test and the one-way Anova test. Conclusions The results of this study show that, when used in primary molar pulpotomies MTA showed in fluid filtration tests results significantly lower than obturations with IRM.
... [6] According to the type of material used and exposure time to the oral cavity , all temporary materials leak to some extent and the degree to which different temporary filling materials are capable of establishing and maintaining a good coronal seal is often questioned. [7] Different studies have shown that materials such as Cavit, Composite, Pro Root Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Intermediate Restorative Material, Super Ethoxy Benzoic Acid etc are beneficial in preventing coronal microleakage. [8] Methodologies in vitro are used to estimate sealing quality. ...
... Using a spoon excavator and a small plastic instrument, MTA was placed into the canal and then condensed using endodontic plugger. 8 The access was covered with cotton pellet moistened with water. ...
Article
Aim The success of the root canal treatment mainly depends upon the three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. The purpose of this study is to compare the sealing ability of biodentine, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and glass ionomer cement (GIC). Materials and methods Teeth were obturated with gutta-percha using AH PLUS sealer in all groups. The intracanal sealing material used in group I was GIC, group II was MTA, and group III was biodentine. The specimens were longitudinally sectioned. Coronal microleakage was determined under a stereomicroscope using 15× magnification. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc multiple comparisons (Bonferroni). Results Biodentine group leaked significantly less than the GIC group (p < 0.05). The sealing ability of biodentine was better than that of MTA, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Biodentine or MTA may be preferred over GIC as an intracanal barrier. Clinical significance Biodentine or MTA can be used in areas where an impervious seal has to be obtained. They can also be used to seal the perforations in the coronal middle and apical thirds of the root canal. These materials have an ability to form a barrier during apexification procedures. How to cite this article Navya RR, Shivamurthy GB. Comparing the Sealing Ability of Contemporary Restorative Materials. CODS J Dent 2016;8(1):12-15.
... It has been speculated that the inability of MTA to strengthen roots results from its inadequate bonding to dentin and physical weakness under tension forces (9,15). On the other hand, MTA has shown good sealing properties (16)(17)(18); thus, its use as an intraorifice barrier would be desirable. ...
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Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the fracture resistance of roots by using intraorifice barriers with glass fiber-incorporated ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. Methods: The diametral tensile strength and compressive strength of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were determined after incorporation of 5 wt% and 10 wt% alkali resistant (AR) glass fiber powder into both cements. On the basis of higher diametral tensile strength and compressive strength values, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine with 5 wt% AR glass fiber were selected for further testing as intraorifice barriers. The 14-mm-long root specimens obtained from extracted mandibular premolars (n = 60) were prepared with nickel-titanium rotary files and obturated with gutta-percha + AH Plus sealer. After removal of coronal 3 mm of root fillings, the roots were grouped with respect to the intraorifice barrier material (n = 12/group): (1) ProRoot MTA, (2) ProRoot MTA with 5 wt% AR glass fibers, (3) Biodentine, (4) Biodentine with 5 wt% AR glass fibers, and (5) control (no intraorifice barrier). The specimens were loaded vertically at 1 mm/min crosshead speed until vertical root fracture occurred. The data were evaluated statistically by using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Results: Both incorporation of glass fiber and the type of material significantly affected fracture resistance (both P = .002). Roots with glass fiber-reinforced Biodentine barriers showed the highest fracture strength (P = .000). Conclusions: Incorporation of 5 wt% AR glass fiber can significantly improve the reinforcement effect of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine when used as intraorifice barriers.
... Glass ionomer cement (GIC) has been suggested as an effective intracanal barrier to prevent coronal microleakage. [6] It has established itself as a good sealing material with proven antibacterial properties. [7] GIC is placed over MTA in cases of perforation repair, pulp capping, and external cervical resorption. ...
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Context: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biocompatible repair material that is often used along with glass ionomer cement (GIC) in many clinical situations. Aims: In this study, the interface of GIC and MTA was examined, and the effect of time on this interface was tested. Settings and Design: Materials tested were set and plastic moulds and analysed. Materials and Methods: Forty 9-mm hollow cylindrical glass molds were filled with MTA and then according to the group either conventional GIC or resin-modified GIC (RMGIC) is filled immediately or after 45 min. The specimens were then sectioned, carbon coated, and examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the elemental analysis was done. Statistical Analysis: Observational study, no statistical analysis done. Results: The SEM showed that both the groups underwent adhesive separation and gap formation at the interface. The specimens in which GIC was condensed over freshly mixed MTA (group IIA and group IIB) also showed cohesive separation in MTA; however, it was more in the GIC condensed after 45 min over MTA groups (group IA and group IB). The results were better for conventional GIC than RMGIC. Conclusions: GIC can be applied over freshly mixed MTA with minimal effects on the MTA, but this effect decreases with time.
