Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Green Tea Extracts in the Clinical and Histologic Appearance of Photoaging Skin

ArticleinDermatologic Surgery 31(7 Pt 2):855-60; discussion 860 · July 2005with 169 Reads 
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Abstract
Green tea extracts have gained popularity as ingredients in topical skin care preparations to treat aging skin. Green tea polyphenolic compounds have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and studies suggest that these extracts help mediate ultraviolet radiation damage. To evaluate the effects of a combination regimen of topical and oral green tea supplementation on the clinical and histologic characteristics of photoaging. Forty women with moderate photoaging were randomized to either a combination regimen of 10% green tea cream and 300 mg twice-daily green tea oral supplementation or a placebo regimen for 8 weeks. No significant differences in clinical grading were found between the green tea-treated and placebo groups, other than higher subjective scores of irritation in the green tea-treated group. Histologic grading of skin biopsies did show significant improvement in the elastic tissue content of treated specimens (p<.05). Participants treated with a combination regimen of topical and oral green tea showed histologic improvement in elastic tissue content. Green tea polyphenols have been postulated to protect human skin from the cutaneous signs of photoaging, but clinically significant changes could not be detected. Longer supplementation may be required for clinically observable improvements.

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  • ... Setelah mendonorkan satu atom hidrogen, senyawa fenolik menjadi senyawa yang stabil dan tidak mudah mengalami resonansi, sehingga tidak mudah berpartisipasi dalam reaksi radikal yang lain. 19,20 Ekstrak Panax ginseng juga mengandung flavonoid yang merupakan suatu antoksidan golongan fenol yang banyak ditemukan di sayuran, buahbuahan, kulit pohon, akar, bunga, teh, dan wine. Konstribusi flavonoid untuk sistem pertahanan antioksidan sangat besar. ...
    ... Pada hewan coba, flavonoid dapat meningkatkan kandungan karbonil kolagen pada kolagen, yang penting sebagai langkah untuk mencegah penuaan. 19 Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa pemberian krim Panax ginseng dapat mencegah peningkatan kadar MMP-1 yang dipicu oleh radiasi sinar UV-B. Panax ginseng yang berasal dari Korea dan Cina telah banyak digunakan sebagai obat tradisional yang berfungsi anti-inflamasi, antioksidan, anti-tumor promoting, dan berpotensi mempunyai efek anti aging. ...
    Article
    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) is a source of free radicals that accelerates aging process, especially in the skin. Repeated exposures to UV-B rays activate enzymes that degrade collagen and inhibit collagen production by inducing the expression of MMP-1. Panax ginseng, a typical herb commonly used in Asia, has antioxidant properties. This study was aimed to prove that Panax ginseng extract cream could prevent collagen degradation and MMP-1 elevation in UVB-exposed Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). This was a true experimental study with the posttest only control group design. Subjects were 30 rats (Rattus norvegicus), Wistar strain, male, aged 10-12 weeks, weighing 160-180 g which were divided into 3 groups with 10 rats each: P0 group, without any treatment; P1 group, exposed to UV-B and treated with placebo; and P2 group, exposed to UV-B and treated with Panax ginseng extract cream. After 48 hours of the last radiation for the entire 2 weeks, all rats were anesthetized, and their skin tissues were prepared for histological examination staining with Sirius red. The expresion of MMP-1 and the amount of collagen were observed under 400x magnification of binocular microscopy. The results showed that the average amount of collagen in the P0 group was 69.38±3.96%; in the P1 group was 62.79±3.50%; whereas in the P2 group was 80.55±6.41% (P <0.01). The mean expression of MMP-1 in the P0 group was 15.43±3.13%; in the group P1 was 27.99±5.45%; while in the P2 group was 6.16±2.33% (P <0.01). Conclusion: Panax ginseng extract cream could prevent MMP-1 elevation and collagen degradation in UVB-exposed Wistar rats.Keywords: Panax ginseng, collagen, MMP-1, UVB Abstrak: Ultraviolet B (UV-B) merupakan salah satu sumber radikal bebas yang dapat mempercepat proses penuaan, khususnya penuaan pada kulit. Paparan sinar UVB berulang akan mengaktifkan enzim yang mendegradasi kolagen dan menghambat produksi kolagen melalui peningkatan ekspresi MMP-1. Panax ginseng merupakan jenis herbal yang paling sering digunakan di negara Asia dengan efek antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan bahwa pemberian krim Panax ginseng dapat menghambat penurunan jumlah kolagen dan peningkatan MMP-1 pada kulit tikus Wistar yang dipajan sinar UV-B. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental dengan posttest only control group design. Subjek penelitian ialah 30 ekor tikus galur Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) jantan, berusia 10-12 minggu, dengan berat badan 160-180 gr yang dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok masing-masing berjumlah 10 ekor tikus, yaitu: kelompok P0 sebagai kelompok kontrol tanpa perlakuan; kelompok P1 diberikan pajanan sinar UV-B dengan plasebo; dan kelompok P2 diberikan pajanan sinar UV-B dengan krim Panax ginseng (P2). Setelah 48 jam penyinaran terakhir selama 2 minggu, seluruh tikus dianestesi, kemudian diambil jaringan kulitnya untuk dibuat preparat histologik. Jumlah kolagen dan eskpresi MMP-1 dermis dihitung sebagai data post test. Hasil analisis menunjukkan rerata jumlah kolagen pada kelompok P0 ialah 69,38±3,96%; pada kelompok P1 62,79±3,50%; dan pada kelompok P2 80,55±6,41% (p<0,01). Hasil rerata ekspresi MMP-1 pada kelompok P0 ialah 15,43±3,13%; pada kelompok P1 27,99±5,45%; dan pada kelompok P2 ialah 6,16±2,33% (P <0,01). Simpulan: Pemberian krim Panax ginseng menghambat peningkatan ekspresi MMP-1 dan penurunan jumlah kolagen pada kulit tikus Wistar jantan yang dipajan sinar UV-B. Kata kunci: Panax ginseng, kolagen, MMP-1, UVB
