Porstmann T, Griffiths B, Chung YL, Delpuech O, Griffiths JR, Downward J et al.. PKB/Akt induces transcription of enzymes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis via activation of SREBP. Oncogene 24: 6465-6481

Gene Expression Analysis Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.46). 10/2005; 24(43):6465-81. DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1208802
Source: PubMed


Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) has been shown to play a role in protection from apoptosis, cell proliferation and cell growth. It is also involved in mediating the effects of insulin, such as lipogenesis, glucose uptake and conversion of glucose into fatty acids and cholesterol. Sterol-regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are the major transcription factors that regulate genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. It has been postulated that constitutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt pathway may be involved in fatty acid and cholesterol accumulation that has been described in several tumour types. In this study, we have analysed changes in gene expression in response to Akt activation using DNA microarrays. We identified several enzymes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis as targets for Akt-regulated transcription. Expression of these enzymes has previously been shown to be regulated by the SREBP family of transcription factors. Activation of Akt induces synthesis of full-length SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 proteins as well as expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the key regulatory enzyme in lipid biosynthesis. We also show that Akt leads to the accumulation of nuclear SREBP-1 but not SREBP-2, and that activation of SREBP is required for Akt-induced activation of the FAS promoter. Finally, activation of Akt induces an increase in the concentration of cellular fatty acids as well as phosphoglycerides, the components of cellular membranes. Our data indicate that activation of SREBP by Akt leads to the induction of key enzymes of the cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways, and thus membrane lipid biosynthesis.

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Available from: Yuen-Li Chung, Apr 09, 2014
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    • "Thus, Pten plays an important role in lipid deposition. A potential role for SREBP1 regulation by AKT was revealed in a study that demonstrated activation of SREBP1 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells expressing activated AKT [49]. Recent reports indicate that activation of AKT is involved in the transport of the SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP)/SREBP complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi [50], which is a major step in SREBP activation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pten is a tumor suppressor gene regulating many cellular processes, including growth, adhesion, and apoptosis. In the aim of investigating the role of Pten during mammary gland development and lactation of dairy cows, we analyzed Pten expression levels in the mammary glands of dairy cows by using western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. Dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) were used to study the function of Pten in vitro. We determined concentrations of β-casein, triglyceride, and lactose in the culture medium following Pten overexpression and siRNA inhibition. To determine whether Pten affected DCMEC viability and proliferation, cells were analyzed by CASY-TT and flow cytometry. Genes involved in lactation-related signaling pathways were detected. Pten expression was also assessed by adding prolactin and glucose to cell cultures. When Pten was overexpressed, proliferation of DCMECs and concentrations for β-casein, triglyceride, and lactose were significantly decreased. Overexpression of Pten down-regulated expression of MAPK, CYCLIN D1, AKT, MTOR, S6K1, STAT5, SREBP1, PPARγ, PRLR, and GLUT1, but up-regulated 4EBP1 in DCMECs. The Pten siRNA inhibition experiments revealed results that opposed those from the gene overexpression experiments. Introduction of prolactin (PRL) increased secretion of β-casein, triglyceride, and lactose, but decreased Pten expression levels. Introduction of glucose also increased β-casein and triglyceride concentrations, but did not significantly alter Pten expression levels. The Pten mRNA and protein expression levels were decreased 0.3- and 0.4-fold in mammary glands of lactating cows producing high quality milk (milk protein >3.0%, milk fat >3.5%), compared with those cows producing low quality milk (milk protein <3.0%, milk fat <3.5%). In conclusion, Pten functions as an inhibitor during mammary gland development and lactation in dairy cows. It can down-regulate DCMECs secretion of β-casein, triglyceride, and lactose, and plays a critical role in lactation related signaling pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The phosphorylation (i.e. activation) of Akt was shown to induce the expression of FASN and to trigger aggressive malignancy in cancer cells [21]. In contrast, treatment with an AMPK agonist, leading to the activation of AMPK, suppressed the expression of FASN and blocked the growth of colorectal tumor [22]–[24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aberrant regulation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3-K)/Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) signaling pathways in cancer has prompted significant interest in the suppression of these pathways to treat cancer. Caffeic acid (CA) has been reported to possess important anti-inflammatory actions. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CA derivatives including caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and caffeic acid phenylpropyl ester (CAPPE), exert inhibitory effects on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells have yet to be elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings CAPE and CAPPE were evaluated for their ability to modulate these signaling pathways and suppress the proliferation of CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Anti-cancer effects of these CA derivatives were measured by using proliferation assays, cell cycle analysis, western blotting assay, reporter gene assay and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining assays both in vitro and in vivo. This study demonstrates that CAPE and CAPPE exhibit a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation and survival of CRC cells through the induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and augmentation of apoptotic pathways. Consumption of CAPE and CAPPE significantly inhibited the growth of colorectal tumors in a mouse xenograft model. The mechanisms of action included a modulation of PI3-K/Akt, AMPK and m-TOR signaling cascades both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the results demonstrate novel anti-cancer mechanisms of CA derivatives against the growth of human CRC cells. Conclusions CA derivatives are potent anti-cancer agents that augment AMPK activation and promote apoptosis in human CRC cells. The structure of CA derivatives can be used for the rational design of novel inhibitors that target human CRC cells.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Interestingly, SREBPs are also regulated downstream of growth factor signalling or in response to nutrient levels and the cellular energy status. It has been shown that the expression of many genes involved in cholesterol and FA biosynthesis is activated by Akt kinase, which mediates the effects of growth factor signalling via the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway (Porstmann et al., 2005). This regulation depends on the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a multi-protein kinase complex that is regulated downstream of Akt (Düvel et al., 2010; Porstmann et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: An increased rate of lipid synthesis in cancerous tissues has long been recognised as an important aspect of the rewired metabolism of transformed cells. However, the contribution of lipids to cellular transformation, tumour development and tumour progression, as well as their potential role in facilitating the spread of cancerous cells to secondary sites, are not yet fully understood. In this article, we review the recent findings that support the importance of lipid synthesis and metabolism in tumorigenesis. Specifically, we explore the role of aberrant lipid biosynthesis in cancer cell migration and invasion, and in the induction of tumour angiogenesis. These processes are crucial for the dissemination of tumour cells and formation of metastases, which constitute the main cause of cancer mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Disease Models and Mechanisms
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