... Many pulp-capping materials are available for use with DPC, but CH has remained the dominant material for many years. Recently, MTA has been advocated as a superior material for pulpal therapy [13][14][15] because it is a biocompatible, non-mutagenic cement [16,17], with a good sealing ability [18,19]. Several human studies of uninflamed, traumatically exposed pulps have histologically shown that the dentine bridge formation obtained with MTA was of better quality than that obtained with CH [20,21]. ...
Article
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Objectives The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the influence of various predictors on healing outcomes after direct pulp capping (DPC) using either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or calcium hydroxide (CH) as a pulp-dressing agent. Materials and methods The present study included 172 mature asymptomatic permanent teeth with carious-exposed pulp. The teeth were treated with DPC, using either MTA or CH, and the treatment outcome was evaluated clinically and radiographically. The effect of potential clinical variables on the treatment outcome of DPC was evaluated clinically and radiographically during a 24–72-month follow-up. In order to assess the cumulative successes of CH and MTA after DPC, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test was used. The subgroups were compared by means of the log-rank test. Also, univariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine hazard ratio of clinical variables. Results One hundred and fifty-two teeth of 172 capped teeth were available for follow-up, with an overall recall rate of 87.6 % for MTA vs 89.3 % for CH. The mean period of follow-up was 37.3 (±17.2) months. Overall success rates of 85.9 and 77.6 % in the MTA and CH groups were observed, respectively. The cumulative success rate of both materials was not statistically different when analysed by the Cox proportional hazard regression analysis (P = 0.282). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that 2-year overall pulp survival was 91.4 %, while the 4- and 6-year survival rates were 84 and 65 %, respectively. None of the clinical variables had a considerable influence on the outcome of DPC (p > 0.05). Conclusions MTA-capped teeth demonstrated a slightly higher success rate than CH, revealing that it can be recommended as a reliable direct pulp-capping material. None of the clinical variables investigated significantly affected posttreatment healing. Clinical relevance DPC with MTA is a straightforward procedure with favourable outcome of 24- to 72-month follow-ups in vital mature asymptomatic permanent teeth with cariously exposed pulp, and it may be considered a realistic alternative therapy to RCT.
... Despite the various results, both studies recommended gray and white MTA as a coronal or apical barrier. Barrieshi-Nusair and Hammad reported the mineral trioxide aggregate may be preferred over glass ionomer instead of one step technique as a seal intracoronally following root canal treatment to prevent coronal microleakage (27). Analogously, the results of the present study showed that 2 mm thickness of both tested MTA leaked significantly less than light curing glass ionomer. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of white mineral trioxide aggregate and gray mineral trioxide aggregate with different thicknesses and light curing glass ionomer cement when used as a barrier material in intracoronal bleaching procedures. In this study, 130 freshly extracted, caries free human permanent single rooted maxillary canine teeth were used. The teeth were randomly divided into six experimental groups, and positive and negative control groups. The specimens in the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 received white mineral trioxide aggregate, gray mineral trioxide aggregate and light curing glass ionomer cement with a thickness of 2 mm, respectively. The specimens in the experimental groups 4, 5 and 6 received white mineral trioxide aggregate, gray mineral trioxide aggregate and light curing glass ionomer cement with a thickness of 5 mm, respectively. The positive control group received no barrier material and the negative control group did not undergo bleaching. There was no difference in leakage between gray mineral trioxide aggregate and white mineral trioxide aggregate (p >0.001). In conclusion, both gray and white mineral trioxide aggregate provided good coronal seal and decreased the amount of coronal leakage.
... [52] Based on the fi ndings of a recent study, using the glucose penetration model, Bailón-Sánchez et al. reported that "Cavit, and ProRoot MTA has similar abilities to resist leakage when used as intra-orifi ce barriers." [53] Barrieshi-Nusair and Hammad compared GI and MTA as orifi ce plugs and reported that GI has more microleakage [54] which is not concurring with our fi ndings. In their study, each group included 30 samples, and the leakage assessment method was dye leakage for 48 h, but we had 20 teeth in each experimental group which were analyzed in protein leakage approach for 30 days. ...
