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Determination of citrulline in watermelon rind

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Abstract

Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) is a natural and rich source of the non-essential amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is used in the nitric oxide system in humans and has potential antioxidant and vasodilatation roles. A method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to separate citrulline from glutamic acid, which co-elute when analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Watermelons were analyzed by GC-MS to determine the citrulline content among varieties, types, flesh colors, and tissues. Citrulline content ranged from 3.9 to 28.5 mg/g dry weight (dwt) and was similar between seeded and seedless types (16.6 and 20.3 mg/g dwt, respectively). Red flesh watermelons had slightly less citrulline than the yellow or orange flesh watermelons (7.4, 28.5 and 14.2 mg/g dwt, respectively). Rind contained more citrulline than flesh on a dry weight basis (24.7 and 16.7 mg/g dwt, respectively) but a little less on a fresh weight (fwt) basis (1.3 and 1.9 mg/g fwt, respectively). These results indicate that watermelon rind, an underutilized agricultural waste, offers a source of natural citrulline.

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... Watermelon is rich in citrulline, a nonessential amino acid with hydroxyl radical scavenger ability [69,70]. Citrulline content has been assessed in watermelons, revealing significant variation among cultivars. ...
... Citrulline content has been assessed in watermelons, revealing significant variation among cultivars. A comparison of cultivars by flesh colour and seed production showed that yellow watermelons have the highest value (28.5 mg/g DW), while orange-and red-fleshed watermelons showed intermediate and the lowest citrulline content (14.2 mg/g DW and 7.4 mg/g DW, respectively) [69]. The variation also seems to be influenced by seed content. ...
... The variation also seems to be influenced by seed content. Seeded watermelons had an average of 1.8 mg/g FW of citrulline, while seedless ones showed an average of 2.4 mg/g FW [69,71,72]. ...
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Cucurbitaceae is one of the most economically important plant families, and includes some worldwide cultivated species like cucumber, melons, and squashes, and some regionally cultivated and feral species that contribute to the human diet. For centuries, cucurbits have been appreciated because of their nutritional value and, in traditional medicine, because of their ability to alleviate certain ailments. Several studies have demonstrated the remarkable contents of valuable compounds in cucurbits, including antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and carotenoids, but also tannins and terpenoids, which are abundant. This antioxidant power is beneficial for human health, but also in facing plant diseases and abiotic stresses. This review brings together data on the antioxidant properties of cucurbit species, addressing the genetic and pre- and postharvest factors that regulate the antioxidant content in different plant organs. Environmental conditions, management, storage, and pre- and postharvest treatments influencing the biosynthesis and activity of antioxidants, together with the biodiversity of this family, are determinant in improving the antioxidant potential of this group of species. Plant breeding, as well as the development of innovative biotechnological approaches, is also leading to new possibilities for exploiting cucurbits as functional products.
... In fact, watermelon is the principal source of that amino acid in the diet; the name CIT comes from Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.), the scientific name for watermelon. CIT concentration in watermelon depends on the type of cultivar and usually ranges between 0.7 and 3.6 g/kg of fresh weight [4]. CIT is present in both the flesh and in the rind [5]; during watermelon development, there is a progressive accumulation of CIT in those tissues [6], in particular, under stress conditions. ...
... In general, fresh-cut yields vary between 50% and 70% of the initial whole product. In the case of fresh-cut watermelon, the inedible portion is between 31% and 40% of the initial fresh weight, depending on the cultivar [4]. However, the reuse of these under-utilized agricultural wastes (which contain functional compounds) could be an example of circular economy for the fresh-cut industry, a policy to reduce loss and waste in line with the United Nations aim declared in this International Year of Fruits and Vegetables [9]. ...
... Consumer interest in watermelon has increased in recent years, especially due to its beneficial effects on human health [128]. It is important to highlight the most important phytochemicals or bioactive compounds in watermelon; as has been mentioned before, watermelon is the richest known natural source of CIT, [4,5] and it is an effective precursor of Arg. Since watermelon was recognized as a significant and natural source of CIT with numerous therapeutic properties, many reports have been published in this area. ...
Article
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L-Arginine (Arg) has been widely used due to its functional properties as a substrate for nitric oxide (NO) generation. However, L-citrulline (CIT), whose main natural source is watermelon, is a non-essential amino acid but which has important health potential. This review provides a comprehensive approach to different studies of the endogenous synthesis of CIT, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics as well as its ergogenic effect in exercise performance. The novel aspect of this paper focuses on the different effects of CIT, citrulline malate and CIT from natural sources such as watermelon on several topics, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, cancer, and exercise performance. CIT from watermelon could be a natural food-sourced substitute for pharmacological products and therefore the consumption of this fruit is promoted.
... The L-citrulline content was expressed in milligrams per gram of watermelon sample. HPLC separation was carried out at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min using a mobile phase of (A) 3 mM phosphoric acid, (B) acetonitrile (Rimando and Perkins, 2005). Detection was carried out using 263 nm wavelength, 70-0% A gradient elution and results were reported as mg citrulline per g fresh weight (mg g -1 FP). ...
... Similar results were cited by Jayaprakasha et al. (2011) with red-fleshed watermelon rind (13.95 -20.84 mg g -1 ) employing methanol as solvent in a mixing and sonification process. In another study, Rimando and Perkins (2005) obtained watermelon rind citrulline yields of 15.6 mg g -1 , using ultrasonication with N2 bubbling and methanol as solvent; this results due to the efficiency of the method where they are using sound waves capable of breaking the molecular structure of the samples and making the bioactive compounds of interest more available. ...
... Approaches have been introduced to reduce the accumulation of solid watermelon waste by converting the rind's polysaccharides into other products such as biosorbent [6,7], bioremediation [8], biochar [9], and bioethanol [4]. Additionally, watermelon rind has been studied as a source of nutritional food ingredients such as antioxidants [10], amino acids [11][12][13][14], and pectin [15,16], especially citrulline. In processed foods, rind has been tested in pickled form and in jam [17,18]. ...
... Watermelon rind has advantages of high citrulline content compared to flesh [14], and contained major volatile compounds of nine-carbon aldehydes and alcohols as identified in this study. The results of the major nine-carbon volatiles in rind from the current study bring in a new potential use of watermelon rind; for example, watermelon rind might be used in highly nutritive plant waters, which could be marketed as consumer hydration options, with fresh, green flavor notes imparted by watermelon rind [45]. ...
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Watermelon rind is treated as agricultural waste and commonly discarded, causing environmental issues and biomass loss. This study aimed to identify volatile profiles of watermelon rind and flesh and their cultivar difference. Volatiles were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). A total of 132 volatiles were identified, including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes/terpenoids, esters, lactones, acids, and sulfides. In both rind and flesh, the most dominant compounds in numbers and abundance (peak area) were aldehydes and alcohols, which accounted 94–96% of the total volatile abundance in the rind and 85–87% in the flesh. Total volatile in watermelon rind was only 28–58% of the corresponding flesh samples. Both rind and flesh shared nine-carbon aldehydes and alcohols, though the rind lacked additional diversity. Volatile difference between rind and flesh was greater than the difference among cultivars, although volatiles in the rind could be two times difference between Fascination and other three watermelons (Captivation, Exclamation, and Excursion). This study provides the first-hand knowledge regarding watermelon rind volatile profiles and cultivar difference and shows the potential use of rind in food or beverages due to its naturally contained nine-carbon compounds.
... It is produced by the human body and also found naturally in certain foods like watermelons, cucumbers, pumpkins, muskmelons, bitter melons, squashes, and gourds [14]. In watermelons, citrulline can be found in pulp and rind, being in higher proportion in this latter [2,[15][16][17], it has antioxidant activity and it is a good free radicals scavenger [9] that has the biological function of being a precursor of l-arginine; which is an essential amino acid that has a key role in the good functioning of the circulatory and immunological system, and also is important in the production of nitric oxide (NO), which is a key vasoprotective molecule that works as a cell signaling messenger in the cardiovascular system [18,19]. ...
... mg/g fresh sample, respectively. Although watermelon rind is one of the richest sources of citrulline [16], this agro-industrial by-product has a high moisture content (>90%) and low pH (5. 10-5.37) that make it susceptible to both bacterial and fungal growth, leading to a decrease of bioactive compounds content [2]. ...
Article
The aim of this work was to encapsulate of citrulline extract from watermelon rind (by-product) by spray drying. Two different pectins were probed as wall materials in addition to maltodextrin. A Box-Behnken design was applied and three different parameters were evaluated as factors: commercial pectin (CP) concentration, orange produced pectin (OPP) concentration, and inlet air temperature. Different powder properties were evaluated as response variables including drying yield and encapsulation efficiency. The spray drying process was optimized by the desirability function. Higher drying yields, moisture contents and encapsulation efficiencies were reached at higher commercial pectin concentration. The optimal spray drying conditions were also determined. The obtained powder at the optimal conditions was characterized using Modulated differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. In conclusion, citrulline extract spray-dried powders showed that could be stable during storage, so it might be used as an additive in foods to obtain functional products for human consumption.
... However, a significant lower initial level of L-arginine was observed compared to WPP (Table 1). These results are in line with previous studies (Akashi et al. 2017;Rimando and Perkins-Veazie 2005). Akashi et al. (2017) showed higher L-citrulline concentration in peripheral portion compared to pulp. ...
... Akashi et al. (2017) showed higher L-citrulline concentration in peripheral portion compared to pulp. Rimando and Perkins-Veazie (2005) also showed that watermelon rind presented higher L-citrulline concentration on a dry weight basis when compared to pulp. In contrast, Joshi et al. (2019) concluded that there was no difference in L-citrulline content between rind and pulp. ...
Article
Since foods rich in L-citrulline are important for vascular health, it is important to determine the amount of this compounds in foods present in the human diet. Therefore, the present study evaluated storage stability of L-citrulline in cucumber rind and pulp juices and to compare them with watermelon rind and pulp juices. The L-citrulline stability was evaluated for 12 days at refrigerated condition (4 ºC). Since L-arginine is an amino acid involved in L-citrulline metabolism, L-arginine content was also evaluated. On the initial day, L-citrulline content in cucumber rind and pulp was lower when compared to watermelon rind and pulp juices, respectively. A significative reduction in L-citrulline content in cucumber rind and pulp and watermelon pulp juices was observed in day 6 and day 12 when compared to the first day. However, L-citrulline content was stable for 12 days in watermelon rind juice. A significative reduction in L-arginine content was also observed in cucumber pulp and watermelon pulp juices, but not in cucumber rind and watermelon rind juices in day 6 and day 12 when compared to the first day. The results suggested that L-citrulline in cucumber rind and pulp and watermelon pulp juices were unstable at refrigerated conditions for 12 days.