  • ... 1 Green tea extracts that were tested as the topical application cosmetics for 8 weeks on 40 women showed protection of skin from photoaging although no significant changes clinically occurred. 64 Yonei 65 conducted a trial on the application of pine bark extracts as active ingredients in an anti-aging cream and reported a significant reduction of lipid hyperoxidation. When a cream containing Moringa oleifera leaf extracts was evaluated on 11 volunteers, it was reported that it could revitalize the skin and showed anti-aging effects attributed to the phenolic compounds in the extracts. ...
    ... 75,76 Commonly, 5 weeks of product application are sufficient to observe any changes on skin physiology (using specific equipment) as complete renewal of the epidermal layer occurs within a month. 36,65,77 Even though most of the panelists preferred to achieve positive results in a short term of application, results that can be seen by naked eyes require a minimum of 3 months of continuous application, 64 especially when plant extracts are used as active ingredients. However, immediate effect of cosmetic application in some products could be due to probable presence of drugs, prohibited ingredients or highly acidic ingredients in the formula. ...
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    Objective: Cocoa pods are abundant waste materials of cocoa plantation, which are usually discarded onto plantation floors. However, due to poor plantation management, the discarded cocoa pods can create suitable breeding ground for Phytophthora palmivora, which is regarded as the causal agent of the black pod disease. On the other hand, cocoa pods potentially contain antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant compounds are related to the protection of skin from wrinkles and can be used as functional cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, in this study, cocoa pods were extracted and to be used as active ingredients for antiwrinkles. Methods: The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fibroblast cells were used to determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the cells (EC50 ). The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition. Results: CPE was detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin, and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while being nonintoxicant to the skin cell. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6.38 ± 1.23% with the application of the CPE gel within 3 weeks and significantly improved further (12.39 ± 1.59%) after 5 weeks. The skin hydration increased (3.181 ± 1.06%) after 3 weeks of the CPE gel application. Conclusion: Flavonoid compounds in CPE contributed to the functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The CPE which is nontoxic to skin cells help to reduce wrinkles on skin after 3 weeks of application. CPE can be used as the active ingredients in antiwrinkle products, and prolonged application may result in significant visual changes to the naked eyes.
  • ... Participants treated with a combination regimen of topical and oral green tea showed histological improvement in elastic tissue content. Green tea polyphenols have been postulated to protect human skin from the cutaneous signs of photoageing [15]. Topical application of white tea offered protection against detrimental effects of UVA and UVB on cutaneous immunity. ...
    ... Topical application of white tea offered protection against detrimental effects of UVA and UVB on cutaneous immunity. It was considered that both green tea and white tea were potential photoprotective agents that might be used in conjunction with established methods of sun protection [15]. Regular intake of green tea component EGCG strengthened the skin's tolerance by increasing minimal erythema dose (MED) and thus prevented UV-induced perturbation of epidermal barrier function and skin damage [16]. ...
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    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure induces photodamage of skin. It is a matter of concern that the level of UV radiation reaching the earth surface is increasing as a result of depletion of the stratospheric ozone, and climate change. It is urgently necessary to develop strategies to protect the skin from UV-induced injuries. Tea extracts are gaining increasing attention as asupplement in skin care products. However, the factors contributing to the photoprotective effects of tea extracts have not been systematically defined and conflicting results about the effect of tea extracts on photodamage have been reported. In this paper, the literature dealingwith the use of tea and its extracts for the prevention of photodamage to the skin as well as the photoprotective effects of tea and its extracts have been highlighted. The potential chemopreventive agents in tea include catechins, caffeine, polysaccharides, apigenin and luteolin which inhibit, reverse or retard the process of the skin photodamage via their sunscreen and antioxidant properties, regulation of signal transduction pathway and gene expression, alleviation of DNA damage, and modulation immunological function are also presented. Existing gaps in this research field include incomplete clarity of photochemopreventive mechanism of tea, the adverse or side effects of tea extracts owing to residues or impurity and the instability of the functional components of tea during storage.