Article
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Background: This study was designed to assess the microleakage of glass-ionomer (GI), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement as coronal orifice barrier during walking bleaching. Materials and methods: In this experimental study, endodontic treatment was done for 70 extracted human incisors without canal calcification, caries, restoration, resorption, or cracks. The teeth were then divided into three experimental using "Simple randomization allocation" (n = 20) and two control groups (n = 5). The three cements were applied as 3-mm intra-orifice barrier in test groups, and bleaching process was then conducted using a mixture of sodium perborate powder and distilled water, for 9 days. For leakage evaluation, bovine serum albumin marker was traced in a dual-chamber technique with Bradford indicator. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean ± standard deviation leakage of samples from negative control, positive control, GI, MTA, and CEM cement groups were 0.0, 8.9 ± 0.03, 0.47 ± 0.02, 0.48 ± 0.02, and 0.49 ± 0.02 mg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between three experimental groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that GI, MTA, and CEM cements are considered as suitable intra-orifice barrier to provide coronal seal during walking bleaching.
... Barrieshi-Nusair and Hammod compared glass-ionomer and MTA as orifice plugs and reported that glass-ionomer has more micro-leakage [30] but to date CEM cement has not been studied as an intra-orifice plug while it has been used for treatment of furcal perforations, vital pulp therapies in permanent and primary teeth, root-end filling, management of root resorption, and revascularization for necrotic immature permanent molars [12][13][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]. Therefore, we decided to compare the coronal microleakage of CEM cement with that of amalgam, composite resin and MTA by a relatively valuable microleakage comparison model. ...
Conference Paper
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Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare polymicrobial microleakage of calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), amalgam and composite resin as intra-orifice sealing materials. Method: Seventy single-rooted mandibular premolars were instrumented and obturated with cold lateral compaction technique. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups: CEM cement, MTA, amalgam and composite resin (n=15) and 2 control groups (n=5). In experimental groups, 2mm of coronal gutta-percha was removed and replaced with appropriate materials. All the teeth were mounted in a two-chamber apparatus and the coronal portion was exposed to human saliva. The day the turbidity occurred was recorded for each sample. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Result: The negative control group showed no leakage while the average microleakage time in the positive control group was 3.5 days. The average bacterial leakage times for amalgam, composite resin, MTA and CEM cement groups were 27.42±3.6, 29.35±3.15, 52.57±2.87 and 50.42±2.73 days, respectively. There was no significant difference between CEM cement and MTA groups (P=0.27) and also between amalgam and composite resin groups (P=0.36). However, in term of average leakage time, MTA and CEM cement groups exhibited significant differences with amalgam and composite resin groups (P< 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present in vitro study, CEM cement and MTA are more effective than amalgam and composite resin in preventing coronal bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth.
... 13 The good sealing ability shown by GMTA is in agreement with studies done using MTA for various applications. 5,7,8,14 In Group III, coronal cavities are restored with Type II GIC as double sealing restorative material. This group showed significant leakage and there was no statistically significant difference between the group and unrestored positive group. ...
Article
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Background: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the sealing ability of glass ionomer cement (GIC), composite resin, gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) and white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) when placed coronally as double - sealing material over gutta-percha in root canal treated teeth. Materials and Methods: A sample of 70 freshly extracted human single rooted teeth were cleaned, shaped and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus. The gutta-percha was reduced to a depth of 4 mm from the cemento enamel junction using hot plugger and standardized access cavities with 4 mm depth were prepared at the coronal ends of the roots. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups containing 15 teeth each depending on the restorations they received in the coronal cavity. A positive control group of five teeth received no restorative barrier over gutta-percha. All root surfaces were covered with two coats of nail varnish, leaving only the access openings uncovered except teeth in the negative control group, which were completely covered with nail varnish. All teeth were immersed in India ink, cleared and observed under stereomicroscope for the depth of dye penetration. Results: The results were tabulated and analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test and multiple comparison between each group was carried out using Mann-Whitney test. The groups sealed with GMTA and WMTA showed least dye penetration than other groups and the difference was statistically significant. Highest dye penetration was seen with groups sealed with GIC and was statistically significant compared with other three groups. Conclusion: The results showed that the GMTA and WMTA provided significantly better coronal seal when compared to other two restorations. The composite resin also showed significantly better seal than the unsealed group and the group sealed GIC, which showed highest leakage that was equivalent to that of unsealed group.
... Different materials such as amalgam, Cavit, Glass ionomer Cement, composite, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM); etc., have been used as intraorifice barriers to prevent coronal microleakage in the root canal filling. [2,[10][11][12][13][14] CoroSeal (CS) (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Liechtenstein) is an adhesive system, which has been specially developed for sealing root canal entrances. CS adhesive system is built up with the CS and tightly bonded to the dentin with the self-etching CS adhesive (Primer and Bond). ...
