Article

Incarceration Associated With Homelessness, Mental Disorder, and Co-occurring Substance Abuse

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
Psychiatric Services (Impact Factor: 2.41). 08/2005; 56(7):840-6. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ps.56.7.840
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study assessed relationships between homelessness, mental disorder, and incarceration.
Using archival databases that included all 12,934 individuals who entered the San Francisco County Jail system during the first six months of 2000, the authors assessed clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with homelessness and incarceration.
In 16 percent of the episodes of incarceration, the inmates were homeless, and in 18 percent of the episodes, the inmates had a diagnosis of a mental disorder; 30 percent of the inmates who were homeless had a diagnosis of a mental disorder during one or more episodes. Seventy-eight percent of the homeless inmates with a severe mental disorder had co-occurring substance-related disorders. Inmates with dual diagnoses were more likely to be homeless and to be charged with violent crimes than other inmates. Multiple regression analyses showed that inmates who were homeless and had co-occurring severe mental disorders and substance-related disorders were held in jail longer than other inmates who had been charged with similar crimes.
People who were homeless and who were identified as having mental disorders, although representing only a small proportion of the total population, accounted for a substantial proportion of persons who were incarcerated in the criminal justice system in this study's urban setting. The increased duration of incarceration associated with homelessness and co-occurring severe mental disorders and substance-related disorders suggests that jails are de facto assuming responsibility for a population whose needs span multiple service delivery systems.

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    • "A slightly larger literature examines the effects of substance abuse and family ties in sentencing, though studies of this ilk are also rare. Some of this work suggests offenders with substance-related disorders are held in jail longer (McNiel et al., 2005) and more likely to be incarcerated in prison (Griffin & Wooldredge, 2006), though this may apply more to offenders with drug rather than alcohol problems (Cauffman et al., 2007). Other work, however, fails to find significant differences in sentences for substance-involved offenders (Bond & Jeffries, 2012;Griffin & Wooldredge, 2006). "
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Crime & Delinquency
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    • "A slightly larger literature examines the effects of substance abuse and family ties in sentencing, though studies of this ilk are also rare. Some of this work suggests offenders with substance-related disorders are held in jail longer (McNiel et al., 2005) and more likely to be incarcerated in prison (Griffin & Wooldredge, 2006), though this may apply more to offenders with drug rather than alcohol problems (Cauffman et al., 2007). Other work, however, fails to find significant differences in sentences for substance-involved offenders (Bond & Jeffries, 2012; Griffin & Wooldredge, 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent scholarship on sentencing disparity emphasizes the need to consider multiple decision-making points, to incorporate more detailed information on offender background characteristics, and to examine disparity in broader international contexts. This study investigates both pretrial and final sentencing decisions, incorporating a broad array of theoretically relevant offender characteristics. It combines rich survey data with official sentencing data. This data collection is part of a larger project, the Prison Project, in which 1,904 Dutch pretrial detainees were interviewed. Results indicate that several different offender characteristics exert important independent effects over criminal processing decisions and that pretrial release exerts a powerful influence over final sentencing decisions. These findings contribute to ongoing scholarly debates over the key determinants of criminal punishment in international context.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Crime & Delinquency
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    • "Diversos estudios han asociado los trastornos mentales con dificultades de ajuste al ambiente penitenciario, lo cual aumenta el riesgo de presentar abuso y padecer violaciones a los derechos humanos, asimismo dificulta la reintegración social e incrementa las probabilidades de indigencia o reingreso a la cárcel (Mundt et al., 2013; Colmenares-Bermúdez, Romero Mendoza, Rodríguez Ruiz, Durand-Smith, & Saldívar Hernández, 2007; Fazel & Seewald, 2012; McNiel, Binder, & Robinson, 2005). Se ha documentado que es más probable que los reclusos con PD presenten múltiples encarcelamientos o les sea revocada la libertad condicional, comparados con quienes no tienen PD (Baillargeon et al., 2009; Baillargeon et al., 2010; Black et al., 2010; Pickard & Fazel, 2013). "
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