... This fruit consists essentially of water, which composes around 91% of the edible part. The rest corresponds to macronutrients (carbohydrates -6.4%, proteins -0.5%, fats -0.2% and fibers -0.3%); vitamins (A and B complex), minerals (mostly calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium), bioactive compounds (carotenoids and polyphenols) and citrulline [28]. Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid and its main source is watermelon (genus Citrullus), hence the origin of its name [28,29]. ...
... The rest corresponds to macronutrients (carbohydrates -6.4%, proteins -0.5%, fats -0.2% and fibers -0.3%); vitamins (A and B complex), minerals (mostly calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium), bioactive compounds (carotenoids and polyphenols) and citrulline [28]. Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid and its main source is watermelon (genus Citrullus), hence the origin of its name [28,29]. It converts to arginine which is a precursor to nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator. ...
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Background: Food is already recognized as a trigger for migraine, but its mechanism of action has not been fully clarified. There is evidence that they act on the pathogenesis of migraine, interfering with meningeal inflammation, vasodilation and cerebral glucose metabolism. Aim: The aim of this study was to know which plant foods are triggers for migraine and the latency time for the onset of pain. Method: We interviewed patients with migraine and tension-type headache about plant foods that trigger headache and onset time of the headache. We studied 3,935 migraine patients and 1,163 with tension-type headache. Results: There were headaches triggered by plant foods after 90.5±7.9 minutes of ingestion in 40.3% (1,584/3,935) of migraine patients and none with tension-type headache. Headaches triggered by plant foods intake are distributed in the following order of frequency: watermelon (29.5%), passion fruit (3.73%), orange (2.01%), pineapple (1.52%), grape (0.51%), banana (0.46%), cucumber (0.43%), acerola (0.25%) and papaya (0.25%). Conclusions: Many plant foods, especially watermelon, may trigger headache attacks in migraine patients within a few minutes.
... Because the kidney is the main organ to metabolize citrulline into arginine, high plasma citrulline levels may reflect kidney failure [11]. Most nutrients do not contain relevant amounts of citrulline; however, there are about 7-14 mg citrulline per g dry weight of watermelon and 1.9 mg per g fresh weight [12]. In order to know more about the physiological properties of citrulline we performed a structured literature research and hereby summarize the signaling pathways of citrulline and the current evidence for its clinical use. ...
... As previously indicated, citrulline is a non-proteinogenic AA. Therefore, it is not incorporated in human protein biosynthesis, nor does it appear in nutritional proteins in substantial quantities, except essentially in watermelon [12]. Citrulline transport across the luminal enterocyte membrane hence seems to be of minor importance. ...
Article
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L-Citrulline is a non-essential but still important amino acid that is released from enterocytes. Because plasma levels are reduced in case of impaired intestinal function, it has become a biomarker to monitor intestinal integrity. Moreover, oxidative stress induces protein citrullination, and antibodies against anti-citrullinated proteins are useful to monitor rheumatoid diseases. Citrullinated histones, however, may even predict a worse outcome in cancer patients. Supplementation of citrulline is better tolerated compared to arginine and might be useful to slightly improve muscle strength or protein balance. The following article shall provide an overview of L-citrulline properties and functions, as well as the current evidence for its use as a biomarker or as a therapeutic supplement.
... Developing varieties with desirable fruit characteristics and high nutritional value is a top priority for watermelon breeding programs. Watermelon is a naturally rich source for the non-protein α-amino acid citrulline, which was reported to have antioxidant and vasodilatation activity (27). Citrulline was first isolated from watermelon by the Japanese researchers Yotaro Koga and Ryo Odake in 1914 (28) and further validated in 1930 (29). ...
... The structures of selected examples are depicted in Figure 7. Among these, citrulline is most prominent, and watermelon remains its most important source known (27). Citrulline is used as a drug and in food supplements for its stimulating activity on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle (83), its cardioprotective and overall beneficial cardiovascular effects (84), and even for erectile dysfunction (85). ...
Article
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Sweet dessert watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one of the most important vegetable crops consumed throughout the world. The chemical composition of watermelon provides both high nutritional value and various health benefits. The present manuscript introduces a catalog of 1,679 small molecules occurring in the watermelon and their cheminformatics analysis for diverse features. In this catalog, the phytochemicals are associated with the literature describing their presence in the watermelon plant, and when possible, concentration values in various plant parts (flesh, seeds, leaves, roots, rind). Also cataloged are the chemical classes, molecular weight and formula, chemical structure, and certain physical and chemical properties for each phytochemical. In our view, knowing precisely what is in what we eat, as this catalog does for watermelon, supports both the rationale for certain controlled feeding studies in the field of precision nutrition, and plant breeding efforts for the development of new varieties with enhanced concentrations of specific phytochemicals. Additionally, improved and comprehensive collections of natural products accessible to the public will be especially useful to researchers in nutrition, cheminformatics, bioinformatics, and drug development, among other disciplines.
... The highest citrulline concentrations are found in watermelon (Tedesco et al. 1984;Joshi and Fernie 2017), with the exact concentrations varying depending on the variety/cultivar (Tarazona-Díaz et al. 2011;Wehner et al. 2017) and the growing conditions (Hartman 2017). Citrulline is also found in moderate to low concentrations in other species from the cucurbit family (Cucurbitaceae), including bitter melon, cucumber, muskmelon, pumpkin, bottle gourd, dishrag gourd and wax gourd (Rimando and Perkins-Veazie 2005;Hartman 2017 (2017), Deng et al. (2017) and Hartman et al. (2019), there appears to be no information available in the literature on the citrulline content of Australian-grown cucurbits. Different analytical methods are available for measuring citrulline, including immunological assays (Aoki and Takeuchi 1997), colorimetric reagent-based assays (Knipp and Vašák 2000) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Ridwan et al. 2018). ...
... The citrulline content found in the red watermelon flesh (22.9 mg/g DW) was considerably higher than the results found by Rimando and Perkins-Veazie (2005) in red watermelon rind (mean of 7.4 mg/g DW) and slightly lower than the highest content of 28.5 mg/g DW found in yellow watermelon rind. ...
Article
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Citrulline is a non-protein building amino acid that plays important roles in nitric oxide production, vasodilation and ammonia detoxification. It is structurally related to arginine and is most abundant in melons and other cucurbit species. Most current methods for the quantification of citrulline and arginine require time-consuming chemical derivatization steps, and often use more expensive detection methods such as fluorescence detection. Hence, this study aimed to develop a simple and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC-UV), without requiring any analyte derivatization. The method was used to quantify the citrulline and arginine content of 13 Australian fruit and vegetable cultivars, comprising 11 species from 7 genera and 5 families. The highest citrulline contents were found in mature citron melon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) fruit (39.2 mg/g dry weight basis), which also had the highest citrulline: arginine ratio of 17.8. Red watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) flesh also contained high levels of citrulline (22.9 mg/g), with lower concentrations in other melons, pumpkin and squash (1-3 mg/g). Arginine levels were highest in red watermelon flesh (8.1 mg/g). This extraction protocol and HPLC method may be suitable for screening large number of samples for citrulline and arginine contents.
... However, a significant lower initial level of L-arginine was observed compared to WPP (Table 1). These results are in line with previous studies (Akashi et al. 2017;Rimando and Perkins-Veazie 2005). Akashi et al. (2017) showed higher L-citrulline concentration in peripheral portion compared to pulp. ...
... Akashi et al. (2017) showed higher L-citrulline concentration in peripheral portion compared to pulp. Rimando and Perkins-Veazie (2005) also showed that watermelon rind presented higher L-citrulline concentration on a dry weight basis when compared to pulp. In contrast, Joshi et al. (2019) concluded that there was no difference in L-citrulline content between rind and pulp. ...
Article
The aim the current study was to developed a watermelon rind powder (WRP), watermelon pulp powder (WPP), and beetroot powder (BP), in order to compare the stability of L-citrulline and nitrate with that of watermelon rind juice (WRJ), watermelon pulp juice (WPJ), and beetroot juice (BJ), respectively. The stability was evaluated during 32 days at 25, 4 and − 20 ºC. L-arginine and L-ornithine content were also evaluated. At day 0, a significantly higher L-citrulline and L-ornithine content in WRP was observed when compared to WPP. However, a significantly lower L-arginine content in WRP was observed when compared to WPP. L-citrulline content in WRP and WRJ was stable over 32 days in all temperatures evaluated, whereas it reduced in WPP in 32 days at 25 ºC and it is reduced in in WPJ in day 16 and day 32 at 25 °C. L-arginine content in WRP and WPP was stable over 32 days in all temperatures evaluated. A reduction was observed in WRJ at day 2, 4 and 32 at 25 °C and in WPJ at day 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days at 25 °C. L-ornithine content in WRP and WPP was stable over 32 days in all temperatures evaluated. An increase was observed in WRJ at day 2, 4 and 32 at 25 °C and in WPJ in day 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 at 25 °C. Nitrate content in BP was stable over 32 days in all temperatures evaluated, while nitrate content in beetroot juice was reduced in day 2 at 25 °C and day 8 at 4 °C. In conclusion, L-citrulline of the microencapsulated watermelon rind and nitrate of the microencapsulated beetroot were stable throughout storage.
... Approaches include converting rind polysaccharides into other products like bioethanol [3], biosorbent [5], and biochar [6]. Rind is also a food ingredient source for pectin [7,8] and citrulline [9][10][11]. Rind has been directly processed by pickling [12], as well as being incorporated into jams [13]. ...
... Cit and Arg were the two most abundant free amino acids in both watermelon rind and flesh, and the concentration of Cit significantly increased along with rind concentration in the samples, with the rind alone (100% rind) containing the highest amount of Cit. The finding of higher Cit content in rind than flesh was consistent with literature reports [9,25], though there are also conflicting reports [10]. The concentration of Cit varies a lot in literature, which depends on genotype, environmental factors, and analytical methods [25]. ...