Article
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Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the coronal microleakage intraorifice barrier materials, called CoroSeal (CS), fissur sealant (FS), flowable composite FC, and policarboksilate cement (PC), by using the computerized fluid filtration method. Materials and methods: Fifty freshly extracted, single-canal human maxillary central teeth were used in this study. The teeth were decoronated to a standardized root length of 15 mm. After preparation and irrigation, all the teeth were obturated with gutta-percha and AH-Plus. In all teeth, the coronal 2 mm of root filling was removed and replaced with one of the intraorifice barriers. According to intraorifice barriers, teeth were divided randomly into 4 experimental groups (n = 10) and 2 control groups (n = 5). Group 1: CS; Group 2: FS; Group 3: FC; and Group 4: PC. Positive control group: No barrier material was used. Negative control group: Roots were completely coated with the nail polish, including the orifice. Leakage was evaluated by using a computerized fluid filtration model. Differences in fluid filtration among groups were subjected to statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis Test and multiple comparisons test. Results: A value of P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Statistical analysis has indicated that the CS leaked significantly less than other groups (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference between FS and PC (P < 0.05), in contrast there was no significant difference between FS and FC (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Using the CS material as an intraorrifice barrier material reduced amount of microleakage as compared with FS, FC, and PC.
... Root canal treatment failures have been attributed to many causative factors. Coronal leakage, among these factors, is of very great importance (1). Leakage studies have demonstrated that the loss of the coronal seal provides a route for bacterial recontamination of endodontically treated teeth (2)(3)(4)(5)(6). ...
Article
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Coronal leakage seems to play an important role in the failure of endodontic treatment. A double seal over root canal filling has been suggested as a means of improving the coronal seal. Several restorative materials have been used in an attempt to produce a coronal barrier. The purpose of this study was to assess gray-coloured mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA), white-coloured mineral trioxide aggregate MTA (WMTA), and Principle (a resin-modified glass ionomer) as coronal barriers to bacterial leakage. Fifty-one human anterior teeth were cleaned and obturated with gutta-percha and sealer. In group 1, teeth received a 3 mm barrier of GMTA. In groups 2 and 3, samples received WMTA and Principle, respectively. Obturated teeth without barrier were used as positive control and obturated teeth covered with epoxy resin were used as negative control. A leakage model utilizing Enterococcus faecalis used for the evaluation. Leakage was recorded when turbidity was observed. All controls behaved as expected. Three samples in group 1, three samples in group 2, and four samples leaked in group 3. There was no statistically significant difference in leakage between GMTA and WMTA or between GMTA and Principle. It seems that GMTA, WMTA and Principle can be recommended as a coronal barrier for up to 90 days.
... It has good physical characteristics and is biocompatible [19]. It also provides a good seal [20,21] and has great marginal adaptation [22]. Moreover, it was shown in vitro that MTA did not induce apoptosis of pulp cells but instead induced proliferation of these cells [23]. ...
Article
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In cariously exposed immature permanent teeth, the treatment choice is controversial in pediatric dentistry. Radical root canal treatment usually appears to be the solution for these teeth. Even partial pulpotomy is a vital treatment for traumatically exposed immature permanent teeth; extending the borders of indication towards cariously exposed immature permanent teeth with reversible pulpitis may abolish the necessity of pulpectomy. This article describes the partial pulpotomy of a cariously affected immature permanent teeth and the follow-up for 1 year. A healthy 11-year-old male patient was referred to Gazi University Faculty of Dentistry Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The patient had reversible pulpitis symptoms on teeth numbered 45. At radiographic examination, immature apex and deep caries lesion were observed and partial pulpotomy was performed by using calcium hydroxide to maintain vitality of the pulp and allow continued development of root dentin expecting the root will attain full maturity. Clinical and radiographic follow-up demonstrated a vital pulp besides not only closure of the apex (apexogenesis), but also physiologic root development (maturogenesis) after 1 year. Partial pulpotomy is an optional treatment for cariously exposed immature permanent teeth for preserving vitality and physiological root development.
... MTA has been shown to be very effective in sealing the paths between root canal system and its surroundings (12). There are some studies indicating that MTA causes less leakage than amalgam, super-EBA and other materials when used as a root-end filling (13)(14)(15) or as intracoronal barriers to prevent coronal microleakage (16). Orthograde use of MTA for the entire root canal system has been Zafar et al. ...
