Time-Domain Optical Mammography SoftScan

ART, Advanced Research Technologies, Saint-Laurent (Quebec), Canada.
Academic Radiology (Impact Factor: 1.75). 09/2005; 12(8):934-47. DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.05.006
Source: PubMed


Near-infrared (NIR) technology appears promising as a noninvasive technique for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. The technology capitalizes on the relative transparency of human tissue in this spectral range and its sensitivity to the main components of the breast: water, lipid, and hemoglobin. In this study, the authors report quantitative measurements of these components and the functional contrast between healthy and diseased tissue.
A four-wavelength time domain optical imaging system was used to perform noninvasive NIR measurements in the breast of 49 women both pre- and postmenopausal, ages 24-80. Algorithms based on a diffusive model of light transport provided absolute bulk and local values of breast constituent concentrations.
Important variations in the functional and structural NIR properties of the breast were observed. Demographics trend were noticed in accordance with breast physiology. In the 23 cases imaged with suspicious masses, the optical images were consistent with the mammographic findings. Substantial contrast between masses and adjacent tissue is observed. Moreover, consistent differences between malign and benign cases are found with optical imaging.
The results of this pilot study illustrate the sensitivity of optical techniques to the composition of the breast. In addition, preliminary data suggest that benign and malignant tumors can potentially be noninvasively differentiated with optical imaging. Moreover, statistically significant discrimination based on deoxy-hemoglobin content between malign and benign cases was found with optical imaging (P = .0184, one-tailed t test).

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    • "This endogenous-contrast-based imaging modality, referred to as hemoglobin-DOT, has potentials to compensate the limitations of the established modalities, such as X-ray mammography, ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in the safety, sensitivity and specificity, particularly for screening young women under 35 years of age who have dense breasts [1,4,5], and allows for improved discrimination between malignant and benign lesions [3,5–7]. Breast hemoglobin-DOT has been widely explored with three distinct technologies, following the same evolutional track as the universal diffuse light imaging: continuous-wave [8], frequency-domain [9], and time-domain (TD) [6,10]. Many groups have reported high total hemoglobin concentration in malignant tumors as compared to normal tissues - an expectable contrasting mechanism due to the sustained angiogenesis occurring in tumors [3,11,12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A combined time-domain fluorescence and hemoglobin diffuse optical tomography (DOT) system and the image reconstruction methods are proposed for enhancing the reliability of breast-dedicated optical measurement. The system equipped with two pulsed laser diodes at wavelengths of 780 nm and 830 nm that are specific to the peak excitation and emission of the FDA-approved ICG agent, and works with a 4-channel time-correlated single photon counting device to acquire the time-resolved distributions of the light re-emissions at 32 boundary sites of tissues in a tandem serial-to-parallel mode. The simultaneous reconstruction of the two optical (absorption and scattering) and two fluorescent (yield and lifetime) properties are achieved with the respective featured-data algorithms based on the generalized pulse spectrum technique. The performances of the methodology are experimentally assessed on breast-mimicking phantoms for hemoglobin- and fluorescence-DOT alone, as well as for fluorescence-guided hemoglobin-DOT. The results demonstrate the efficacy of improving the accuracy of hemoglobin-DOT based on a priori fluorescence localization.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Biomedical Optics Express
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    • "Scattering coefficient estimates applied in the image reconstruction of the NIR breast data were obtained from reflection measurements, and were 1.51 mm−1 for scattering amplitude and 0.72 mm−1 for scattering power. Bulk recoveries of total hemoglobin and water from the breast were within the normal range at 14.5 μM and 85%, respectively [1,6,10,21,30]. Further characterization of the breast was not possible for this subject as the DBT portion of the examination was not performed but will be included in a future series of subject studies. More efficient and universal solutions to eliminate stray light during breast exams are also being pursued. "
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    ABSTRACT: Development of a detector case for complete co-registration of images in a non-fiber-based combined near-infrared spectral tomography and digital breast tomosynthesis, required analysis to find materials that could support a breast under full mammographic compression without affecting the x-ray images or the quality of the near infrared measurements. Several possible solutions were considered, and many types of plastics were tested in the development of the detector case. Light channeling within the detector case changed the data obtained in resin and agarose phantoms, lowering recovered absorption values. Additional developments focusing on blocking stray light were successful and permitted a normal subject imaging exam.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Biomedical Optics Express
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    • "The intrinsic optical absorption signals of blood, water, and lipid, correlated with increased hemoglobin concentration due to angiogenesis and decreased hemoglobin saturation due to hypermetabolism, can be utilized in NIR spectroscopy to detect and localize cancer [17]. Using three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography [18] or time-domain optical mammography (Softscan®, Advanced Research Technologies, Montreal, Canada) to measure photon migration through the breast, variations in the functional and structural NIR properties (e.g., scattering, oxy-, and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations) were observed, enabling differentiation between benign and [19] malignant tumors. However, these techniques are not directly suitable for intra-operative use. "
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    ABSTRACT: In cancer surgery, intra-operative assessment of the tumor-free margin, which is critical for the prognosis of the patient, relies on the visual appearance and palpation of the tumor. Optical imaging techniques provide real-time visualization of the tumor, warranting intra-operative image-guided surgery. Within this field, imaging in the near-infrared light spectrum offers two essential advantages: increased tissue penetration of light and an increased signal-to-background-ratio of contrast agents. In this article, we review the various techniques, contrast agents, and camera systems that are currently used for image-guided surgery. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the wide range of molecular contrast agents targeting specific hallmarks of cancer and we describe perspectives on its future use in cancer surgery.
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