Article
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Watermelon rind is treated as agricultural waste, causing biomass loss and environmental issues. This study aimed to identify free amino acids and volatiles in watermelon rind, flesh, and rind-flesh juice blends with ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30%. Among the 16 free amino acids quantified, watermelon rind alone contained higher total amino acids (165 mg/100 g fresh weight) compared to flesh alone (146 mg/100 g). The rind had significantly higher (1.5×) and dominant amounts of citrulline and arginine (61.4 and 53.8 mg/100 g, respectively) than flesh. The rind, however, contained significantly lower amounts of essential amino acids. Volatile analysis showed that watermelon rind total volatiles (peak area) comprised only 15% of the flesh volatiles. Of the 126 volatiles identified, the rind alone contained 77 compounds; 56 of these presented in all five samples. Aldehydes and alcohols were most prevalent, accounting for >80% of the total volatiles in all samples. Nine-carbon aldehyde and alcohol compounds dominated both the flesh and rind, though the rind lacked the diversity of other aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, terpenoids, esters and lactones that were more abundant in the watermelon flesh. Watermelon rind was characterized by the major aroma compounds above their thresholds, including 17 aldehydes and six unsaturated nine-carbon alcohols. This study demonstrated the potential for rind as a food or beverage supplement due to its key features such as concentrated citrulline and arginine, relatively low odor intensity, and valuable volatiles associated with fresh, green, cucumber-like aromas.
... De zaden en het zoete relatief vaak dieprood tot roze sappig vruchtvlees (maar het kan ook geel en oranje zijn [11]) van de relatief grote eetbare pepo berry vruchten (een pepo is een soort bes gevormd uit een onderliggende eierstok en bevat veel zaden en heeft meestal een grootte taaie buitenschil, e.g., een pompoen of komkommer) van de bloeiende en groen gelobde bladeren jaarlijks in tropische tot gematigde klimaatgebieden van de wereld groeiende wijnstokachtige hangende watermeloenbesplant citrullus anatus (ook wel "citrullus vulgaris" door Carl Linnaeus rond 1753, en "watermeloen"), in te delen in het geslacht citrullus, dat op zijn beurt kan worden ingedeeld in de ongeveer 1'000 soorten die de cucurbitaceae-plantenfamilie omvatten (ook wel de "komkommerfamilie", de " cucurbits", de gourd family", de "pompoenfamilie" en "de komkommerplantenfamilie" genoemd) zijn mogelijk inzetbaar [3]. Van alle NSAID's is ibuprofen waarschijnlijk het veiligst en aanzienlijk veiliger dan naproxen [3]. ...
... Stikstofmonoxide wordt gemaakt van arginine en arginine kan worden geproduceerd door citrulline [8], waarvan de arginineconcentratie in het lichaam dus kan worden verhoogd door meer citrullinerijk voedsel te consumeren, zoals watermeloenfruit, dat vaak wordt afgedaan als niet veel waard en door deze mensen als hetzelfde wordt beschouwd als water [12]. Orale suppletie met L-citrulline verbetert de hardheid van de erectie bij mannen met milde erectiestoornissen [9] en citrulline kan in relatief hoge concentraties in watermeloen worden gevonden, hetgeen betekent dat je de dosis die ze in het onderzoek gebruikten elke dag kan eten om te proberen de resultaten te matchen met de studieresultaten die ongeveer 3,5 (drie en een halve) porties rode watermeloen per dag zijn, tenzij je gele watermeloen eet, die ongeveer 4x (vier keer) zoveel citrulline bevat [9,11] hetgeen zich vertaalt naar die ene portie per dag i.e. een schijfje dat ongeveer 1/16 (een zestiende) van een bescheiden meloen is, hetgeen is dat deze in de studie gebruikte dosis zou moeten leveren, waardoor de maandelijkse geslachtsgemeenschapsfrequentie met 68 [%] toeneemt, hetgeen uw hart ook zou moeten kunnen weerstaan gegeven hoeveel lager uw bloeddruk zal zijn bij suppletie met watermeloen [10]. Pompoen en squashzaden, beide met ongeveer 5,4/100 [g] en watermeloenzaden met ongeveer 4,9/100 [g] bevatten relatief veel arginine, dat volgens het Center of Disease Control CDC ook zou kunnen worden gebruikt om arginine in het algemeen voldoende binnen te krijgen, dit gelet op dat in de Verenigde Staten van Amerika 78 miljoen Verenigde Staten Amerikanen onvoldoende arginine binnenkrijgen [13]. ...
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The seeds of the chia salvia plant may help as nutrition for the cardiovascular system, may help as nutrition for the brain, may help as nutrition for the immune system and may help as nutrition for the reproductive system. Article: Citrullus anatus melon [Sources below] The sweet relatively often deep red to pink juicy flesh of the relatively large edible pepo berry fruits (A pepo is a type of berry formed from an inferior ovary and containing many seeds usually large with a tough outer skin, e.g. a pumpkin or cucumber) of the flowering and green lobed leaved annually growing in tropical to temperate climate regions of the world vine-like trailing water melon plant citrullus anatus (also called "citrullus vulgaris" by Carl Linnaeus in about 1753, and "watermeloen") categorizable in the citrullus genus which is in turn categorizable in the about a 1'000 species encompassing cucurbitaceae plant family (also called the "komkommerfamilie", the "cucurbits", the "gourd family" and "the cucumber plant family") are possible usable for: It may possible be usable as nutrition for the cardiovascular system in the sense that Source references:
... Vitamin is also present in good amount [55] . The pulp of the watermelon contains carotenoids which also includes lycopene [56,57] . Watermelon can also be eaten as a vegetable, stew and also as a pickle [58] . ...
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Artificial Seed Production in Seedless Plants has opened out entirely new approaches for plant improvement. Improving Plant Productivity is very important as several biotic and abiotic constraints affects its cultivation and Production. We can demarcate artificial seeds by way of encapsulation of somatic embryos, shoot bud, cell aggregates of any tissue (artificially) which has the competence to mature into a plant in in vitro or in vivo circumstances. They are also frequently called synthetic seeds or synseeds. In this Paper, how artificial seeds are produced, that is, the process for the making of artificial seeds in seedless plants is fully described. A review of the available research literature indicates that the performance of plants derived from artificial seeds has been encouraging with Increase in yield, Early Maturity and quality fruits.
... The liver response would increase the synthesis of triglycerides, VLDL and cholesterol ester synthesis (Murray et al., 2003) which are subsequently secreted into the circulation. DM management covered : dietary habit management, regular physical exercise and the use of pharmacological therapy, by optimizing the use of herbal ingredients (Subroto, 2006) that was a watermelon rind (Citrullus vulgaris Schard) which contained active compound of citrulline 24,4 mg/g dry weight (Rimando & Perkins-Veazie 2005). Citrulline played a role as formation precursors of NO, which NO directly involved in an insulin secretion regulation with causing membrane depoarization and increasing the concentra-tion of Ca2+ intracellular. ...
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Watermelon rind water extract contain of citrulline. Citrulline is a precursor of generating Nitric Oxide (NO). NO possibly reduced the level of blood glucose in streptozotosin-induced diabetic rats. This study was a laboratory experimental study completely randomized design. A number of 30 male albino Wistar rats weighting 100 – 200 gr were devided into six groups (N=5), with group 1 served as normal control group. The other groups were given streptozotosin to induced diabetes mellitus. The rats in control diabetic group were given CMC 0,5%, the others were given watermelon rind extracs for 8 days with different doses for each group. The results showed that serum glucose levels in posttest control group was significantly different, from that group of the watermelon rind extract 250 mg/kg bw/day (p = 0,000), groups of watermelon rind extract 500 mg/kgbw/day (p = 0,000) and groups of watermelon rind extract 1000 mg/kgbw/day (p = 0,000). The level of triglyceride in postest control was significantly different from that group of the watermelon rind extract 250 mg/kg bw/day (p = 0,000), groups of watermelon rind extract 500 mg/kgbw/day (p = 0,000) and groups of watermelon rind extract 1000 mg/kgbw/day (p = 0,000). The conclusion, the watermelon rind water extrac can be used to reduced glucose serum level (250, 500, 1000mg/kg bw) with the optimal dose was 500 mg /kgbw/day with the optimal dose was 1000 mg /kgbw/day.
... Citrulline is a potent osmolyte and radical scavenger against drought/salt stress in plants (Akashi et al., 2001) as well as an intermediate in the human nitric oxide system. In studies done with 14 and 56 watermelon cultivars, no correlation was found with watermelon type (e.g., open-pollinated and hybrid cultivars) and citrulline content (Rimando and Perkins-Veazie, 2005;Kyriacou et al., 2018). Results have been inconclusive regarding citrulline content and watermelon grafting as some rootstockscion combinations have been shown to increase citrulline content (Davis et al., 2008) or have no effect with grafting (Aslam et al., 2020). ...
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Grafting watermelon scions to interspecific squash hybrids has been found to increase fruit firmness. Triploid (seedless) watermelon are prone to hollow heart (HH), an internal fruit disorder characterized by a crack in the placental tissue expanding to a cavity. Although watermelon with lower tissue firmness tend to have a higher HH incidence, associated differences in cell wall polysaccharide composition are unknown. Grafting “Liberty” watermelon to “Carnivor” (interspecific hybrid rootstock, C. moschata × C. maxima) reduced HH 39% and increased tissue firmness by 3 N. Fruit with and without severe HH from both grafted and non-grafted plants were analyzed to determine differences in cell wall polysaccharides associated with grafting and HH. Alcohol insoluble residues (AIR) were sequentially extracted from placental tissue to yield water soluble (WSF), carbonate soluble (CSF), alkali soluble (ASF), or unextractable (UNX) pectic fractions. The CSF was lower in fruit with HH (24.5%) compared to those without HH (27.1%). AIRs were also reduced, hydrolyzed, and acetylated for GC-MS analysis of monosaccharide composition, and a portion of each AIR was methylated prior to hydrolysis and acetylation to produce partially methylated alditol acetates for polysaccharide linkage assembly. No differences in degree of methylation or galacturonic and glucuronic acid concentrations were found. Glucose and galactose were in highest abundance at 75.9 and 82.4 μg⋅mg–1 AIR, respectively, followed by xylose and arabinose (29.3 and 22.0 μg⋅mg–1). Mannose was higher in fruit with HH (p < 0.05) and xylose was highest in fruit from grafted plants (p < 0.05). Mannose is primarily found in heteromannan and rhamnogalacturonan I side chains, while xylose is found in xylogalacturonan or heteroxylan. In watermelon, 34 carbohydrate linkages were identified with galactose, glucose, and arabinose linkages in highest abundance. This represents the most comprehensive polysaccharide linkage analysis to date for watermelon, including the identification of several new linkages. However, total pectin and cell wall composition data could not explain the increased tissue firmness observed in fruit from grafted plants. Nonetheless, grafting onto the interspecific hybrid rootstock decreased the incidence of HH and can be a useful method for growers using HH susceptible cultivars.
... The diverse colors of watermelon are due to the presence of carotenoids especially, lycopene and β-carotene [5]. In particular, watermelon can be considered as an excellent functional food due to its rich lycopene, vitamin A, vitamin C contents and antioxidant potentials [6,7].The therapeutic effect of watermelon has been reported and has been ascribed to antioxidant compounds [8,9]. ...