  • ... One randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical trial involving 40 women with moderate photoaging, who were treated with topical green tea extract, showed no statistically significant clinical improvements in these women. (18) This study evaluated the effect of a green tea containing moisturizer on skin hydration in older people. ...
    ... In their study, Mahmood et al. (16) found that application of the combination of green tea plus lotus extract as moisturizer lead to a greater improvement in skin hydration than did each ingredient alone. In another study, Chiu et al. (18) found that consuming green tea polyphenol with milk is good for the elderly, because catechin from green tea will bind to the milk protein casein and form a catechincasein complex. The bioavailability of the catechin-casein complex in the digestive tract is better than catechin alone, therefore greater absorption levels of the antioxidant will be achieved. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    BACKGROUND Dry skin is a major skin health problem in elderly. Green tea, which has an antioxidant effect, has recently been used as an active ingredient in moisturizing creams; yet the effect has not been well studied. This study compares the skin hydration effect of green tea and vitamin E moisturizer among elderly. METHODS This quasi-experimental study involved 60 elderly living in Tresna Werda Budi Mulia 4 Social Institution, Jakarta. Using the Runve HL 611 skin analyzer, skin capacitance was measured prior to experiment and every following week during the 5-week application of green tea and vitamin E skin moisturizer on both forearms. The consecutive measurement data was analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equation to compare the relative changes in skin hydration between the two moisturizer groups over 5 weeks of intervention. RESULTS The green tea moisturizer showed more significant increases in skin hydration level than the vitamin E moisturizer at all measurement sites on right arm and proximal left arm (p= 0.021), and medial and distal left arm (p= 0.034). Skin hydration levels significantly changed over time at proximal (p=0.021), medial (p=0.006) and distal (p=0.006) right arm, and medial left arm (p=0.021). A parallel trend of skin hydration improvements for both moisturizer groups indicated no correlation between the moisturizer type and the duration of usage (p >0.05) in all measurement locations. No side effects were observed during application period in both groups. CONCLUSION Routine use of moisturizer containing green tea may improve skin hydration in elderly.
  • ... A clinical double-blind placebo study, sponsored by NuSkin (Provo, Utah, USA) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the combined oral supplementation of the green tea extract and topical application of the special cream containing 10% of green tea extract to improve the appearance of the photoaged skin [94]. The study involved 40 women with moderate photoaging. ...
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    Studies on the cosmetic applications of plant extracts are increasingly appearing in the scientific literature, which is due to the growing popularity of skincare products around the world. In the light of the observed changes, a return to natural treatment and skincare with cosmetics free of harmful substances or toxic preservatives is visible. Currently, tea extracts, due to their rich composition and various biological actions, play an important role among the dietary supplements and cosmetics. This review is intended to collect the reports on the properties of the tea plant, its extracts and preparations in cosmetology: for skin care products and for the treatment of selected dermatological diseases. Particular attention is paid to its antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase, anti-inflammatory, slimming, hair-strengthening, photoprotective and sealing blood vessels properties.
  • ... Green tea extract (GTE) has been extensively studied as herbal remedy due to antioxidation [1,2], antihypertension [3], antimutagenicity [4], anticarcinogenesis [5] and enhancing glucose tolerance [6] effects to protect against cardiovascular diseases [7], ultraviolet attack [8], oral diseases [9] and obesity [10]. These effects are mainly attributed to the multiple target properties of GTE in signaling and regulatory pathways. ...
  • ... In a small scale double blind clinical study in human subjects suffering from erythema and telangiectasia, catechin containing topical treatment reduced both HIF-1 alpha and VEGF expression [10]. In a separate study in aged skin, a combination of oral green tea and topical cream increased skin elastic tissue content [6]. ...
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    A number of equivalent-skin models are available for investigation of the ex vivo effect of topical application of drugs and cosmaceuticals onto skin, however many have their drawbacks. With the March 2013 ban on animal models for cosmetic testing of products or ingredients for sale in the EU, their utility for testing toxicity and effect on skin becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof of principle that altered expression of key gene and protein markers could be quantified in an optimised whole tissue biopsy culture model. Topical formulations containing green tea catechins (GTC) were investigated in a skin biopsy culture model (n = 11). Punch biopsies were harvested at 3, 7 and 10 days, and analysed using qRT-PCR, histology and HPLC to determine gene and protein expression, and transdermal delivery of compounds of interest. Reduced gene expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, TGF-β1, CTGF and PAI-1 was observed after 7 and 10 days compared with treated controls (p < 0.05). Histological analysis indicated a reduction in mast cell tryptase and chymase positive cell numbers in treated biopsies compared with untreated controls at day 7 and day 10 (p < 0.05). Determination of transdermal uptake indicated that GTCs were detected in the biopsies. This model could be adapted to study a range of different topical formulations in both normal and diseased skin, negating the requirement for animal models in this context, prior to study in a clinical trial environment.
