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Lester, S. E., and B. I. Ruttenberg. The relationship between pelagic larval duration and range size in tropical reef fishes: a synthetic analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara 93106, USA.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (Impact Factor: 5.05). 04/2005; 272(1563):585-91. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2004.2985
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We address the conflict in earlier results regarding the relationship between dispersal potential and range size. We examine all published pelagic larval duration data for tropical reef fishes. Larval duration is a convenient surrogate for dispersal potential in marine species that are sedentary as adults and that therefore only experience significant dispersal during their larval phase. Such extensive quantitative dispersal data are only available for fishes and thus we use a unique dataset to examine the relationship between dispersal potential and range size. We find that dispersal potential and range size are positively correlated only in the largest ocean basin, the Indo-Pacific, and that this pattern is driven primarily by the spatial distribution of habitat and dispersal barriers. Furthermore, the relationship strengthens at higher taxonomic levels, suggesting an evolutionary mechanism. We document a negative correlation between species richness and larval duration at the family level in the Indo-Pacific, implying that speciation rate may be negatively related to dispersal potential. If increased speciation rate within a taxonomic group results in smaller range sizes within that group, speciation rate could regulate the association between range size and dispersal potential.

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Available from: Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, May 22, 2014
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    • "As such, understanding the drivers of species' geographic distributions is crucial for the development of strategic conservation plans. Up to now, it was generally believed that the main determinant of geographic range size of marine organisms was larval dispersion and a few studies have indeed reported a positive relationship between range size and planktonic larval duration [54]–[56]. However, many other studies found no relationship [57], [58]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · PLoS ONE
    • "If species age were driving variation in range size among Mimulus species, then the positive relationship we detected between niche breadth and range size could be a result of younger species having narrower niches and thus smaller ranges than older species. Furthermore, the speciation rate within a particular clade could influence the range sizes of species in that clade, such that clades with higher speciation rates may tend to have more species with smaller ranges than clades with low speciation rates (Lester & Ruttenberg, 2005). However, if variation in speciation rates among clades within Mimulus were driving the variation in range size, then we should have detected a phylogenetic signal in range size as a result of certain clades with high speciation rates having species with small geographical ranges. "
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    ABSTRACT: AimClosely related species can vary tremendously in size of geographical range, yet the causes of such variation are poorly understood. Prominent hypotheses about range size emphasize effects of niche properties and habitat connectivity via the amount and occupancy of suitable habitat, respectively. Previous studies have examined single hypotheses in isolation; however, we assessed the relative importance of these effects along with their potential interactions, using monkeyflower species (genus Mimulus) as a study system.LocationWestern North America.Methods We used primary occurrence data and climatic layers to estimate climatic niche breadth and position (relative to average regional climate), connectivity of climatically suitable habitat, and geographical range size of 72 monkeyflower species. Using path analysis, we then assessed the relative importance of climatic niche properties and connectivity of climatically suitable habitat in explaining variation in the amount and occupancy of climatically suitable habitat, respectively, and in turn, variation in geographical range size.ResultsWe documented strong support for the hypothesized effects of climatic niche breadth, but not niche position and connectivity of climatically suitable habitat. Amount of climatically suitable habitat explained more variation in range size than occupancy of climatically suitable habitat, with amount and occupancy of suitable habitat together explaining c. 83% of the variation in range size.Main conclusionsTo our knowledge, this is the first study to show that climatic niche breadth, via its effects on the amount of climatically suitable habitat, is a strong predictor of geographical range size, thereby improving our understanding of the mechanisms driving species rarity.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Biogeography
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    • "In many cases, single aspects of the life history such as reproductive mode and larval longevity have been successfully used as a surrogate for estimating dispersal ability and population connectivity (e.g. Lester and Ruttenberg 2005; Sherman et al. 2008). However, patterns in connectivity are difficult to predict based on reproductive traits alone and are likely strongly influenced by multiple biotic and abiotic environmental factors, especially oceanographic processes such as local water circulation patterns (Bowen et al. 2006; Nunes et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The amphipod Caprella andreae Mayer, 1890 was recorded for the first time in Southern Iberian Peninsula (36°44'15″N, 3°59'38″W). This species is the only obligate rafter of the suborder Caprellidea and has been reported to attach not only to floating objects such as ropes or driftwoods but also to turtle carapaces. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were used to examine dispersal capabilities and population genetic structure of C. andreae across seven localities in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean collected from floating substrata with different dispersal patterns. The strong population differentiation with no haplotypes shared between populations suggests that C. andreae is quite faithful to the substratum on which it settles. In addition, the proportionally higher genetic diversity displayed in populations living on turtles as well as the presence of highly differentiated haplotypes in the same turtle population may be indicative that these populations survive longer, which could lead C. andreae to prefer turtles instead of floating objects to settle and disperse. Therefore, rafting on floating objects may be sporadic, and ocean currents would not be the most important factor shaping patterns of connectivity and population structure in this species. Furthermore, molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of a cryptic species whose estimates of genetic divergence are higher than those estimated between C. andreae and other congeneric species (e.g. Caprella dilatata and Caprella penantis). Discovery of cryptic species among widely distributed small marine invertebrates is quite common and, in this case, prompts for a more detailed phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of genus Caprella. On the other hand, this study also means the first record of the gammarids Jassa cadetta and Elasmopus brasiliensis and the caprellid Caprella hirsuta on drifting objects.
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