Article
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This in vitro study aims to evaluate the coronal and apical sealing ability of gutta-percha (GP) root filling used with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), new endodontic cement (NEC) or AH26 as filler/sealers. Forty eight single-rooted extracted teeth were selected, decoronated and then instrumented. Samples were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and two control groups (n=6). In group 1, root canals were filled using lateral condensation technique (L); while single cone technique (S) was used for groups 2 and 3. AH26, MTA and NEC were the root canal sealer/fillers in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Samples were immersed in 1% methylene-blue dye and then independently centrifuged apically and coronally. The roots were split longitudinally and linear extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope from apical and coronal directions. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and T-test. No statistical differences in mean apical dye penetration between groups LGP/AH26, SGP/MTA and SGP/NEC were found; SGP/NEC group showed significantly less coronal dye penetration (P<0.001). Considering the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the simple single cone technique with NEC can provide favorable coronal and apical seal.
... Adequate root canal sealing has also been recognized as an important aspect for a successful outcome in endodontic treatments (Shipper et al., 2004;Barrieshi-Nusair and Hammad, 2005;Mavec et al., 2006;Jack and Goodell, 2008). Microleakage provides not only nutrients to residual bacteria in the root canals and dentinal tubules but is also responsible for invasion of a oral microorganisms causing reinfection of root canals and dentinal tubules. ...
... Barrieshi-Nusair and Hammod compared glass-ionomer and MTA as orifice plugs and reported that glass-ionomer has more microleakage [30] but to date CEM cement has not been studied as an intra-orifice plug while it has been used for treatment of furcal perforations, vital pulp therapies in permanent and primary teeth, root-end filling, management of root resorption, and revascularization for necrotic immature permanent molars [12] [13] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40]. Therefore, we decided to compare the coronal microleakage of CEM cement with that of amalgam, composite resin and MTA by a relatively valuable microleakage comparison model. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this in vitro study was to compare polymicrobial microleakage of calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), amalgam, and composite resin as intra-orifice sealing materials. Seventy single-rooted mandibular premolars were instrumented and obturated by cold lateral compaction technique. The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups according to used material: CEM, MTA, amalgam and composite resin (n=15) and two control groups (n=5). In experimental groups, 2 mm of coronal gutta-percha was removed and replaced with the study material. All the teeth were mounted in a two-chamber apparatus and the coronal portion was exposed to human saliva. The day the turbidity occurred was recorded for each sample. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The negative control group showed no leakage while the average microleakage time in the positive control group was 3.5 days. The average bacterial leakage times for amalgam, composite resin, MTA, and CEM groups were 27.42±3.6, 29.35±3.15, 52.57±2.87, and 50.42±2.73 days, respectively. There was no significant difference between CEM and MTA groups (P=0.27) and also between amalgam and composite resin groups (P=0.36). However, in term of average leakage time, MTA and CEM groups exhibited significant differences with amalgam and composite resin groups (P<0.001). According to the results of the present in vitro study, in terms of coronal sealing in endodontically treated teeth, CEM and MTA are more effective than amalgam and composite resin.
... The results of this study are consistent with the results of another study [27], who reported that glass-ionomer leaked significantly more than MTA. ...
Article
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A coronal barrier in root-filled teeth is one of the most effective methods for prevention of coronal microleakage. The aim of this study was to compare coronal microleakage of three materials [light-cured glass-ionomer (GI), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and composite resin] as coronal barriers. A total of 188 intact maxillary incisors were used. After instrumentation, all the canals were obturated with gutta-percha and lateral condensation technique using AH26 sealer. Then, the teeth were sectioned just apical to the cemento-enamel junction. The roots were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n=56) and two negative and positive control groups (n=20). After placing the orifice barrier, the samples were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 2 weeks at 37°C. Then the teeth were longitudinally sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was measured under a stereomicroscope at ×10 magnification. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey test. The positive control group leaked significantly more than all the experimental groups (P=0.001). MTA exhibited less leakage than composite and GI (P=0.002) but no significant differences were found between GI and composite groups. Immediate placement of a suitable intra-orifice barrier like MTA, before final restoration, may help minimize recontamination of the remaining apical gutta-percha.