  • ... 6,7 EGCG also has anti-inflammatory effects through a modulation of cytokine expression. 8,9 Although EGCG was reported to enhance vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) synthesis in three previous studies, 10,11 it has also been reported to have the opposite effect in several other studies. [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] In this study, we tested the hypothesis that EGCG could improve the viability of perforator-based skin flaps in rats through its vasoregulatory effects. ...
    Article
    Background Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a substance abundant in green tea. In this study, the effects of EGCG on perforator flap viability were investigated. Methods A total of 40 rats were assigned to four groups of 10 each. In each subject, a 4 × 6 cm abdominal skin flap was raised and adapted back onto its place. In the control group, no further procedures were taken. In the flap group, 40 mg/kg/d EGCG was injected into the flap. In the gavage group, 100 mg/kg/d EGCG was given through a feeding tube. In the intraperitoneal group, 50 mg/kg/d EGCG was injected intraperitoneally. On the 7th postoperative day, flaps were photographed and the viable areas were measured and compared via a one-way analysis of variance. Results The ratios of viable and contracted flap area were 9.15/12.01, 4.59/16.46, 11.56/11.20, and 11.65/10.77 cm(2) for the control, flap group, gavage group, and intraperitoneal group, respectively. While the flap group yielded the worst results in the sense of flap contraction and viability (p < 0.001), the gavage and intraperitoneal groups were significantly better than those of the control group (p = 0.03). Histologically, epidermal, papillary dermal, and capillary tissue volumes were evaluated. In comparison to the control group, the flap group yielded significantly increased epidermal and dermal volumes (p = 0.03), however, these values were significantly decreased (p = 0.04) in the gavage and intraperitoneal groups. Capillary volumes were significantly decreased in EGCG treatment groups (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our experiment has shown that oral and intraperitoneal administration of EGCG increases the perforator flap viability when compared with controls, while direct injection decreases the viability. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
  • ... Despite the reduction of the hyperplastic effect of UVB from green tea also the current study revealed that oral administration of green tea reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells; this finding is inconsistent with the previous study, which proved the role of green tea as an antiinflammatory agent [35][36][37]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The main environmental source for skin damage is ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Many adverse effects have been recognized as the result of prolonged cutaneous exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, such as erythema, edema, apoptosis, hyperplastic responses, photo-aging, and skin cancer development. Green tea provides photo-protection against UV radiation through many mechanisms including anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of green tea in reducing epidermal thickness on mouse's skin exposed to UVB irradiation. Thirty mice (Mus musculus species, BALB/c strain) underwent this study and were divided into 3 groups: control group (í µí±› = 10 mice), without UVB exposure and green tea administration; exposure group (í µí±› = 10 mice), which were exposed to UVB light only; and treatment group (í µí±› = 10 mice), which were exposed to UVB light and treated with 1 mL of green tea through oral gavage. Mice from both groups (exposure and treatment) were subjected to UVB irradiation 4 days/week (20 minutes/day, 4 weeks). It concluded that oral administration of green tea was provided photo-protection against UVB induced hyperplasia; therefore, it can be regarded as a natural alternative for photo-protection.
  • ... Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) comprises 59% of total catechins and is responsible for most of the biological activity of tea, and oral EGCG supplementation has been shown to increase MED, skin barrier function, and to reduce UVB-induced skin damage in rats [15]. However, similar studies in human beings have not demonstrated such effects [16,17], presumably because the human dermis forms a stronger barrier to absorption from the vasculature [18], warranting further clinical studies with high methodological quality. ...
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    Full-text available
    Oral supplementation of micronutrients, or functional foods, to prevent aging has gained much attention and popularity as society ages and becomes more affluent, and as science reveals the pathological mechanisms of aging. Aging of the skin combines biologic aging and extrinsic aging caused predominantly by sunlight and other environmental toxins. Anti-aging functional foods exert their influence mostly through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, thereby abrogating collagen degradation and/or increasing procollagen synthesis. Clinical evidence supporting a role in preventing cutaneous aging is available for oral supplements such as carotenoids, polyphenols, chlorophyll, aloe vera, vitamins C and E, red ginseng, squalene, and omega-3 fatty acids. Collagen peptides and proteoglycans are claimed to provide building blocks of the dermal matrix. This review summarizes the current study findings of these functional foods.