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Citrullus lanatus thumb (Cucurbitaceae) commonly called watermelon is widely consumed in this part of the world as food and medicine. This study was carried out to examine the effect of methanolic extract of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rind on prednisolone suppressed immunity in male wistar rats. A total of 20 male wistar rats weighing 150-294g were used in 4 groups with five rats each. Group 1, the control group was given distilled water and feed, Group 2 was given 200 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of watermelon rind, Group 3 rats were given 2.5 mg/kg body weight of prednisolone and Group 4 rats were given 2.5 mg/kg body weight of prednisolone and 200 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of watermelon rind. Prednisolone and the methanolic extract of watermelon rind were administered orally for a period of 30 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio puncture from the rats for white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte, and granulocyte and monocyte counts at the end of the experiment. The data were statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA (Analysis of variance). Data were considered significant at p<0.05. The results obtained showed that methanolic extract of watermelon rind caused a significant increasen in immune function of rats when compared with the control and immune suppressed rats.
... As a result of the high water content of the fruit, it aids digestion and rehydration. . Citrulline found in water melon seeds and rind is used in nitric oxide system in humans and has antioxidant and vasodilation roles ( Rimando et al., 2005).The black water melon seeds are quite healthy and edible. They are rich in iron, zinc, protein and fiber . ...
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The research was aimed at determining the nutritional value and accessing the nutraceutical potential of locally processed tropical seed of Citrillus lonatus.Proximate composition, macro-mineral concentrations and phytochemical screening of seeds of Citrullus lonatus were conducted on dry weight basis using standard methods. Phytochemical screening revealed that tannin had the highest value (6.45±0.006) followed by flavonoid (3.37±0.047). Alkaloid was appreciable in value (1.35±0.006) while HCN and phytate were low in value. Moisture content was 14.77±0.013% and dry matter was 85.21±0.01%. Crude fat presented the highest value, 28.48±0.013% followed by crude protein (24.78±0.006%), total carbohydrate (18.44±0.006%), crude fiber (11.27±0.01%) and ash had the lowest value of 2.24±0.021%. The calorific value was high at 429.47±0.295 Kcal/100g sample. The concentrations of the analytes from the highest value to the lowest value in the sample was in the order potassium (457.60±0.670mg/kg), Magnesium(89.45±0.006mg/kg), Calcium (42.87±0.125mg/kg) and Sodium (38.26±0.008mg/kg) respectively .The potassium to sodium ratio was 12 (> 1) while the sodium to potassium ratio was 0.08(< 1). The results in this study showed that Citrullus lonatus seeds are rich in crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, potassium, magnesium,calcium,sodium, tannin, alkaloid and flavonoid. They may therefore serve as good sources of food nutrients and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the production of food and feed supplements.
... Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid that has been reported to be an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger and a strong antioxidant [119,120]. Citrulline accumulation correlated with the tolerance to salt and drought stress [121,122]. Ornithine, the precursor of citrulline, was shown to increase transiently under oxidative stress [28]. ...
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Oxidative stress is an integral component of various stress conditions in plants, and this fact largely determines the substantial overlap in physiological and molecular responses to biotic and abiotic environmental challenges. In this review, we discuss the alterations in central metabolism occurring in plants experiencing oxidative stress. To focus on the changes in metabolite profile associated with oxidative stress per se, we primarily analyzed the information generated in the studies based on the exogenous application of agents, inducing oxidative stress, and the analysis of mutants displaying altered oxidative stress response. Despite of the significant variation in oxida-tive stress responses among different plant species and tissues, the dynamic and transient character of stress-induced changes in metabolites, and the strong dependence of metabolic responses on the intensity of stress, specific characteristic changes in sugars, sugar derivatives, tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites, and amino acids, associated with adaptation to oxidative stress have been detected. The presented analysis of the available data demonstrates the oxidative stress-induced redistribution of metabolic fluxes targeted at the enhancement of plant stress tolerance through the prevention of ROS accumulation, maintenance of the biosynthesis of indispensable metabolites, and production of protective compounds. This analysis provides a theoretical basis for the selection/generation of plants with improved tolerance to oxidative stress and the development of metabolic markers applicable in research and routine agricultural practice.
... Depending on the data obtained from the literature [39], compounds 28 and 29 were tentatively identified as O-feruloyl-pentosyl-deoxyhexose. Decaffeoyl acetoside or descaffeoyl verbascoside (30) [18] as being the major amino acids. Citrulline is reported to be an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger and to have a strong antioxidant capacity [42]. ...
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Reusing food waste is becoming popular in pharmaceutical industries. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rind is commonly discarded as a major solid waste. Here, the in vitro cytotoxic potential of watermelon rind extracts was screened against a panel of human cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis was used to determine the induction of cell death, whereas annexin V-FITC binding, caspase-3, BAX, and BCL-2 mRNA expression levels were used to determine the degree of apoptosis. VEGF-promoting angiogenesis and cell migration were also evaluated. Moreover, the identification of phytoconstituents in the rind extract was achieved using UPLC/T-TOF-MS/MS, and a total of 45 bioactive compounds were detected, including phenolic acids, flavonoids aglycones, and their glycoside derivatives. The tested watermelon rind extracts suppressed cell proliferation in seven cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of the rind aqueous extract (RAE) was higher compared with that of the other extracts. In addition to a substantial inhibitory effect on cell migration, the RAE triggered apoptosis in HCT116 and Hep2 cells by driving the accumulation of cells in the S phase and elevating the activity of caspase-3 and the BAX/BCL-2 ratio. Thus, a complete phytochemical and cytotoxic investigation of the Citrullus lanatus rind extract may identify its potential potency as an anticancer agent.
... Watermelon rind accounts for nearly 33% of the total fruit mass, which is not edible and hence generates tons of watermelon waste annually. This watermelon shell (rind) is composed of rich carbon content with 23% hemicelluloses, 10% lignin, 20% cellulose [96] and citrulline [97], which makes it a nitrogen rich precursor. Mo et al. reported 333.42 F/g specific capacitance at 1 A/g current density in 6M KOH electrolyte of nitrogen-rich watermelon rind activated carbon (WRAC) electrode with high rate performance and 96.82% retention after 10000 cycles [98]. ...
Article
The activated carbon based electrode materials are promising for applications in supercapacitors, fuel cells, and batteries due to their large surface area and porous structure. All the carbonaceous materials (CNTs, graphene, activated carbon) exhibit EDLCs type behavior based on the adsorption of ions at the electrode interface. On the other hand, the charge storage mechanism of pseudo-capacitive materials, including metal oxides and conducting polymers, is based on the rapid faradic reactions. Owing to this, the latter has a higher level of charge storage than the former, but at the same time, it suffers from a lack of conductivity and lowers cycle stability. To achieve a higher energy density for the supercapacitor without degrading its power density and cycle stability, one of the best solutions is to compound the carbon based materials with pseudocapacitive materials. This review briefly described the various carbon composites with metal oxides, but the main focus is on biomass-derived activated carbon for supercapacitor applications, as the green and sustainable source of energy is the demand of ever increasing global crisis. The ongoing challenges and future developments in this direction for building efficient energy storage systems are also addressed here.
... Its seeds, commonly known as Tukhm-e-Tarbooz, are used against urinary complaints, hepatic congestion, intestinal catarrh, and gastrointestinal disorders (Khare, 2007). The traditional herbal practitioners use seeds to cure gastrointestinal disorders, urinary disorders, aphrodisiac (Duke, 2008;Perkins-Veazie et al., 2007), cardiovascular disorders, hypotensive (Erhirhie and Ekene, 2014;Rimando and Perkins-Veazie, 2005), and reduce fever (Taiwo et al., 2009). The seeds and fruit have analgesic, anti-inflammatory (Iswariya and Uma, 2017), diuretic, anti-urolithiatic (Siddiqui et al., 2018), antioxidant (Gill et al., 2011), hypotensive, cardioprotective (Massa et al., 2016), and antiulcerative activities (Gill et al., 2011). ...
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Background : Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a significant cause of morbidity and death in the current world, posing a challenge to both developing and industrialized nation's health systems. Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai. seeds have long been utilized to supplement and enhance health and treat cardiovascular illnesses. However, its treatments for CVDs are still unknown. More research is required to fully comprehend the impact of C. lanatus seeds on vasorelaxation and myocardial infractions. Purpose : Therefore, an integrated metabolomics profiling technique was used to investigate possible pathways of C. lanatus in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI). Isoproterenol causes long-term cardiac hypertrophy by causing cardiomyocyte compensatory loss, eventually leading to heart failure. Methods : In vitro models of vasoconstriction, atrium, and in vivo models of invasive blood pressure measurement and isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats were used to understand underlying mechanistic by LC-MS/MS based dynamic metabolomics analysis of the serum and heart samples to be investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of C. lanatus (Cl.EtOH). Results : Cl.EtOH exhibited vasorelaxant, negative chronotropic, and inotropic effects in in-vitro models whereas, a potent hypotensive effect was observed in normotensive rats. The Cl.EtOH protected the animals from ISO-induced myocardial infarction (MI) with therapeutic interventions in left ventricular thickness, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, mRNA gene expression, biochemical assays, and metabolomic profiling of serum and heart tissues. Conclusions : For the first time, our study confirmed that C. lanatus seeds (Cl.EtOH) possess significant antihypertensive and prevent ISO-induced myocardial infarction. These findings comprehensively demonstrated mechanistic insights of Cl.EtOH in vasorelaxation and myocardial infarction. The current study provides evidence for further mechanistic studies and the development of C. lanatus seeds as a potential therapeutic intervention for patients with cardiovascular disorders.
... 8 Rind watermelon juice contains a higher L-citrulline content compared to flesh watermelon, and L-citrulline in yellow watermelons is higher than red watermelons. 9 Nevertheless, the findings may suggest that both flesh and rind watermelon juices potentially offer similar benefits to pure L-citrulline for improving exercise performance. 10 A study by Ridwan, et al., showed that supplementation with 100% flesh watermelon juice improves endurance in swimming performance in rats. ...
