22q11.2 Duplication syndrome: Two new familial cases with some overlapping features with DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndromes

Hôpital Armand-Trousseau (Hôpitaux Universitaires Est Parisien), Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A (Impact Factor: 2.16). 08/2005; 137(1):47-51. DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.30847
Source: PubMed


Twenty-one patients, including our two cases, with variable clinical phenotype, ranging from mild learning disability to severe congenital malformations or overlapping features with DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndromes (DG/VCFS), have been shown to have a chromosome duplication 22q11 of the region that is deleted in patients with DG/VCFS. The reported cases have been identified primarily by interphase FISH and could have escaped identification and been missed by routine cytogenetic analysis. Here we report on two inherited cases, referred to us, to rule out 22q11 microdeletion diagnosis of VCFS. The first patient was a 2-month-old girl, who presented with cleft palate, minor dysmorphic features including short palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, long fingers, and hearing loss. Her affected mother had mild mental retardation and learning disabilities. The second patient was a 7(1/2)-year-old boy with velopharyngeal insufficiency and mild developmental delay. He had a left preauricular tag, bifida uvula, bilateral fifth finger clinodactyly, and bilateral cryptorchidism. His facial features appeared mildly dysmorphic with hypertelorism, large nose, and micro/retrognathia. The affected father had mild mental retardation and had similar facial features. FISH analysis of interphase cells showed three TUPLE1-probe signals with two chromosome-specific identification probes in each cell. FISH analysis did not show the duplication on the initial testing of metaphase chromosomes. On review, band q11.2 was brighter on one chromosome 22 in some metaphase spreads. The paucity of reported cases of 22q11.2 microduplication likely reflects a combination of phenotypic diversity and the difficulty of diagnosis by FISH analysis on metaphase spreads. These findings illustrate the importance of scanning interphase nuclei when performing FISH analysis for any of the genomic disorders.

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Available from: Marie-France Portnoï
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    • "Cleft lip/palate has been seldom found both in 22q11.2 microdeletion as well as in microduplication; in the latter, it was reported only in 2 instances [Portnoï et al., 2005; Fernandez et al., 2009]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The 22q11.2 duplication syndrome has been recently characterized as a new entity with features overlapping the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Most 22q11.2 duplications represent reciprocal events of the typical 3-Mb deletions extending between low copy repeat (LCR) 22-A and LCR22-D. It has been suggested that the clinical manifestations observed in patients with 22q11.2 microduplications may range from milder phenotypes to multiple severe defects, and this variability could be responsible for many undetected cases. Here, we report on a patient with a 1.2-Mb microduplication at 22q11.2 spanning LCR22-F and LCR22-H which harbor the SMARCB1 and SNRPD3 genes. The patient presented healed cleft lip, mild facial dysmorphism, cognitive deficit, and delayed language development associated with severe behavioral problems including learning difficulties and aggressive behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Molecular syndromology
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    • "duplications involving the distal LCR22s have been reported so far [Descartes et al., 2008; Ou et al., 2008; Coppinger et al., 2009; Shimojima et al., 2010]. Similar to the proximal duplications , there seems to be a high rate of familial transmission [Ensenauer et al., 2003; Hassed et al., 2004; Portnoi et al., 2005; Ou et al., 2008] and the phenotypes vary among family members carrying the duplications [Ensenauer et al., 2003; Yobb et al., 2005; Ou et al., 2008]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The chromosome region 22q11.2 has long been recognized to be susceptible to genomic rearrangement. More recently, this genomic instability has been shown to extend distally (involving LCR22E-H) to the commonly deleted/duplicated region. To date, 21 index cases with 'distal' 22q11.2 duplications have been reported. We report on the clinical and molecular characterization of 16 individuals with distal 22q11.2 duplications identified by DNA microarray analysis. Two of the individuals have been partly described previously. The clinical phenotype varied among the patients in this study, although the majority displayed various degrees of developmental delay and speech disturbances. Other clinical features included behavioral problems, hypotonia, and dysmorphic facial features. Notably, none of the patients was diagnosed with a congenital heart defect. We found a high degree of inherited duplications. Additional copy number changes of unclear clinical significance were identified in 5 of our patients, and it is possible that these may contribute to the phenotypic expression in these patients as has been suggested recently in a 2-hit 'digenic' model for 16p12.1 deletions. The varied phenotypic expression and incomplete penetrance observed for distal 22q11.2 duplications makes it exceedingly difficult to ascribe pathogenicity for these duplications. Given the observed enrichment of the duplication in patient samples versus healthy controls, it is likely that distal 22q11.2 duplications represent a susceptibility/risk locus for speech and mild developmental delay.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Molecular syndromology
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    • "microduplications may also be associated with a normal or near normal phenotype [14] [36]. The dup(22)q11.2 patients were originally ascertained because they had clinical features reminiscent of VCFS/DGS [14] [15] [28] [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The chromosome 22q11.2 region has long been implicated in genomic diseases. The low-copy repeats spanning the region predispose to homologous recombination events, and mediate nonallelic homologous recombinations that result in rearrangements of 22q11.2. Chromosome duplication of the region that is deleted in patients with DGS/VCFS has been reported, establishing a new genomic duplication syndrome complementary to the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Recent data suggest that the frequency of the microduplications 22q11.2 is approximately half that of the deletions. Up till now about 50 unrelated cases of 22q11.2 duplications have been reported. A high frequency of familial duplications has been reported. The phenotype of patients is extremely variable, ranging from multiple defects to mild learning difficulties, sharing features with DGS/VCFS, including heart defects, urogenital abnormalities, velopharyngeal insufficiency with or without cleft palate, and with some individuals being essentially normal. The basis of phenotype variability remains to be elucidated. The large majority of affected individuals have identical 3Mb duplications. The 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome can be diagnosed with high accuracy by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, and several other molecular laboratory techniques. The 3Mb duplication encompasses a region containing 40 genes including the TBX1 gene that has been shown to be the major disease gene responsible for the DGS/VCFS. Interestingly, TBX1 gain-of-function mutations, resulting in the same phenotypic spectrum as haploinsufficiency caused by loss-of-function mutations or deletions, have been observed, confirming that TBX1 overexpression might be responsible for the dup22q11.2 disorder.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · European journal of medical genetics
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