Pig tissues express a catalytically inefficient 25-kDa thiamine triphosphatase: Insight in the catalytic mechanisms of this enzyme

ArticleinBiochimica et Biophysica Acta 1725(1):93-102 · September 2005with13 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2005.05.026 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) is found in most organisms and may be an intracellular signal molecule produced in response to stress. We have recently cloned the cDNA coding for a highly specific mammalian 25-kDa thiamine triphosphatase. The enzyme was active in all mammalian species studied except pig, although the corresponding mRNA was present. In order to determine whether the very low ThTPase activity in pig tissues is due to the absence of the protein or to a lack of catalytic efficiency, we expressed human and pig ThTPase in E. coli as GST fusion proteins. The purified recombinant pig GST-ThTPase was found to be 2-3 orders of magnitude less active than human GST-ThTPase. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we show that, in particular, the change of Glu85 to lysine is responsible for decreased solubility and catalytic activity of the pig enzyme. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a distribution of the protein in pig brain very similar to the one reported in rodent brain. Thus, our results suggest that a 25-kDa protein homologous to hThTPase but practically devoid of enzyme activity is expressed in pig tissues. This raises the possibility that this protein may play a physiological role other than ThTP hydrolysis.
    • "This could be the reason why no soluble ThTPase activity was observed in fish tissues (Makarchikov et al. 2003). Surprisingly, and due a single amino acid substitution , the pig has a low catalytic activity, though it seems to be expressed according to a similar pattern than in rodent tissues (Szyniarowski et al. 2005). This means that in pig, bird and fish tissues, 25-kDa ThTPase is either absent or its catalytic activity is very low, allowing ThTP to accumulate (Table 1). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) was discovered over 60 years ago and it was long thought to be a specifically neuroactive compound. Its presence in most cell types, from bacteria to mammals, would suggest a more general role but this remains undefined. In contrast to thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), ThTP is not a coenzyme. In E. coli cells, ThTP is transiently produced in response to amino acid starvation, while in mammalian cells, it is constitutively produced at a low rate. Though it was long thought that ThTP was synthesized by a ThDP:ATP phosphotransferase, more recent studies indicate that it can be synthesized by two different enzymes: (1) adenylate kinase 1 in the cytosol and (2) FoF1-ATP synthase in brain mitochondria. Both mechanisms are conserved from bacteria to mammals. Thus ThTP synthesis does not seem to require a specific enzyme. In contrast, its hydrolysis is catalyzed, at least in mammalian tissues, by a very specific cytosolic thiamine triphosphatase (ThTPase), controlling the steady-state cellular concentration of ThTP. In some tissues where adenylate kinase activity is high and ThTPase is absent, ThTP accumulates, reaching ≥ 70 % of total thiamine, with no obvious physiological consequences. In some animal tissues, ThTP was able to phosphorylate proteins, and activate a high-conductance anion channel in vitro. These observations raise the possibility that ThTP is part of a still uncharacterized cellular signaling pathway. On the other hand, its synthesis by a chemiosmotic mechanism in mitochondria and respiring bacteria might suggest a role in cellular energetics.
    Article · Mar 2014
    • "Even higher ThTP levels were found in quail and pig brain in agreement with previous results [80]. This is mainly due to the presence of very low catalytic activity of the 25- kDa ThTPase in pigs [81], while birds probably have no 25-kDa ThTPase [22]. These results clearly suggest an inverse correlation between brain ThTP content and soluble 25-kDa ThTPase activity. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential molecule for all life forms because thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) is an indispensable cofactor for oxidative energy metabolism. The less abundant thiamine monophosphate (ThMP), thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) and adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), present in many organisms, may have still unidentified physiological functions. Diseases linked to thiamine deficiency (polyneuritis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome) remain frequent among alcohol abusers and other risk populations. This is the first comprehensive study on the distribution of thiamine derivatives in human biopsies, body fluids and cell lines. Methodology and principal findings: Thiamine derivatives were determined by HPLC. In human tissues, the total thiamine content is lower than in other animal species. ThDP is the major thiamine compound and tissue levels decrease at high age. In semen, ThDP content correlates with the concentration of spermatozoa but not with their motility. The proportion of ThTP is higher in humans than in rodents, probably because of a lower 25-kDa ThTPase activity. The expression and activity of this enzyme seems to correlate with the degree of cell differentiation. ThTP was present in nearly all brain and muscle samples and in ∼60% of other tissue samples, in particular fetal tissue and cultured cells. A low ([ThTP]+[ThMP])/([Thiamine]+[ThMP]) ratio was found in cardiovascular tissues of patients with cardiac insufficiency. AThTP was detected only sporadically in adult tissues but was found more consistently in fetal tissues and cell lines. Conclusions and significance: The high sensitivity of humans to thiamine deficiency is probably linked to low circulating thiamine concentrations and low ThDP tissue contents. ThTP levels are relatively high in many human tissues, as a result of low expression of the 25-kDa ThTPase. Another novel finding is the presence of ThTP and AThTP in poorly differentiated fast-growing cells, suggesting a hitherto unsuspected link between these compounds and cell division or differentiation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010
    • "Thus, TTP seems to be essentially associated with neurons: In rat brain, the amount of TTP is about five times higher in neurons than in astrocytes (Bettendorff et al. 1991). Indeed, the membrane-associated enzyme form (TTPase) may play a physiologic role other than TTP hydrolysis in mammalian tissues (Szyniarowski et al. 2005). In vertebrate tissues, TTPase may act as a phosphate donor for the phosphorylation of certain proteins; that may be part of a new signal transduction pathway (Czerniecki et al. 2004). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the literature, previous descriptions of the role of thiamine (B1 vitamin) focused mostly on its biochemical functions as a coenzyme precursor of some key enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism. This report reviews recent developments on the metabolic and structural role of thiamine, e.g., the coenzyme and noncoenzyme functions of the vitamin. Taking into account analysis of our experimental data relating to the effects of thiamine deficiency on developing central nervous system (CNS) and data available in literature, we seek to establish a clear difference between the metabolic and structural role of thiamine. Our experimental data indicate that the specific and nonspecific effects express two diametrically diverse functions of thiamine in development: the nonspecific effects show up the metabolic consequences of thiamine deficiency resulting in apoptosis and severe cellular deficit; inversely, the specific effects announced the structural consequences of thiamine deficiency, described as cellular membrane damage, irregular and ectopic cells. The review highlights the existence of noncoenzyme functions of this vitamin through its interactions with biological membranes.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2008
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