Article
Background: Yellow watermelon contains citrulline, which can suppress lactic acid production, while plantains contain potassium which is important for muscle performance. The yellow watermelon and plantain combination juice potential to be a natural sports drink that delays muscle fatigue by suppressing lactic acid production after exercise. Objectives: To determine the effect of yellow watermelon-plantain juice on lactic acid in rats after swimming test. Materials and Methods: This true experimental study used a post-test-only with controlled group design. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats, eight-week-old, male, were divided into five groups, namely positive control (C+), negative control (C-), dose 1 (P1), dose 2 (P2), and dose 3 (P3). The C (+) group received no juice and was not tested swimming, the C (-) group received no juice but was tested swimming, P1 received combined juice up to 1.8 g and tested swimming, P2 received combined juice up to 3, 6 g and tested swimming, P3 received combined juice up to 1.8 g with the addition of 0.27 g granulated sugar and tested swimming. The juice is given 30 minutes before the test. The swim test was performed for three minutes; after that, the blood was taken to test the lactic acid levels. The data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and the advanced post-hoc with the least significant difference test. Results: The lactic acid levels in C (+), in C (-), P1, P2, and P3 groups after swimming test were 1.38 mMol / L; 7.14 mMol / L; 3.74 mMol / L; 1.66 mMol; and 2.91 mMol/L. There were differences in levels of lactic acid (p
... Carotenoids and lycopene are also present in an appreciable amount (Perkins-Veazie et al., 2006). Watermelon rind produces a good amount of amino acid citrulline (Rimando and Perkins-Veazie, 2005). ...
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The present study was carried out to assess and compare the analgesic and antioxidant potential of Citrullus lanatus rind and flesh extract. The methanolic extract of the rind and ethyl acetate extract of the flesh were evaluated for their in vivo analgesic activity through the acetic acid-induced writhing method on Swiss Albino mice. The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was measured by total phenolic content measurement and the DPPH method. The flesh extract showed higher antioxidant activity than the rind extract in both methods. In case of the evaluation of analgesic activity, the results were obtained in a dose dependent manner. At 200 and 400 mg/kg doses, both extracts displayed moderate analgesic property in a statistically significant manner (p < 0.05) with respect to aceclofenac sodium. The flesh extract was found to provide a better effect than the rind extract in this case as well. It may be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of C. lanatus flesh and the methanolic extract of the rind possessed potential antioxidant and analgesic activities and might be used as sources of nutraceuticals or functional foods.
... L-Citrulline (L-Cit) is a free amino acid found in fruits such as cucumbers and watermelon (Rimando & Perkins-Veazie, 2005) and has been used as a healthy food material in the United States. We reported that L-Cit has an anti-obesity effect in the previous report (Kudo et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Background Body weight gain is a social issue all over the world. When body weight increased, hepatic fat accumulation also increased and it causes fatty liver disease. Therefore, developing a new treatment method and elucidating its mechanism is necessary. L-citrulline (L-Cit) is a free amino acid found mainly in watermelon. No reports regarding its effects on the improvement of hepatic steatosis and fibrogenesis are currently available. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect and the mechanism of L-Cit on inhibition of body weight gain and hepatic fat accumulation in high-fat and high-cholesterol fed SHRSP5/Dmcr rats. Methods L-Cit or water (controls) was administered to six-week-old male SHRSP5/Dmcr rats by gavage for nine weeks. We recorded the level of body weight and food intake while performing the administration and sacrificed rats. After that, the blood and lipid metabolism-related organs and tissues were collected and analyzed. Results L-Cit treatment reduced body weight gain and hepatic TC and TG levels, and serum levels of AST and ALT. L-Cit enhanced AMPK, LKB1, PKA, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein phosphorylation levels in the epididymal fat. L-Cit treatment improved steatosis as revealed by HE staining of liver tissues and enhanced AMPK and LKB1 phosphorylation levels. Moreover, activation of Sirt1 was higher, while the liver fatty acid synthase (FAS) level was lower. Azan staining of liver sections revealed a reduction in fibrogenesis following L-Cit treatment. Further, the liver levels of TGF-β, Smad2/3, and α-SMA, fibrogenesis-related proteins and genes, were lower in the L-Cit-treated group. Conclusions From the results of analysis of the epididymal fat and the liver, L-Cit inhibits body weight gain and hepatic fat accumulation by activating lipid metabolism and promoting fatty acid β-oxidation in SHRSP5/Dmcr rats.
... The citrulline in watermelon rinds gives it antioxidant effects. Citrulline is good for the heart, circulatory system, and immune system [5]. Watermelon biomass can be categorized into three main [15,16]. ...
Article
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Currently, pectins are widely used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries, mainly as texturizing, emulsifying, stabilizing, and gelling agents. Pectins are polysaccharides composed of a large linear segment of α-(1,4) linked d-galactopyranosyluronic acids interrupted by β-(1,2)-linked l-rhamnoses and ramified by short chains composed of neutral hexoses and pentoses. The characteristics and applications of pectins are strongly influenced by their structures depending on plant species and tissues but also extraction methods. The aim of this review is therefore to highlight the structures of pectins and the various methods used to extract them, including conventional ones but also microwave heating, ultrasonic treatment, and dielectric barrier discharge techniques, assessing physico-chemical parameters which have significant effects on pectin characteristics and applications as techno-functional and bioactive agents.
... CL rind (CLR) is mainly composed of a combination of celluloses, hemicelluloses, pectins, and lignins with entrapped sugars, lycopene, carotenoids, citrulline, and phenolics (Mushtaq et al., 2015;Rimando & Perkins-Veazie, 2005). The phenolic compounds in watermelon rind extract exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial effects (Mushtaq et al., 2015), including 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, and coumaric acid (Al-Sayed & Ahmed, 2013). ...
Chapter
Watermelon or Citrullus lanatus (CL) fruit is a member of the family Cucurbitaceae. It is used in folk medicine to treat some diseases owing to its availability and cheapness. The rind and the seeds are usually discarded as solid wastes. Many researchers studied the usefulness of CL wastes in medical applications as a naturalistic low-cost alternative. Studies have reported that the seed oil possesses anti-inflammatory, in vivo and in vitro. The seed extract exerts antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. There are efforts provided by the researchers to maximize the uses of CL wastes in the industry. Studies have documented that seed oil is comparable to the standard oils in being edible and stable. Nevertheless, the seeds oil showed high acid and free fatty acids content. The use of Citrullus lanatus rind (CLR) in the adsorption of the toxic heavy metal “chromium” ion from wastewater has been documented. The CLR can be used as a cheap, eco-friendly biosorbent for methylene blue, crystal violet, and rhodamine B from solutions. CLR can be used to produce activated carbon under the optimum condition of temperature and chemical treatments. One of the exciting applications of CLR in the industry lies in its usage as a functional food. The CL wastes are worthy and valuable resources that should be incorporated in many applications due to their industrial and medicinal applications.
... Kandungan sitrulin berkisar antara 3,9 hingga 28,5 mg/g berat kering dan serupa antara jenis berbiji dan tanpa biji (masing-masing 16,6 dan 20,3 mg/g berat kering). Semangka daging merah memiliki sitrulin sedikit lebih sedikit daripada semangka daging kuning atau oranye (masing-masing 7,4, 28,5 dan 14,2 mg/g berat kering) (Rimando & Perkins-Veazie, 2005). Hasil skrining fitokimia menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak pulpa daging putih buah semangka mengandung senyawa alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin dan polifenol (Djala et al., 2016). ...
Article
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White flesh watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is known to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and polyphenols. Research conducted by Rimando proves that watermelon rind contains the amino acid citrulline reaching 60% which is important in increasing levels of nitric oxide which is a regulator of blood flow, muscle energy metabolism, and mitochondrial respiration during exercise. This study aims to formulate bath soap from watermelon waste that meets the requirements with variations in the concentration of watermelon flesh extract (3%; 6%; 9%). Watermelon flesh extract was extracted by maceration process using 70% ethanol. Evaluations were carried out in the form of organoleptic, pH, free of alkali, high foam and density. The results showed that the three formulas were formulas that met the requirements according to SNI standards based on pH test, free alkali, foam height, and density.
... As a result of the high water content of the fruit, it aids digestion and rehydration. . Citrulline found in water melon seeds and rind is used in nitric oxide system in humans and has antioxidant and vasodilatation roles [11]. The black water melon seeds are quite healthy and edible. ...
Article
The trace mineral concentration, phytochemical composition and antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extract of C. lanatus seeds were carried out using standard methods. The preclinical experimental model was 120 mgkg-1 b.w. (via intraperitoneal) Alloxan induced diabetic rat model, with ethanol extract of C. lanatus seeds administered orally at 500mgkg-1 b.w. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids/triterpenoids, tannins, carbohydrates and oils. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that iron had the highest value (8.31mgkg-1), followed by zinc (5.78 mgkg-1), then manganese (4.28 mgkg-1). Selenium concentration was appreciable (0.85 mgkg-1). Ethanol extract of C. lanatus seeds significantly (p < 0.05), dose and time dependently reduced blood glucose level, increased body weights of rats and had positive effect on organ weights and organ volume. The results in this study showed that Citrullus lanatus seeds are rich in zinc, selenium, manganese, iron, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids/triterpenoids, and tannins. They may therefore serve as good sources of these trace mineral nutrients and bio actives for nutritional and medicinal purposes relating to diabetes management.
... Hence, it was clear that the rind as a whole (including skin and peel) should be taken for citrulline extraction in order to get maximum citrulline yield. Another report suggests that watermelon rind contains more citrulline than flesh on a dry weight basis (24.7 and 16.7 g/ kg respectively) [36]. Our results revealed that among different parts of watermelon, white skin portion has the maximum citrulline content. ...
Article
The investigation aimed to analyze the qualitative attributes of ‘Sugar Baby’ variety of watermelon. Ripe fruit consisted of 68.30% flesh, 31.07% rind, and 1.58% seeds. Freshly extracted juice had a pH, total soluble solids, lycopene, ascorbic acid, and total phenolic content of 5.64, 8.90°Bx, 5.23 mg/100 mL juice, 8.22 mg/100 mL juice, and 15.48 mg GAE/100 mL juice, respectively, with a color intensity value of 45.37. Juice had a total aerobic bacteria and yeast & mold counts of 5.69 and 5.68 log cfu/mL, respectively. The predominant sugar and organic acid were fructose (31.10 mg/mL juice) and malic acid (3.38 mg/mL juice). Six key flavor compounds were identified such as 1-Dodecyne; 6-Nonenal (Z); propanoic acid 2-oxo-methyl ester; 2-propanol, 1-methoxy; 5-heptene, 2-one, 6-methyl and hexanal. The rind contains pectin (20.08%) and citrulline (13.36 mg/g and 9.78 mg/g in the skin and peel, respectively). Solvent extraction from dried seeds resulted in 38.66% oil.