... Barrieshi-Nusair and Hammod compared glass-ionomer and MTA as orifice plugs and reported that glass-ionomer has more micro-leakage [30] but to date CEM cement has not been studied as an intra-orifice plug while it has been used for treatment of furcal perforations, vital pulp therapies in permanent and primary teeth, root-end filling, management of root resorption, and revascularization for necrotic immature permanent molars [12][13][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]. Therefore, we decided to compare the coronal microleakage of CEM cement with that of amalgam, composite resin and MTA by a relatively valuable microleakage comparison model. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare polymicrobial microleakage of calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), amalgam, and composite resin as intra-orifice sealing materials. Materials and Methods: Seventy single-rooted mandibular premolars were instrumented and obturated by cold lateral compaction technique. The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups according to used material: CEM, MTA, amalgam and composite resin (n=15) and two control groups (n=5). In experimental groups, 2 mm of coronal gutta-percha was removed and replaced with the study material. All the teeth were mounted in a two-chamber apparatus and the coronal portion was exposed to human saliva. The day the turbidity occurred was recorded for each sample. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: The negative control group showed no leakage while the average microleakage time in the positive control group was 3.5 days. The average bacterial leakage times for amalgam, composite resin, MTA, and CEM groups were 27.42±3.6, 29.35±3.15, 52.57±2.87, and 50.42±2.73 days, respectively. There was no significant difference between CEM and MTA groups (P=0.27) and also between amalgam and composite resin groups (P=0.36). However, in term of average leakage time, MTA and CEM groups exhibited significant differences with amalgam and composite resin groups (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of the present in vitro study, in terms of coronal sealing in endodontically treated teeth, CEM and MTA are more effective than amalgam and composite resin.
... Despite the lack of statistical analysis, the observation revealed that the numbers of 3.6-GFP expressing cells in pulps under MTA were higher than those under AS which is most likely related to the properties of MTA such as its high pH, calcium release and biocompatibility (Parirokh & Torabinejad 2010). MTA also is known for its good sealing capacity (Barrieshi-Nusair & Hammad 2005), its ability to promote cell proliferation (Paranjpe et al. 2010) and ability to up-regulate the gene expression (Runx2, osteocalcin, alkalin phosphatase (c and d) are images from a tooth capped with MTA after 8 weeks. Note the formation of newly synthesized matrix (outlined by dashed lines) that extends into the pulp. ...
Article
Aim: To examine the feasibility of using the pOBCol3.6GFPtpz [3.6-green fluorescent protein (GFP)] transgenic mice as an in vivo model for studying the biological sequence of events during pulp healing and reparative dentinogenesis. Methodology: Pulp exposures were created in the first maxillary molar of 12-16-week-old 3.6-GFP transgenic mice with CD1 and C57/Bl6 genetic background. Direct pulp capping on exposed teeth was performed using mineral trioxide aggregate followed by restoration with a light-cured adhesive system (AS) and composite resin. In control teeth, the AS was placed in direct contact with the pulp. Animals were euthanized at various time points after pulp exposure and capping. The maxillary arch was isolated, fixed and processed for histological and epifluorescence analysis to examine reparative dentinogenesis. Results: Analysis of teeth immediately after pulp exposure revealed absence of odontoblasts expressing 3.6-GFP at the injury site. Evidence of reparative dentinogenesis was apparent at 4 weeks in 3.6-GFP mice in CD1 background and at 8 weeks in 3.6-GFP mice with C57/Bl6 background. The reparative dentine with both groups contained newly formed atubular-mineralized tissue resembling a dentine bridge and/or osteodentine that was lined by cells expressing 3.6-GFP as well as 3.6-GFP expressing cells embedded within the atubular matrix. Conclusion: This study was conducted in a few animals and did not allow statistical analysis. The results revealed that the 3.6-GFP transgenic animals provide a unique model for direct analysis of cellular and molecular mechanisms of pulp repair and tertiary dentinogenesis in vivo. The study also shows the effects of the capping material and the genetic background of the mice in the sequence and timing of reparative dentinogenesis.
... Leakage was present at all thicknesses tested, 1-4 mm (25). Another study reported that MTA had leaked significantly less than glass ionomer with a 4-mm intracoronal seal (26). Further studies are necessary to evaluate the bacterial leakage of MTA, conventional and light-curable calcium hydroxide, and ERRM to find out whether the latest materials are superior. ...
