The Impact of Parenting on Risk Cognitions and Risk Behavior: A Study of Mediation and Moderation in a Panel of African American Adolescents

Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States
Child Development (Impact Factor: 4.72). 07/2005; 76(4):900-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00885.x
Source: PubMed


Hypotheses concerning the extent to which adolescents' cognitions mediate the relation between parenting behaviors and adolescent substance use were examined in a panel of African American adolescents (N = 714, M age at Time 1 = 10.51 years) and their primary caregivers. A nested-model approach indicated that effective parenting (i.e., monitoring of the child's activities, communication about substances, and parental warmth) was related to adolescent substance use more than 5 years later. The parenting behaviors protected the adolescent from subsequent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use through associations with two cognitive elements from the prototype/willingness model: favorable risk images (prototypes) and behavioral willingness. Additional analyses indicated that these protective effects were strongest among families residing in high-risk neighborhoods.

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    • "An association between parental knowledge and substance use has been identified (Lac and Crano, 2009). Not every longitudinal study supports a direct relationship between parental knowledge and use (Tebes et al., 2011), but such a relationship has been indicated (Abar et al., 2014) and indirect effects have been reported by Cleveland et al. (2005), who found an effect of parental knowledge and reduced substance use through reduced susceptibility. Further, although focused on parental monitoring (i.e., parental tracking and surveillance) rather than the more global construct of knowledge (i.e., awareness of the child's activities; e.g., Crouter and Head, 2002; Stattin and Kerr, 2000), Pinchevsky et al. (2012) reported a negative relationship between parental monitoring in high school and marijuana offers when students attended university (also see Chen et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency with which adolescents are offered marijuana has been investigated as a predictor of marijuana use. The current study was designed to test whether the number of marijuana offers received provides an indirect path between parental knowledge and adolescents' marijuana use. Data from the nationally representative National Survey of Parents and Youth were examined. Analysis 1 tested the association between frequency of being offered marijuana and adolescents' (N=4264) marijuana usage in the subsequent year. Analysis 2, spanning a three-year time frame, tested whether the frequency of marijuana offers at the second year of the panel study bridged the relationship between parental knowledge in Year 1 and marijuana use in Year 3. Analysis 1 indicated that the frequency with which adolescents were offered marijuana predicted usage one year later, after controlling for previous usage and nine other common predictors of marijuana use. Analysis 2 revealed an indirect relationship between parental knowledge and use through the number of marijuana offers the adolescent received. There was a strong link between the number of offers received and adolescents' future marijuana use. Higher parental knowledge predicted reductions in offer frequency, which was associated with lower levels of marijuana use. Reducing the number of marijuana offers an adolescent receives could serve as a useful focus for intervention programs targeting parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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    • "Parenting practices refer to the methods and styles of parenting, including goal-directed behaviors in which parents perform their parental duties with their children (Darling & Steinberg, 1993). Particular aspects of parenting practices (e.g., parenting styles, parent communication about family rules and discipline, and parental closeness, support, and discipline) have been shown to influence youth substance use (Alvarez et al., 2003; Barber, Stolz, & Olsen, 2005; Cleveland et al., 2005; Newman et al., 2008). For example, both effective discipline and warmth are important parenting processes that make unique contributions to youth's adaptive psychological and social adjustment (Barber et al., 2005), along with parental monitoring and the quality of parent–child communication (Cota-Robles & Gamble, 2006; Pokhrel et al., 2008; Tobler & Komro, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: A sample of 206 Mexican-heritage 7th-grade adolescents attending predominantly Mexican-heritage schools in Arizona was assessed on their linguistic acculturation, perceived parental monitoring, and substance use. One of their parents also reported on their own parental level of acculturation. While greater parental acculturation predicted greater marijuana use, the acculturation gap (child's level of acculturation over and above that of the parent) was not predictive of substance use. There was a significant acculturation gap by parental monitoring interaction for marijuana use, where the negative correlation between parental monitoring and marijuana use was attenuated for parent–youth dyads that exhibited the largest acculturation gap. This suggests that a greater parent–youth cultural distance (the acculturation gap) attenuates that protective effect of parental monitoring on youth marijuana use. Results are discussed in terms of how the acculturation gap increases the risk for problem behaviors in Mexican American adolescents through its effect on family processes.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Community Psychology
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    • "People maintain such prototypes in their long-term memory, especially for behaviors that are uncommon or risky like help seeking (Skowronski & Carlston, 1989). There is a social consensus around these prototypes (Snortum, Kremer, & Berger, 1987), and the PWM states that people perceive that if they perform the behavior in question, then they will acquire the image associated with that behavior (Gerrard, Gibbons, Stock, Vande Lune, & Cleveland, 2005). The PWM goes on to posit that, depending on the perceived favorability of the prototype, people will be motivated to either distance themselves from the prototype or match it, for self-consistency and self-enhancement reasons (Dunning, Perie, & Story, 1991; Niedenthal, Cantor, & Kihlstrom, 1985). "
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    ABSTRACT: Prior research on professional psychological help-seeking behavior has operated on the assumption that the decision to seek help is based on intentional and reasoned processes. However, research on the dual-process prototype/willingness model (PWM; Gerrard, Gibbons, Houlihan, Stock, & Pomery, 2008) suggests health-related decisions may also involve social reaction processes that influence one's spontaneous willingness (rather than planned intention) to seek help, given conducive circumstances. The present study used structural equation modeling to evaluate the ability of these 2 information-processing pathways (i.e., the reasoned pathway and the social reaction pathway) to predict help-seeking decisions among 182 college students currently experiencing clinical levels of psychological distress. Results indicated that when both pathways were modeled simultaneously, only the social reaction pathway independently accounted for significant variance in help-seeking decisions. These findings argue for the utility of the PWM framework in the context of professional psychological help seeking and hold implications for future counseling psychology research, prevention, and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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