... CL rind (CLR) is mainly composed of a combination of celluloses, hemicelluloses, pectins, and lignins with entrapped sugars, lycopene, carotenoids, citrulline, and phenolics (Mushtaq et al., 2015;Rimando & Perkins-Veazie, 2005). The phenolic compounds in watermelon rind extract exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial effects (Mushtaq et al., 2015), including 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, and coumaric acid (Al-Sayed & Ahmed, 2013). ...
... Common stress responses have been observed in glutamate (derived from 2-oxoglutarate) and aspartate (derived from oxaloacetate), both of which are important substrates for other TCA-cycle-derived amino acids. In addition, the nonessential amino acid citrulline (derived from glutamate) also functions as an antioxidant and efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger [207,208]. ...
Article
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Abiotic stresses rewire plant central metabolism to maintain metabolic and energy homeostasis. Metabolites involved in the plant central metabolic network serve as a hub for regulating carbon and energy metabolism under various stress conditions. In this review, we introduce recent metabolomics techniques used to investigate the dynamics of metabolic responses to abiotic stresses and analyze the trend of publications in this field. We provide an updated overview of the changing patterns in central metabolic pathways related to the metabolic responses to common stresses, including flooding, drought, cold, heat, and salinity. We extensively review the common and unique metabolic changes in central metabolism in response to major abiotic stresses. Finally, we discuss the challenges and some emerging insights in the future application of metabolomics to study plant responses to abiotic stresses.
Chapter
L-citrulline and L-arginine are naturally occurring amino acids that are conditionally essential in periods of stress (sepsis, intestinal pathology). Previously considered to be only intermediates in the urea acid cycle, they are now found to be effective precursors of nitric oxide that are exploited in therapeutics. Its their supplementation is likely to be used in conditions like such as erectile dysfunction, male infertility, sickle cell anemia, short bowel syndrome (to restore nitrogen balance), hyperlipidemia, cancer chemotherapy, hyperoxic lung damage, uric acid cycle disorders, and intrauterine growth restriction. Other emerging uses are include immunonutrition, immunomodulation, cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer’s disease, multiinfarct dementia, T-cell dysfunction, as an antioxidant in conditions like sepsis, and for athletic training. Overall, citrulline (Cit) is a more effective precursor of arginine than arginine itself. Its role as a biomarker in intestinal pathology and diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis is of considerable interest. These nutraceuticals should be further explored in large-scale clinical trials in these areas. Another area of interest regarding Cit is the detection of an antibody to citrullinated peptides that serve as predictors for diseases, thus serving as biomarkers in various diseases. Cit has been used as a biomarker for diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, intestinal pathology, and short bowel syndrome short bowel syndrome as biomarkers. It will either be proved or disproved as a biomarker in the future for other conditions such as parenteral nutrition in HIV patients, congenital anomalies, acute rejections in transplantations, intrauterine growth restriction, critically ill patients, acute kidney failure, and nitrosative stress (NO/NOS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in conditions such as anticholinesterase poisoning and, kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity because oxidative stress increases RNS and reactive oxygen species reactive oxygen species (when the rate of adenosine triphosphate demand exceeds production), causing lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Further studies are required in this regards.
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Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisa efek akut asam amino sitrulin alami terhadap kekuatan otot. Metode penelitian dengan desain -post test controlled group design. Sampel penelitian adalah mahasiwa IKOR FIK dibagi secara acak menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol dan kelompok sitrulin. Perlakuan pada kelompok sitrulin berupa pemberian jus semangka 428 ml (600-700 g daging buah semangka) kandungan sitrulin sebesar 1 mg. sedang pada kelompok control diberikan placebo yaitu air sirup. Jus semangka ataupun air sirup diberikan 60 menit sebelum dilakukan tes kekuatan otot yaitu kekuatan otot tungkai, punggung, bahu dan genggam tangan dengan menggunakan Dynamometer. Data dianalisis diuji T-test dengan SPSS. Hasil penelitian: rerata kekuatan otot total diperoleh dari hasil penjumalahan kekuatan otot punggung, tungkai, bahu, genggam tangan. Retata kekuatan otot total kelompok kontrol 362,98±87,26 kg, kelompok perlakuan critrulline alami (semangka) 378,46±128,23, p=0,782. Tidak terdapat perbedaan efek akut asam amino sitrulin alami terhadap kekuatan otot
Article
Watermelon flesh is widely consumed for its appealing flavor and refreshing properties, though the rind of the fruit also has traits of interest, especially its nutritional benefits. This study aimed to determine if watermelon flesh blended with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% w/w rind could appeal to consumers, and the effect of rind on the refreshing perception was investigated. Consumers (n = 102) evaluated the liking and intensity levels of overall flavor, sweet, sour, green, watermelon flavor, and refreshing quality along with questions regarding the texture, off flavors, and aftertaste of the samples. The addition of rind was acceptable up to the 20% rind level, which was given an overall rating above the midpoint of the scale, while the 10% and 0% rind samples did not differ significantly (P < 0.001). Overall liking most strongly correlated with sweet liking (r = 0.78, P < 0.001) and watermelon flavor liking (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Refreshing liking most strongly correlated with watermelon flavor liking (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) and decreased with addition of rind in the samples (P < 0.001). The excessive green notes, off flavors, and undesirable texture of rind decreased the hedonic and refreshing ratings of samples with 20% and 30% rind, respectively. This research demonstrated the acceptability of using up to 20% rind to supplement watermelon juice blends and results suggested that watermelon flavor drives the refreshing perception. Practical Application These findings exhibit the diversity in consumer preferences for watermelon flesh blended with rind using a consumer test. The refreshing properties of watermelon flesh as related to sweetness and watermelon flavor, along with the flavor and mouthfeel attributes contributed by watermelon rind, are highlighted. Manufacturers of fruit‐based beverages can apply this research to inform development of refreshing products, watermelon flavored products, or products that utilize rind waste.
Article
Background Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) represents the largest cultivated member of the Cucurbitaceae family, showing great relevance from the economic point of view and largely consumed throughout the Mediterranean basin. It is characterized by several bioactive compounds, showing different chemical structures, such as carotenoids, xanthophylls, phenolic compounds, citrulline, and unsaturated fatty acids. These compounds have been widely studied in the last years as capable to modulate several metabolic processes, thus providing beneficial effects as related to human health. Scope and approach In the last decades, this great interest towards natural bioactive compounds led many researchers to study watermelon as natural source of bioactive compounds, mainly when considering some biological properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, inhibition or induction of enzymes, inhibition of receptor activities, together with induction/inhibition of gene expression. However, the most of scientific literature on this topic was based on in vitro assays, thus limiting the comprehensive understanding of the real health-promoting outcomes. Key findings and conclusions Therefore, the aim of this review was to present the up-to-date research carried out on watermelon phytochemicals, showing the most important biological activities reported from both in vitro and in vivo trials. Besides, the potential exploitation of watermelon by-products in the green circular economy and food-waste valorization has been discussed
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This research was conducted to determine the effect of kweni mango juice addition and percentage of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) on the physicochemical characteristics of watermelon albedo fruitghurt. The research used completely randomized design with two factors, i.e the addition of kweni mango juice (12.5%, 15.0%, 17.5%) and percentage of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) (0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%). The results showed that kweni mango juice addition and percentage of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) had highly significant effect on ash content, vitamin C content, total lactic acid bacteria, and viscosity. The addition of kweni mango of 17.5% and 0.7% of Carboxymethyl Cellulose was the best treatment, based on the parameters of ash content, vitamin C content, total lactic acid bacteria, and viscosity. The antioxidant activity of fruitghurt with the best physicochemical characteristics was analyzed. The results showed that it was 75.15 µg/mL.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) belongs to the ground family, Cucurbitaceae, known for edible fruit. Besides nutritional benefits, the traditional herbal practitioners in Pakistan and India used their seeds to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urinary disorders. In Northern Sudan, its seeds are often used as a laxative. Its root is laxative and emetic at a high dose. Its seeds are also used to treat bedwetting and urinary tract obstruction. Aim of the study This study aimed to elucidate the multi-target mechanisms of Citrullus lanatus seeds to treat asthma and diarrhea. The pharmacological experiments were designed and conducted, along with the pharmacology network and molecular docking predictions, to verify the seeds biopotency for antispasmodic and bronchodilator properties. Methods LC ESI-MS/MS were performed to identify the potentially active compounds in hydroethanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds, then to quantify them by HPLC. The quantified bioactive compounds of Citrullus lanatus, i.e., stigmasterol, quinic acid, malic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, ferulic acid, scopoletin, apigenin, and kaempferol were subjected to in silico studies for molecular docking. The hydroethanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds was examined on isolated rabbit tissue, i.e., jejunum, trachea, and urinary bladder. The antiperistalsis, antidiarrheal and antisecretory studies were also performed in animal models. Results In silico studies revealed that bioactive compounds of C. lanatus seeds interfere with asthma and diarrhea-associated target genes, which are a member of calcium mediate signaling, regulation of cytosolic calcium concentration, smooth muscle contraction, and inflammatory responses. It was also found that rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and scopoletin were stronger binding to voltage-gated calcium channels, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, myosin light chain kinase, and phosphoinositide phospholipase C, thus, exerting calcium channel blocker activity. The hydroethanolic extract of C. lanatus seeds exerted a concentration-dependent relaxant response for the spasmolytic response on isolated jejunum and trachea preparations and caused relaxation of spastic contraction of K⁺ (80 mM). Furthermore, it caused a non-parallel rightward shift with suppression of calcium concentration-response curves. In animal models, the Cl.EtOH showed antiperistalsis, antidiarrheal and antisecretory response. Conclusion Thus, we confirm Citrullus lanatus seeds have some medicinal effects by regulating the contractile response through target proteins of calcium mediates signaling and can be a promising component in the medical treatment for asthma and diarrhea.
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Purpose of Review Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) distinctively contains l-citrulline and l-arginine, precursors of nitric oxide (NO), along with polyphenols and carotenoids suggesting a role in cardio-metabolic health. The goal of this paper is to review the preclinical and clinical trial evidence published from 2000 to 2020 to assess watermelon intake and l-citrulline, as a signature compound of watermelon, on cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes, and to identify future directions important for establishing dietary guidance and therapeutic recommendations actionable by health care professionals, patients, and the general public. Recent Findings Watermelon and l-citrulline supplementation reduced blood pressure in human trials. Evidence for benefits in lipids/lipoprotein metabolism is emerging based on human literature and consistently reported in animal models. A role for watermelon intake in body weight control, possibly through satiety mechanisms, warrants further research. Likewise, improved glucose homeostasis in chemically and diet-induced animal models of diabetes is apparent, though limited data are available in humans. Emerging areas include brain and gut health indicated by NO bioavailability in all tissues, and evidence suggesting improvements in gut barrier function and altered microbial composition after watermelon intake that may influence metabolite pools and physiological function. Summary Watermelon fruit contains unique vaso- and metabolically-active compounds. Accumulating evidence supports regular intake for cardio-metabolic health. Future research to determine the amount and frequency of watermelon/citrulline intake for desired outcomes in different populations requires attention to advance preventative and therapeutic strategies for optimal health and disease risk reduction.