  • ... Sunscreen formulated with 2e5% Camellia sinensis extract has been reported to protect UV irradiationinduced photoaging, photoimmunosuppression, cutaneous erythema, thickening of the epidermis, overexpression of CK5/6, CK16, MMP-2, MMP-9, etc. [117,118]. Nichols and Katiyar [52] reported that green tea polyphenols, catechin, epigallocatechin, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, function favorably as sunscreen supplements to protect the skin from the adverse effects of UV radiation-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage including the risk of developing skin cancers. Caffeine an active constituent of the C. sinensis inhibits the formation of early patches of epidermal cells [7]. ...
    Chapter
    Skin aging is the result of programed senescence and prolonged environmental injury to skin. Human skin is continuously exposed to environmental influences and is therefore subjected to both intrinsic as well as extrinsic aging processes. Aged skin is characterized by the loss of skin tone and resilience, increased roughness and dryness, irregular pigmentation, sunburn, accelerated skin aging, wrinkles, and several malignant skin cancers. Plant secondary metabolites have been exploited for their potential activities such as antiaging, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, wound healing, skin whitening, and anticancer activities. Several scientific validations on natural products derived from the traditional system of medicine have been developed in this context. Recent trends in antiaging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this chapter to highlight skin aging pathways of natural bioactive molecules and skin aging management.
  • ... 93 However, in a study in 2005, although participants treated with a combination regimen of topical and oral green tea showed histologic improvement in elastic tissue content, clinically significant changes could not be detected. 94 Many laboratories have reported that topical treatment or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols inhibits chemical carcinogen-or UV radiation-induced skin tumorigenesis in different animal models. Studies have shown that green tea extract also possesses anti-inflammatory activity. ...
    Chapter
    Current consumer trends have brought the nutritional supplements, among other antiaging products, into a high-profit enterprise. The main pillar of the marketing campaign is the pharmacological activity of nutrients that are called “nutraceuticals.” Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, beauty, and aging. Although the frequency of nutritional deficiencies is low in the developed countries, incomplete diets could influence health and affect skin health. Oral supplementation with vitamins, trace minerals, and fatty acids has been shown in clinical studies to modulate skin function and possibly hair health. Vitamin, carotenoid, and fatty acid supplementation may prevent skin diseases. Vegetables, legumes, and olive oil may be protective against cutaneous actinic damage and skin wrinkling. Oral fish polysaccharide supplementation may improve dermal thickness, skin wrinkling, color, and viscoelasticity. Benefits on hydration, skin barrier, defense against inflammation, and skin roughness were reported under intake of essential fatty acids. Carotenoids (pro-vitamin A) as well as the vitamins C and E have been extensively associated with the protection of the skin against photodamage (sunburn, tanning) and subsequently photoaging, as well as precancerous conditions and cancers.
  • ... In another study, 40 women received green tea therapy as combination of topical treatment and oral supplementation or placebo within 8 weeks; the therapy resulted in a significant improvement of the content of elastic tissue, determined histologically, indicating an anti-ageing effect of the combined therapy. However, any clinically significant changes could not be observed [101]. Green tea extract, enriched in gallic acid, epigallocatechin and epicatechin due to tannase treatment, was shown to be more effective in the anti-wrinkle treatment than normal green tea extract [102]. ...
    Article
    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. They are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom; high amounts contain e.g. green tea and grape seeds. Polyphenolic extracts are attractive ingredients for cosmetics and pharmacy due to their beneficial biological properties. This review summarizes the effects of polyphenols in the context of anti-aging activity. We have explored in vitro studies, which investigate antioxidant activity, inhibition of dermal proteases and photoprotective activity, mostly studied using dermal fibroblasts or epidermal keratinocytes cell lines. Possible negative effects of polyphenols were also discussed. Further, some physicochemical aspects, namely the possible interactions with emulsifiers and the influence of the cosmetic formulation on the skin delivery, were reported. Finally, few clinical studies, which cover the anti-aging action of polyphenols on the skin after topical application, were reviewed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • ... The skin partitioning of hydrophilic macromolecules to SC could be reduced due to SC dryness. A previous study (Chiu et al. 2005) verifies that UVB produced skin dryness. Dry skin is also the most common dermatological condition of postmenopausal women (Roberts 2006). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure and menopause are known as the inducers of damage to the skin structure. The combination of these two factors accelerates the skin aging process. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of UV and ovariectomy (OVX) on the permeation of drugs through the skin. The role of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in the cutaneous absorption of extremely lipophilic permeants and macromolecules was explored. The OVX nude mouse underwent bilateral ovary removal. Both UVA and UVB were employed to irradiate the skin. The physiological and biochemical changes of the skin structure were examined with focus on transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin color, immunohistochemistry, and mRNA levels of proteins. UVB and OVX increased TEWL, resulting in stratum corneum (SC) integrity disruption and dehydration. A hyperproliferative epidermis was produced by UVB. UVA caused a pale skin color tone due to keratinocyte apoptosis in the epidermis. E-cadherin and β-catenin showed a significant loss by both UVA and UVB. OVX downregulated the expression of filaggrin and involucrin. A further reduction was observed when UV and OVX were combined. The in vitro cutaneous absorption demonstrated that UV increased the skin permeation of tretinoin by about twofold. However, skin accumulation and flux of estradiol were not modified by photoaging. OVX basically revealed a negligible effect on altering the permeation of small permeants. OVX increased tretinoin uptake by the appendages from 1.36 to 3.52 μg/cm(2). A synergistic effect on tretinoin follicular uptake enhancement was observed for combined UV and OVX. However, the intervention of OVX to photoaged skin resulted in less macromolecule (dextran, molecular weight = 4 kDa) accumulation in the skin reservoir because of retarded partitioning into dry skin. The in vivo percutaneous absorption of lipophilic dye examined by confocal microscopy had indicated that the SC was still important to controlling topical delivery, although the role of epidermal junctions could not be simply ignored.
  • ... Experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effects of oral supplementation with vitamins, polyphenols, micronutrients, and proteins have indicated that dietary compounds can modulate skin function (Zague et al., 2011). Moreover, the photoprotective potential of antioxidant intake has been the subject of a considerable number of studies (Chiu et al., 2005;Heinrich et al., 2006). In this study, we did not evaluate the oral supplementation effect of LMP-JHBH on photoprotective potential. ...
    Article
    This study focused on the anti-oxidative and collagenase- and elastase inhibition effects of low molecular weight peptides (LMP) from commercial Jeju horse leg bone hydrolysates (JHLB) on pancreatin, via enzymatic hydrolysis. Cell viability of dermal fibroblasts exposed to UVB radiation upon treatment with LMP from JHLB was evaluated. Determination of the antioxidant activity of various concentrations of LMP from JHLB were carried out by assessing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethybenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of LMP from JHLB (20 mg/mL) was 92.21% and ABTS radical scavenging activity (15 mg/mL) was 99.50%. FRAP activity (30 mg/mL) was 364.72 mu M/TE and ORAC activity (1 mg/mL) was 101.85 mu M/TE. The anti-wrinkle potential was assessed by evaluating the elastase- and collagenase inhibition potential of these LMP. We found that 200 mg/mL of LMP from JHLB inhibited elastase activity by 41.32%, and 100 mg/mL of LMP from JHLB inhibited collagenase activity by 91.32%. The cell viability of untreated HS68 human dermal fibroblasts was 45% when exposed to a UVB radiation dose of 100 mJ/cm(2). After 24 h of incubation with 500 mu g/mL LMP from JHLB, the cell viability increased to 60%. These results indicate that LMP from JHLB has potential utility as an anti-oxidant and anti-wrinkle agent in the food and cosmetic industry. Additional in vivo tests should be carried out to further characterize these potential benefits.
  • ... While no significant differences in clinical grading were found between the green tea-treated and placebo groups, histologic grading of skin biopsies did show significant improvement in the elastic tissue content of treated specimens. 93 Further, a recent doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial of adult women (n 5 56) that aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of oral GTPs on the clinical and histologic characteristics of hotoaging skin, revealed that GTPs contribute to significant improvement in overall solar damage, at least during the 24 months of use. 94 Most recently, an independent in vivo study reported that green tea and black tea extracts incorporated in dermal gels were able to confer protection against the harmful effects of UVR. ...
    Chapter
    Full-text available
    The skin is the largest organ of the body with a surface area of approximately 1.5–2.0 m2. It protects the internal organs of the body by acting as an effective barrier against the detrimental effects of environmental and xenobiotic agents (e.g., extrinsic harmful chemicals and genotoxics). Strong or chronic exposition to a variety of external stresses (e.g., ultraviolet radiation aka solar UV) may contribute to premature skin aging, immune-suppression, and tumorigenesis/carcinogenesis (i.e. tumor/cancer formation). Therefore, a search for prevention strategies to circumvent such unfavorable outcomes is being constantly pursued. Polyphenols (aka polyhydroxyphenols) represent a superfamily of diverse naturally occurring phytochemicals. An increasing number of studies on vertebrates and invertebrates have shown that these compounds modulate many signaling pathways, and subsequently exert numerous biological activities (e.g., significant antioxidant, chemopreventive, immune-modulatory, cell repair and photo-protective effects) as well as potential health benefits (e.g., prevention of aging, reduction in cancer incidences and other inflammatory-state diseases). Among the several hundreds of dietary polyphenols (plant nutraceuticals aka phytonutrients), some constitute a promising approach to remedying many skin conditions (i.e., prevention and treatment of skin aging and diseases). The protective skin aging effects exhibited by polyphenols may, however, partially depend on their molecule characteristics, the food matrix, and/or on their bioavailability, which does not always depend on the overall intake/consumption. Eventually, natural purified polyphenols or polyphenol-rich plant extracts (semi-synthetic or synthetic) might supplement skin chemotherapeutics, our sun protection armamentarium, and further enhance the benefit of esthetic techniques (e.g., microdermabrasion). Thereby, polyphenols are also gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations (cosmeceuticals). In this chapter, we outline the current progress in skin aging intervention studies using polyphenols (e.g., purified polyphenols, dietary, or topical rich-polyphenols products).
