Chemical reactivity of Sc3N@C-80 and La-2@C-80
Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tōkyō, JapanJournal of the American Chemical Society (Impact Factor: 12.11). 08/2005; 127(28):9956-7. DOI: 10.1021/ja052534b
Sc3N@C80 has a lower thermal reactivity than La2@C80, although Sc3N@C80 has the same carbon cage (Ih) and oxidation state (C806-) as La2@C80. This result is attributed to the difference in the energy level and distribution of LUMO between Sc3N@C80 and La2@C80.
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ABSTRACT: A major hurdle hampering the development of fullerenes, endohedral metallofullerenes, and nanotubes has been the difficulty of obtaining high purity samples. Soots prepared in the usual manner via a Krätschmer-Huffman electric-arc generator consist of mixtures of insoluble carbonaceous materials and soluble fullerenes: C60, C70, C76, C78, C84, etc. When metals are introduced as endohedral species the complexity of the resultant soot is even greater because of the presence of multiple isomers of both the empty fullerenes and the endohedral metallofullerenes. Here, for the first time, we report that lanthanide trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerenes, A3N@C80 (A = lanthanide atom, e.g., Er, Gd, Ho, Lu, Sc, Tb, Tm, Y), can be obtained in pure form directly from as-prepared soots in a single facile step by taking advantage of their extraordinary kinetic chemical stability with respect to the other fullerenes in Diels-Alder reactions with a cyclopentadiene-functionalized resin. We show that careful control of conditions (stoichiometry, time, temperature) allows separation of fullerenes with different cage sizes, as well as isomeric species. Furthermore, the Diels-Alder reaction is thermally reversible, and we demonstrated that the bound empty-cage fullerenes and classical endohedral metallofullerenes can be recovered by displacement with maleic anhydride.
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ABSTRACT: [structures: see text] Fullerenes containing a trimetallic nitride template (TNT) within the cage are a particularly interesting class of endohedral metallofullerenes. Recently two exohedral derivatives of the Sc3N@C80 fullerene have been synthesized: a Diels-Alder and a fulleropyrrolidine cycloadduct. The successful isolation, purification, and structural elucidation of these metallofullerenes derivatives have encouraged us to understand how the chemical reactivity is affected by TNT encapsulation. First of all, we predicted the most reactive exohedral sites, taking into account the double bond character and the pyramidalization angle of the C-C bonds. For this purpose, a full characterization of all different types of C-C bonds of the following fullerenes was carried out: I(h)-C60:1, D3-C68:6140, D3-Sc3N@C68, D(5h)-C70:1, D(3h')-C78:5, D(3h)-Sc3N@C78, I(h)-C80:7 and several isomers of Sc3N@C80. Finally the exohedral reactivity of these TNT endohedral metallofullerenes, via [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of 1,3-butadiene, was corroborated by means of DFT calculations.
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