Article
Hypothermia is directly linked to metabolism; however, it is still unknown how the overall metabolism is altered by oral administration of hypothermic agent, l-citrulline (l-Cit). The present study aimed to determine the characteristics of liver metabolites of chicks orally administered l-Cit to provide a greater understanding of its metabolism. Capillary electrophoresis–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) and liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) were conducted on liver samples after oral administration of l-Cit. A total of 361 liver metabolites were identified. Although a small number of samples were used for each group, a principal component analysis and heatmap patterns confirmed that the composition of metabolites could be segregated from each other. Of the 361 compounds detected in the liver, 41 compounds, including amino acids related to the Cit-arginine (Arg) cycle, argininosuccinic acid, Arg, ornithine, and Cit, as well as gamma aminobutyric acid, glycine, histidine, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were abundant in l-Cit-treated livers. In contrast, 24 compounds containing fatty acids, amino acids, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate were lower in the l-Cit group. These data imply that the active Cit-Arg cycle, TCA cycle metabolism, and a low activity in fatty acid metabolism occur in l-Cit-treated broiler chicks.
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The effects of adsorbent dosage, reaction time, temperature and pH on the adsorption of Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺, Fe²⁺ and Cu²⁺ from produced water using activated carbon prepared from Citrullus lanatus peel via calcination at 681.10 °C for 2.61 hours were studied. L9 orthogonal Taguchi approach was used for the parametric optimization. Activated carbon was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and; exhibited a porous-graphite-crystalline structure, presence of different metal oxides and active functional groups with large surface area of 1249.7 m²/g. Batch adsorption experiments revealed the efficacy of prepared activated carbon to remove heavy metals from produced water. At optimum points, predicted values were 76.31, 59.3, 69.91 and 84.08 % for Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺, Fe²⁺ and Cu²⁺ removed respectively. The values of R², Adj-R² and pred-R² revealed reasonable agreements between experimental and predicted data which proved developed models to be effective.
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Sustainable wastewater treatment is one of the biggest issues of the 21st century. Metals such as Zn2+ have been released into the environment due to rapid industrial development. In this study, dried watermelon rind (D-WMR) is used as a low-cost adsorption material to assess natural adsorbents’ ability to remove Zn2+ from synthetic wastewater. D-WMR was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). According to the results of the analysis, the D-WMR has two colours, white and black, and a significant concentration of mesoporous silica (83.70%). Moreover, after three hours of contact time in a synthetic solution with 400 mg/L Zn2+ concentration at pH 8 and 30 to 40 °C, the highest adsorption capacity of Zn2+ onto 1.5 g D-WMR adsorbent dose with 150 μm particle size was 25 mg/g. The experimental equilibrium data of Zn2+ onto D-WMR was utilized to compare nonlinear and linear isotherm and kinetics models for parameter determination. The best models for fitting equilibrium data were nonlinear Langmuir and pseudo-second models with lower error functions. Consequently, the potential use of D-WMR as a natural adsorbent for Zn2+ removal was highlighted, and error analysis indicated that nonlinear models best explain the adsorption data.
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Aims/Introduction The authors evaluated the impact of different dose of metformin on NO (nitric oxide) production in subjects with pre-diabetes. Materials and Methods The metformin-naïve patients from one Diabetic Center with newly diagnosed pre-diabetes, without cardio-vascular diseases, were randomized (based on the identification number, individual for each inhabitant in the country) for treatment with different doses of metformin (group A 3 × 500 mg, group B 3 × 1000 mg) for 12 weeks. Then, the subjects from group B were switched to dose 3 × 500 for the last 3 weeks. The wide panel of L-arginine/NO pathway metabolites concentrations was assessed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Results Between October 2017 and December 2018, 36 individuals were initially randomized to intervention groups. The study was completed with 25 subjects: 14 patients in group A, 11 in group B; also 11 healthy volunteers were recruited. There was no difference between participants with pre-diabetes and healthy volunteers as regards the baseline characteristics except for fasting glucose and fatty liver. The decrease of L-citrulline concentration only was reported for treatment groups during the intervention period, with no change for the other NO-production related substances. Conclusion It was the first study on the in vivo release of NO in humans with different metformin doses in patients with pre-diabetes. Metformin did not seem to increase NO production measured by the citrulline plasma levels, irrespective of the dose. The citrulline concentration change might indicate the drug impact on the condition of the enterocytes.
Research
Watermelon (Citrullus lantanas) is a nourishing and popular fruit in the world. Watermelon is grown in favourable climates from tropical to temperate regions worldwide belong to the family Cucurbitaceae. Watermelon contains phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavonoids, stilbenes/ lignans, and is rich source of carotenoids, lycopene. Watermelon contains cucurbitacin E which is anti-inflammatory phytonutrient and amino acids such as L-arginine and citrulline. It is the major source of vitamin C and vitamin A. In the nutritional composition of watermelon includes carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fibres. Moreover, is contains good amount of potassium and magnesium. Watermelon by-products which can be produced such as juice, smoothies, dips, seed oils, medicines, ethanol etc., consumption of watermelons imparts various health benefits such as chemical components of watermelon enhance its capacity to scavenge the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in a cell membrane. A plethora of evidence shows that it can be effective for weight loss. Several epidemiological studies showed it has phytochemicals that can reduce risk of Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD) aging related ailments, obesity, diabetes, ulcers, and various types of cancers. Watermelon pomace is reported to be a concentrated source of lycopene as compared to the juice. This review shows up to date information on nutritional and Phytochemical constituents of watermelon, its wastage and by products and different methods used for dehydration, extraction and analysis of its chemical constituents.
Poster
This study is an attempt to investigate the diversity of edible Termitomyses species from Kottayam district. Termitomyses are Termitophilic fungi; monophyletic group of gilled mushrooms belonging to the genus Termitomyces. Termitomyces are cultivated through transport of spores by eusocial insects (termites) belonging to the subfamily Macrotermitinae (Isoptera) using plant material passing through their guts. An extensive exploration carried out during May 2012 to October 2015 at a different geographical location of Kottayam District, Kerala. Traditional knowledge of Termitomyces has been documented based on the experience of local population. Fruiting bodies were sampled and photographed at different stages of their development in the field and samples were examined for macro and microscopic characteristics. Termitomyses were identified based on keys and description of Pegler (1994). Five different species of Termitomyces namely T. microcarpus (large and small form) T. clypatus, T. globulus, T. eurhizus, and T. heimii were identified. The ecological significance of Termites and Termitomyces in Kottayam district of Kerala and its role as a food for local communities have been discussed. Though termitomycetes are largely uncultivable, strategies were recommended for conservation of their habitat and sustainable harvesting of this human nutritional source as an alternative to plant and animal derived food.
Article
The nutritional quality of many fruits and vegetables is regulated by pre-harvest management factors that can be manipulated to attain desired quality standards. In this study, the impact of seed nanopriming on the phytochemical composition of watermelon was studied. Seeds of two watermelon varieties namely: River Side (diploid) and Maxima (triploid) treated with two nanomaterials (silver nanoparticle and turmeric nanoemulsion) along with untreated seeds were grown in five locations over two seasons. Physico-chemical properties and phytochemical profiles were assessed after mature fruits were harvested and stored at 23 °C for 0, 10, and 20 d. Key physico-chemical characteristics that were impacted by storage included fruit weight, rind thickness, pH, and soluble solid content. Similarly, levels of health-promoting compounds such as carotenoids, l-citrulline, and total ascorbic acid were maintained and/or enhanced in watermelons after 10 d of storage compared to untreated fruits at harvest. However, l-citrulline (10.40 g/kg) and total ascorbic acid (57.52 g/kg) was significantly reduced in watermelons after 20 d of storage (8.6 and 19.09 g/kg, respectively) regardless of treatment and location (p < 0.05) in River Side and the trend is similar in Maxima. Combined analysis across all locations demonstrated non-significant treatment effect on the levels of health-promoting compounds among the control and the nano-treated watermelons. These observations suggest that seed priming with nanomaterials does not have any detrimental effect on the fruit's functional quality and the consumer’s health.
Article
In the present study, shape controlled flat square shaped silver nanoplates (SNP’s) were synthesized using aqueous extract of watermelon rind which was regenerated after biosorption of heavy metal ions. The formation of silver nanoparticles was visually confirmed by change in color from yellow to brown and was further confirmed by absorption peak at 465 nm in UV–Visible spectrophotometer. Synthesized SNP’s were characterized using FTIR, XRPD and TEM analysis. TEM analysis revealed the formation of flat and square shaped SNP’s with size less than 50 nm. FTIR analysis further supported the reduction and binding of phytochemicals chemicals present in watermelon rind extract. These SNP’s were tested for the antimicrobial activity against both gram positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 10240) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) , gram negative bacteria Salmonella typhi (ATCC 6539) and Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 13883). SNP’s showed good antimicrobial activity against these microbial cultures. The results suggest that regenerated watermelon rind has the capability to synthesize SNP’s with antimicrobial properties.
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Wild watermelon from the Botswana desert had an ability to survive under severe drought conditions by maintaining its water status (water content and water potential). In the analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis of leaf proteins, seven spots were newly induced after watering stopped. One with the molecular mass of 40 kilodaltons of the spots was accumulated abundantly. The cDNA encoding for the protein was cloned based on its amino-terminal sequence and the amino acid sequence deduced from the determined nucleotide sequences of the cDNA exhibited homology to the enzymes belong to the ArgE/DapE/Acy1/Cpg2/YscS protein family (including acetylornithine deacetylase, carboxypeptidase and aminoacylase-1). This suggests that the protein is involved in the release of free amino acid by hydrolyzing a peptidic bond. As the drought stress progressed, citrulline became one of the major components in the total free amino acids. Eight days after withholding watering, although the lower leaves wilted significantly, the upper leaves still maintained their water status and the content of citrulline reached about 50% in the total free amino acids. The accumulation of citrulline during the drought stress in wild watermelon is an unique phenomenon in C3-plants. These results suggest that the drought tolerance of wild watermelon is related to (1) the maintenance of the water status and (2) a metabolic change to accumulate citrulline.
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L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated.