  • ... Topical application of 10% green tea cream combined with a green tea extract of 300 mg twice daily by mouth improved skin elasticity, compared to placebos in 40 women with moderate photoaging in a double-blinded, randomized trial. 14 In a larger, more rigorous, 2-year trial involving 56 healthy women, taking 250 mg of a green tea polyphenols extract twice daily did not affect photoaging any differently than did placebo. 15 In a cohort of 60 healthy women, drinking a beverage with 1402 mg of green tea polyphenols per day decreased skin damage and photoaging from a 1.25 MED. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Some herbal agents taken orally appear to be able to reduce local and systemic negative effects of excessive ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. What is notable in this category is the well-researched Phlebodium aureum (golden serpent fern), frequently referred to in the literature by an old name Polypodium leucatomos. Sufficiently high oral doses of Camellia sinensis (green tea), as well as topical applications, also appear to be photoprotective. In addition, Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) may be helpful as a systemic immunomodulator to prevent the harm done by excessive UV light on local and general immune function. What is much less well-established is the potential of the immunomodulating fungus Cordyceps sinensis to have this same benefit. Redox modulators such as propolis and proanthocyanidins (from Pinus maritima or Vitis vinifera) have also shown the ability topically to prevent sunburn and UV-related toxicities. More research is needed but natural products look promising as photoprotectives. Note: The next article related to this topic will discuss herbal photosensitizers, or agents that enhance the therapeutic properties of UV light.
  • ... 2 Many of these extracts claim antioxidant or broader antiaging activity based on in vitro testing, but few of the extracts from natural sources have validated the antiaging efficacy based on wellcontrolled clinical studies. 29,51,52 Without any standardization for potency of the extract or evaluation of clinical or in vivo biological activity against a known reference standard such as retinoic acid, it is difficult to measure the contribution of any particular extract to the overall topical product performance. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    This article focuses on nonprescription home-use topical treatment technologies for the aging face and is intended to serve as a guide for the core cosmeceutical technologies currently used and to help educate and assist the selection of topical antiaging products by the professional staff and their patients. Antiaging topical treatments for patient home use should be nonirritating, compatible with the patient skin type, effective, and complementary to surgical and minimally invasive office procedures, and aesthetically elegant. New topical antiaging technologies, formulated as monotherapy or as combinations with well-known cosmeceuticals, should present adequate clinical studies to support their selection for use.
  • ... In this context, the association of ultraviolet (UV) filters with antioxidants such as vitamins which can offer unique benefits in protecting the skin, acting synergistically against free radicals produced by exposure to UV radiation, which leads to prevention of biological damage and even a possible reversal of skin aging [9] must be emphasized. In addition, some botanical extracts have also attracted great interest for use in anti-aging cosmetic products with the purpose of reducing free radical damage due to the presence of bioflavonoids in their composition [10][11][12][13]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and Phorphyra umbilicalis extracts) was evaluated. This formulation was submitted to a clinical efficacy study using biophysics techniques and skin images analysis (digital photography imaging systems, 20 MHz ultrasound, and reflectance confocal microscopy). The volunteers applied the formulation containing the UV filters and antioxidant substances during the day and the formulation with antioxidant substances and without the UV filters at night, for 90 days. The formulation increased the hydration and protected the skin barrier function after a single application. At the long term assessment the formulation provided an improvement in skin barrier function and skin hydration to the deeper layers of the epidermis, leading to an improvement in skin appearance by reducing wrinkles and skin roughness. The multifunctional cosmetic formulation studied can be suggested to preventing signs of aging and improving skin conditions. In addition, this study presents the benefits of associating different active antioxidants substances in a single cosmetic formulation to prevent skin aging.
  • ... Interestingly, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 40 women found that a combination of 600 mg green tea supplements plus the use of 10% green tea extract cream resulted in higher self-reported dryness and less superior overall appearance than the placebo group (Chiu et al. 2005), with no significant differences in self-reported wrinkles or roughness between the two groups. The authors speculated that the negative effects were the result of the cream being too strong in dose and causing irritation. ...