Article
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the cytotoxicity of white mineral trioxide aggregate cement (AMTA, MTA-Angelus), Brasseler Endosequence Root Repair Putty (ERRM), Dycal, and Ultra-blend Plus (UBP) by using human dermal fibroblasts and a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cultured adult human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to multiple concentrations of material elutes. The test material samples were immersed and incubated in the culture medium for 2, 5, or 8 days at 37°C. The cytotoxic effects were recorded by using an MTT-based colorimetric assay. Positive and negative controls were used. The results were statistically examined by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post tests. The cell viability of cultures exposed to all dilutions of AMTA, ERRM, and UBP was statistically similar to the negative control at 2 and 5 days. Only the Dycal-exposed specimens exhibited a statistically significant increase in cytotoxicity at the 2 initial evaluation periods. After exposure to the 8-day elutes, the respective percentage of cell survivability was 91% (Brasseler), 88% (MTA-Angelus), 76% (Ultra-blend Plus), and 37% (Dycal). From the data in this in vitro study, AMTA, ERRM, and UBP had statistically similar adult human dermal fibroblast cytotoxicity levels. Relative to the negative control, only Dycal was shown to have a statistically significant cytotoxic effect to adult human dermal fibroblasts at all tested intervals.
Article
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Vital pulp therapy is a widely performed procedure following traumatic/mechanical or carious pulp exposure. It involves the placement of a biomaterial such as MTA or Biodentine over the exposed pulp for reparative dentinogenesis followed by coronal restoration to restore the form and function of the involved tooth structure. The choice of the restorative material is a significant factor for the prognosis of pulp therapy. the restorative material can also interact with the pulp capping agent and affect its properties. Thus this review aims to check the most compatible final restorative material with biomaterials like MTA and Biodentine. Methodology: PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar databases were searched. Clinical studies and reviews were identified using electronic search. The parametersfocussed onwere the shear bond strength,Microleakage, time of restoration, surface characteristics and interface reactions between the biomaterials and final restorative materialsduring pulp capping procedures.Conclusion:Calcium silicate cements have a prolonged setting time due to which definitive restorative treatment should be delayed so as to achieve the desired properties of the biomaterial, although no ideal restorative material currently exists to facilitate single visit treatments, GIC restorations can be placed in single visit without significant loss of properties.
Article
Introduction The use of the erbium, chromium-doped yttrium, scandium, gallium, and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser in vital pulp therapy contributes to the formation of dentin bridges and a sterile zone as well as the maintenance of the vitality of the pulp. However, no prior studies have used the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in partial pulpotomy of immature permanent teeth. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of partial pulpotomy treatment using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) alone and MTA with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in permanent immature molars. Methods A total of 90 caries-exposed permanent immature molar teeth were included and randomly divided into 2 groups: the MTA group (n = 45) and the laser + MTA group (n = 45). In the MTA group, MTA was applied to the exposed area on the pulp after bleeding control. In the same session, the tooth was restored with a composite resin. In the laser + MTA group, before MTA condensation, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser was applied to the exposure area. Patients were recalled at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. The Mann-Whitney U and chi-Square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results The success rate (95.5%) of the laser + MTA group was similar to that of the MTA group (88.8%). There was no significant difference between groups in terms of the frequency of at least 1 pathologic clinical or radiographic failure at 12 months (P > .05). Conclusions Partial pulpotomy treatment showed a high success rate in immature permanent molars; however, the use of the laser did not contribute to the success rate compared with MTA alone.
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36 artigo inédito Eficácia da barreira intracanal contra a infiltração microbiana em dentes preparados para pino intrarradicular RESUMO Introdução: Pinos intrarradiculares são recomendados para melhorar a retenção de coroas artificiais e distribuir forças intrabucais ao longo da raiz. Se o espaço criado pela remoção parcial da obturação não for preenchido adequadamente, pode ocorrer uma infiltração maciça de microrganismos da cavidade bucal. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia contra a infiltra-ção bacteriana de uma barreira intracanal colocada dire-tamente sobre o remanescente da obturação do canal ra-dicular, após o preparo de espaço para o pino. Métodos: Setenta e dois dentes humanos unirradiculares foram ins-trumentados, obturados e divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos experimentais e dois grupos controle. O gru-po 1 não recebeu tratamento adicional após a obturação e o preparo do espaço, enquanto os Grupos 2 e 3 rece-beram uma barreira composta por material de selamento temporário com 1,0 e 2,0 mm de espessura, respectiva-mente. Uma cultura de Enterococcus faecalis foi inoculada nos espaços preparados para receber o pino intrarradicu-lar, a cada três dias, por um período de 60 dias. A infiltra-ção foi avaliada diariamente pela turbidade do meio de cultura. Resultados e Conclusão: Houve infiltração bacteriana nos três grupos experimentais, sendo signifi-cativamente maior e ocorrendo mais rapidamente no G1 (p < 0,05), em comparação aos G2 e G3. Houve infiltração em todos os grupos controles positivos; porém, nenhuma infiltração foi observada nos grupos controles negativos. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre o G2 e o G3, em relação à taxa e ao período de infiltração. Pode-se concluir que a barreira reduziu a incidência de infiltração e atrasou o tempo de ocorrência. Palavras-chave: Pinos dentais. Endodontia. Enterococcus faecalis. » Os autores declaram não ter interesses associativos, comerciais, de proprie-dade ou financeiros, que representem conflito de interesse, nos produtos e companhias descritos nesse artigo.
