Environmental reduplicative paramnesia in a case of atypical Alzheimer’s disease
Temple University, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United StatesNeurocase (Impact Factor: 1.12). 07/2005; 11(3):216-26. DOI: 10.1080/13554790590944825
A 79-year-old patient with neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD) presented with a selective environmental reduplicative paramnesia (RP), the belief that one or more environments exist simultaneously in two or more physical locations. Clinical presentation and neuropathological examination revealed an atypical form of AD. High neurofibrillary tangle densities were observed in the frontal and temporal association cortex, whereas the parietal and entorhinal cortex, as well as the hippocampus, were nearly spared. These findings are compared to those reported in frontal and frontotemporal variants of AD and discussed in the light of current anatomoclinical models for environmental RP.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive cognitive decline that typically affects first memory and later executive functions, language, and visuospatial skills. This sequence of cognitive deterioration is thought to reflect the progressive invasion of the cerebral cortex by the two major pathological hallmarks of AD, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile plaques (SP), as well as degree of neuronal and synaptic loss. In atypical AD, prominent and early deficits are found in language, motor abilities, frontal and executive capacities, or visuospatial skills. These atypical clinical features are associated with an unusual pattern of NFT or SP formation that predominantly involves cortical areas usually spared in the course of the degenerative process. In an attempt to classify this highly heterogeneous subgroup, the present article provides an overview of clinicopathological analyses in patients with atypical progression of AD symptomatology with special reference to the relationship between specific cognitive and behavioral deficits and hierarchical patterns of AD lesion distribution within the cerebral cortex. On the basis of these representative examples of a cortical circuit-based approach to explore the mechanisms giving rise to AD neuropsychological expression, we also critically discuss the possibility to develop a matrix linking clinical presentations to degeneration of forward and backward long corticocortical pathways in this disorder.
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ABSTRACT: When the delusional misidentification syndromes reduplicative paramnesia and Capgras syndromes result from neurologic disease, lesions are usually bifrontal and/or right hemispheric. The related disorders of confabulation and anosognosis share overlapping mechanisms and anatomic pathology. A dual mechanism is postulated for the delusional misidentification syndromes: negative effects from right hemisphere and frontal lobe dysfunction as well as positive effects from release (i.e., overactivity) of preserved left hemisphere areas. Negative effects of right hemisphere injury impair self-monitoring, ego boundaries, and attaching emotional valence and familiarity to stimuli. The unchecked left hemisphere unleashes a creative narrator from the monitoring of self, memory, and reality by the frontal and right hemisphere areas, leading to excessive and false explanations. Further, the left hemisphere's cognitive style of categorization, often into dual categories, leads it to invent a duplicate or impostor to resolve conflicting information. Delusions result from right hemisphere lesions. But it is the left hemisphere that is deluded.
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