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We investigated the composition of free amino acids in walnut (Juglans regia L.) seeds (embryo and cotyledons). We also examined xylem transport of free amino acids in young seedlings grown in the absence of external nutrients. A relatively high concentration of free alanine was found in seed tissue, whereas a relatively high concentration of citrulline was detected in young seedlings. Citrulline was the main free amino acid transported in the xylem to stem and leaves. The negligible presence of citrulline, a non-protein amino acid, in the kernel and its presence in high concentrations in all of the tissues of young seedlings, including cotyledons, embryonic axis, taproot and stem, suggest that citrulline is synthesized during walnut germination. We conclude that citrulline plays an important role in nitrogen translocation during walnut germination.
Article
Drought‐affected plants experience more than just desiccation of their organs due to water deficit. Plants transpire 1000 times more molecules of water than of CO2 fixed by photosynthesis in full sunlight. One effect of transpiration is to cool the leaves. Accordingly, drought brings about such multi‐stresses as high temperatures, excess photoradiation and other factors that affect plant viability. Wild watermelon serves as a suitable model system to study drought responses of C3 plants, since this plant survives drought by maintaining its water content without any wilting of leaves or desiccation even under severe drought conditions. Under drought conditions in the presence of strong light, wild watermelon accumulates high concentrations of citrulline, glutamate and arginine in its leaves. The accumulation of citrulline and arginine may be related to the induction of DRIP‐1, a homologue of ArgE in Escherichia coli, where it functions to incorporate the carbon skeleton of glutamate into the urea cycle. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals the enzyme to be confined exclusively to the cytosol. DRIP‐1 is also induced by treating wild watermelon with 150 mm NaCl, but is not induced following treatment with 100 µm abscisic acid. The salt treatment causes the accumulation of γ‐aminobutyrate, glutamine and alanine, in addition to a smaller amount of citrulline. Citrulline may function as a potent hydroxyl radical scavenger.
Article
Amino acids and the amino acid amides glutamine and asparagine can be simultaneously derivatized to the corresponding N,O(S)-tert.-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives in a one-step reaction with N-methyl-N-(tert.-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide in acetonitrile. The solution is used directly for gas chromatography (GC). Losses due to evaporation steps are avoided. Except for the more basic amino acids, derivatization occurs at room temperature. Lysine, arginine and histidine require additional heating at 150 degrees C for 2.5 h in order to complete derivatization. The derivatization has high reproducibility. The response factors relative to norvaline or cycloleucine lie between 0.40 and 1.30. Arginine is the most difficult amino acid to derivatize. The size of the tert.-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) group prevents multiple silylation of the nitrogen atoms. Only a single peak is observed for each compound. Twenty-seven amino acid (and glutamine and asparagine) derivatives were simultaneously chromatographed and well separated in a single run on a 25 m X 0.20 mm I.D. glass capillary column coated with OV-1. The TBDMS derivatives possess very characteristic EI mass spectra at 70 eV, with intense diagnostic ions. This makes them very appropriate for GC-mass spectrometric (MS) work and selected ion monitoring GC-MS at the picomole level. The detection limit for arginine as the TBDMS derivative is less than 0.3 ng. The usefulness of the method is illustrated by the detection of amino acids in a peptide hydrolysate obtained from 1 microgram of bovin insulin B-chain.
Article
Forty-seven biological amino acids containing all 22 protein amino acids were derivatized to N(O)-tert.-butyldimethylsilyl (tBDMSi) derivatives by a single-step reaction with N-methyl-N-(tert.-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and successfully separated on an HP-1 capillary column. The relative standard deviations of the relative molar responses of most amino acids were < 5%. Cystine seems to be partially converted into cysteine during derivatization. An increase in carrier gas flow-rate towards the end of the analysis by inlet pressure programming with electron pressure control avoided the peak broadening and adsorption of the derivatives with high boiling points on the column and especially increased sensitivity of cystine to 5 pmol. Glutamine was converted almost completely into pyroglutamic acid during prolonged storage of a standard solution prepared in 0.01 M HCl but not during derivatization. These results compared with those for the phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives analysed by HPLC and the analytical results reported in the literature on soybean hydrolysate showed good agreement except for cysteine. The results for the amino acid composition of bovine serum albumin also showed good agreement with results in the literature except for cysteine. In human urine, seventeen free amino acids were detected as tBDMSi derivatives.
Article
Citrulline malate is known to improve performance in weakened muscles. The present experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that citrulline malate can limit the effect of endotoxins on muscle fatigability. Endotoxemia was induced in rats by injection of lipopolysaccharides from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Resistance to fatigue was quantified by measuring tension production during repetitive electrical stimulation of the isolated epitrochlearis muscle. Oral treatment by citrulline malate was found to increase resistance to fatigue in infected rats, whereas twitch tension was not modified. This demonstrates the efficacy of citrulline malate for limiting an increase in muscle fatigue elicited with bacterial endotoxins.
Article
The effects of L-citrulline, the byproduct of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and its stereoisomer D-citrulline were studied in a polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-dependent isolated perfused rat heart model consisting of 20 min of global ischemia and 45 min of reperfusion. Ischemic hearts reperfused with either D- or L-citrulline (20 nM) exhibited a marked preservation of left ventricular developed pressure and of maximal rate of development of left ventricular developed pressure, compared to hearts perfused without either D- or L-citrulline (both p < 0.001). In addition, both D- and L-citrulline significantly attenuated PMN accumulation in the post-reperfused myocardium from 288 +/- 33 PMNs/mm2 in untreated hearts to 89 +/- 10 and 76 +/- 6 PMNs/mm2, respectively (both p < 0.001). In isolated rat aortic rings, neither D- or L-citrulline induced any vasodilation or release of nitric oxide from the vascular endothelium. However, expression of P-selectin on the coronary vascular endothelium was markedly attenuated in hearts perfused with either D- or L-citrulline compared to ischemic-reperfused hearts without citrulline (both p < 0.001). These results provide evidence that D- or L-citrulline significantly attenuates PMN-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction in the isolated perfused rat heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion via a non-NO-mediated mechanism.
Article
To study possibilities of a therapeutic correction of asthenic syndrome in individuals with chronic arterial hypotension with malate citrulline, the study was made of 12 women and 3 men with psychoautonomic syndrome (autonomic dystonia), combined with chronic constitutional arterial hypotension. Their age was from 27 to 45 years (mean age--37.6). A control group comprised 14 healthy individuals. Both a state of autonomic nervous system and manifestations of arterial hyportension were analyzed by means of complex scored questionnaires. Mental condition was assessed by the tests of Spilberger (evaluation of reactive and personal anxiety) and of Beck (estimation of depressive manifestations). In all the examined individuals with chronic arterial hypotension, there was psychoautonomic syndrome combined with complaints to asthenic manifestations, namely, to low performance and fatigue. Stimol was prescribed in the form of 50% solution in daily dose of 6 g (3 administrations). The therapy resulted in regression of clinical manifestations of both psychoautonomic syndrome and asthenic symptoms. A mechanism of the drug's action works through favourable changes in cerebral and muscular cells, that, in turn, had an influence on other manifestations of psychoautonomic syndrome.
Article
Drought-tolerant wild watermelon accumulates high levels of citrulline in the leaves in response to drought conditions. In this work, the hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity of citrulline was investigated in vitro. The second-order rate constant for the reaction between citrulline and hydroxyl radicals was found to be 3.9x10(9) M(-1) s(-1), demonstrating that citrulline is one of the most efficient scavengers among compatible solutes examined so far. Moreover, citrulline effectively protected DNA and an enzyme from oxidative injuries. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that at least four major products were formed by the reaction between citrulline and hydroxyl radicals. Activities of metabolic enzymes were not inhibited by up to 600 mM citrulline, indicating that citrulline does not interfere with cellular metabolism. We reasoned, from these results, that citrulline contributes to oxidative stress tolerance under drought conditions as a novel hydroxyl radical scavenger.
Article
Drought-affected plants experience more than just desiccation of their organs due to water deficit. Plants transpire 1000 times more molecules of water than of CO2 fixed by photosynthesis in full sunlight. One effect of transpiration is to cool the leaves. Accordingly, drought brings about such multi-stresses as high temperatures, excess photoradiation and other factors that affect plant viability. Wild watermelon serves as a suitable model system to study drought responses of C3 plants, since this plant survives drought by maintaining its water content without any wilting of leaves or desiccation even under severe drought conditions. Under drought conditions in the presence of strong light, wild watermelon accumulates high concentrations of citrulline, glutamate and arginine in its leaves. The accumulation of citrulline and arginine may be related to the induction of DRIP-1, a homologue of ArgE in Escherichia coli, where it functions to incorporate the carbon skeleton of glutamate into the urea cycle. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals the enzyme to be confined exclusively to the cytosol. DRIP-1 is also induced by treating wild watermelon with 150 mM NaCl, but is not induced following treatment with 100 microM abscisic acid. The salt treatment causes the accumulation of gamma-aminobutyrate, glutamine and alanine, in addition to a smaller amount of citrulline. Citrulline may function as a potent hydroxyl radical scavenger.
Article
Radiation hazards in outer space present an enormous challenge for the biological safety of astronauts. A deleterious effect of radiation is the production of reactive oxygen species, which result in damage to biomolecules (e.g., lipid, protein, amino acids, and DNA). Understanding free radical biology is necessary for designing an optimal nutritional countermeasure against space radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Free radicals (e.g., superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals) and other reactive species (e.g., hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, and hypochlorous acid) are produced in the body, primarily as a result of aerobic metabolism. Antioxidants (e.g., glutathione, arginine, citrulline, taurine, creatine, selenium, zinc, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin A, and tea polyphenols) and antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidases) exert synergistic actions in scavenging free radicals. There has been growing evidence over the past three decades showing that malnutrition (e.g., dietary deficiencies of protein, selenium, and zinc) or excess of certain nutrients (e.g., iron and vitamin C) gives rise to the oxidation of biomolecules and cell injury. A large body of the literature supports the notion that dietary antioxidants are useful radioprotectors and play an important role in preventing many human diseases (e.g., cancer, atherosclerosis, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, neurodegeneration, and diabetes). The knowledge of enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative defense mechanisms will serve as a guiding principle for establishing the most effective nutrition support to ensure the biological safety of manned space missions.
Article
Viagra has had a profound influence on the search for natural products with erectile-dysfunction activity. To date the "natural" equivalent is not in existence but several pure compounds from nature, e.g., Yohimbine, Citrulline, two pyrano-isoflavones, berberine, forskolin and others, have either been re-examined or are new potential candidates. Intense activity exists in the area of testing semi-purified plant extracts for erectile dysfunction activity.
  • M Anetai
  • H Kojima
  • Y Katoh
  • E Uchino
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