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This in vitro study investigated the effect of a resin-reinforced glass ionomer lining material on the coronal leakage of a mixed obligate microbial marker in maxillary molars obturated with lateral condensation of cold gutta-percha and Tubliseal sealer, after 2 years' storage. Forty maxillary first molars were prepared chemomechanically to a size 30-40 master apical file. The teeth were divided into an experimental group (30 teeth) and control group (10 teeth). In the experimental group, the floor of pulp chamber and the root-canal opening of 15 teeth were covered with Vitrebond as a lining; the remaining 15 teeth received no lining. These teeth were tested for leakage using a microbiological marker consisting of anaerobic streptococci and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The teeth were checked daily for bacterial leakage for 60 days. All positive control teeth leaked within 48 h, while the negative control teeth remained uncontaminated throughout the test period. The teeth restored with Vitrebond liner showed no leakage whilst 60% of the specimens with no Vitrebond liner showed leakage after 60 days.
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Endodontic therapy was performed on 14 teeth in juveniles with inflamed or necrotic pulps. The patients were recalled at 6-month intervals for radiological and clinical examinations. After 1 yr, periapical surgery was performed on six teeth. After 18 months, 5 more patients were subjected to periapical surgery and, after 2 1/2 years, 3 more patients had periapical surgery. A small block section containing the root tip and surrounding tissues was removed from all of the patients. Radiographs showed reductions in size, but not elimination, of periapical lesions. Histological examinations revealed that most root canals were overfilled. Inflammation persisted around zinc oxide-eugenol particles beyond the tooth apexes. In addition, gutta-percha overfilling enhanced the proliferation of cell rests of Malassez. In some cases, dentin filings were found at and beyond the tooth apexes. The formation of new hard tissue was stimulated by the presence of dentin chips.
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The aim of this study was to compare the coronal microleakage of conventional and bonded amalgam coronal-radicular (Nayyar) restorations on endodontically treated molar teeth, because coronal seal is a major factor in the long-term success of endodontic treatment. Forty extracted human molar teeth were root-filled and prepared for coronal-radicular amalgam restorations. Four groups of 10 teeth were restored with Tytin amalgam and Vitrebond, Superbond D Liner II, Panavia 21, or no adhesive agent. The teeth were placed in India ink for 1 week, and then demineralized and rendered transparent. The ink penetration was assessed with a coded scoring system. The bonded amalgam groups produced significantly less leakage than did the nonbonded group. No statistically significant differences in leakage were detected among the bonded amalgam groups. To prevent the reinfection of the endodontically treated molar, it may be preferable to restore the tooth immediately after obturation by employing a bonded amalgam coronal-radicular technique.
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The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of sealing the coronal 2-mm of the root canals versus covering the entire pulpal floor with one of two dental-resin cements (Principle or C&B Metabond). Sixty-two molars with the occlusal half of the crowns and the apical half of the roots removed were used. Each canal was enlarged by using a #3 Gates Glidden bur and obturated with unsealed gutta-percha cones. The teeth were randomly assigned to four groups, each containing 15 teeth, plus a negative and a positive control. In group 1, 2 mm of Principle were placed over the entire pulpal floor. In group 2, Principle was placed 2 mm into each canal orifice. Groups 3 and 4 were the same as groups 1 and 2, except C&B Metabond cement was used. After the cement set, the gutta-percha was removed and the integrity of the seal was tested by fluid filtration at a pressure of 20 cm H2O at 1 h and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. The data were analyzed by a three-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls tests at alpha = 0.05. The controls behaved as expected. Results showed that there were no statistically significant differences among the materials used or the location (p > 0.05), but there was a significant difference with respect to time. Principle leaked significantly more than C&B Metabond at 1 h (p < 0.05), but the seal became tighter over time. C&B Metabond leaked less early (p < 0.05) but increased in leakage at 4 weeks. Both materials sealed well over the 4-week study. Principle was easier to use, and sealing the entire pulpal floor was easier than sealing only the canal orifice.