    Article
    The rise of the nutraceutical market, specifically oral nutrition supplements claiming to improve skin appearance, is striking. This paper aims to examine the published scientific evidence for beneficial effects of nutraceuticals on skin appearance. An overview of skin physiology and intrinsic and extrinsic ageing is provided which underlies the potential physiological processes nutraceuticals purport to counter. Common ingredients used are explored. Some of these (vitamins A, C, B2, B3, B7, copper, iodine, zinc) have authorised skin-related health claims, but many do not. Current evidence for those without existing authorised claims (e.g. green tea extract, pomegranate extract, carotenoids, evening primrose oil, borage oil, fish oil, collagen and co-enzyme Q10) is reviewed, focussing primarily on evidence from randomised controlled trials where available, in relation to skin parameters including wrinkles and hydration. Issues of safety are also considered, and the postulated mechanisms for some emerging ingredients, such as cocoa flavanols and probiotics, are explored. Evidence from high quality human trials demonstrating clear benefit is required by regulatory authorities in order for foods and nutrition supplements to carry a health or beauty claim. To date, the evidence for many ingredients in relation to skin appearance is limited, not sufficiently robust and/or inconsistent. Although there are a small number of human studies suggesting a potential benefit and some plausible biological mechanisms, much of the evidence to date comes from animal and in vitro studies. There are simply not enough good quality randomised controlled trials in this area to draw firm conclusions about the benefit of nutraceuticals to skin appearance.
  • ... Green tea known to have significant antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect was studied for its effect on photoaging skin in women (n = 40). The intake of green tea and application of green tea cream did not elicit any difference in clinical grading; however, histological grading of skin biopsies showed improved elasticity in the skin indicating that long-term consumption might be beneficial [64]. The effect of Skin Health Experimental Product supplement food of mixture containing ascorbic acid, ω-3 fatty acids, mixed carotenoids, zinc rice chelate, luetin, pyridoxine, pantothenate, niacin, and coenzyme Q10, was studied on skin health of 76 subjects (61 women and 15 men). ...
    Chapter
    Skin, known to be the largest organ, consists of epidermis and dermis. Any physiological change associated with age is ultimately reflected by a person’s skin. Two major factors responsible for premature aging are intrinsic, i.e., involvement of genes, and extrinsic that covers exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV rays induce the oxidative stress and consequently cause the loss of cellular regulation. Dietary nutriments may help the body to fight against signs of early aging as antioxidants and by regulating keratinocytes proliferation and differentiation. Main ingredients of these dietary supplements include several vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, omega-3 fatty acids, amino acids, and probiotics. Vitamin A, C, D, and E assist in maintaining skin veracity. Zinc, copper, and selenium are the main minerals which are involved in sustenance of healthy skin. Phytochemicals consisting of flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids with antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidative property may benefit the texture and physiological parameters of skin delaying its aging. Amino acids like arginine, proline, ornithine, and glutamine alone as well as in combination support the healthy being of skin. The probiotic bacteria like Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus plantarum commonly found in intestine aid in delaying aging by hydrating the skin as well as by showing protective effect on UV-exposed area. Though many clinical studies favor the role of dietary substances in prevention of early skin aging there is a need to cover the wider population and understand the various contributory factors.
  • ... Previously, skin care products containing green tea plant extract have been studied to treat aging skin caused by ultraviolet radiation [20]. Camellia sinensis nonfermentatum (CSNF) extract used in this study showed reduction of UVinduced erythema, DNA damage, formation of radical oxygen species, and downregulation of numerous factors related to apoptosis, inflammation, differentiation, and carcinogenesis in experimental studies [21]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Background To assess effectiveness of NPE, a proprietary Camellia sinensis nonfermentatum (CSNF) extract, in prevention and recovery of acute radiation-induced skin reaction (ARSR) and skin care during postoperative whole breast radiotherapy (RT). Methods Twenty patients were enrolled in this single centre, prospective, open-label pilot study. The outcomes of 20 prospective data sets were compared with 100 retrospectively collected matched data sets derived from hospital records. The preventive CSNF gel (2.5%) was administered 1 to 2 hours before each session on the irradiated fields. The care CSNF lotion (0.4%) was administered as 7-day pretreatment after each RT session, twice daily between RT sessions, and 4 to 8 weeks thereafter. The control group was treated according to the hospital care guidelines. The primary endpoint was time to ARSR ≥ Grade 2 (CTCAE v4.03); secondary endpoints were frequencies of ARSR grades 1, 2, 3, and 4, recovery of ARSR, frequencies of interruption and RT stop, complications and required rescue interventions, and tolerability of CSNF. Results Time to ARSR ≥ G2 (censoring) was significantly longer (p = 0.014) in the CSNF group. The hazard ratio was 2.33 (95% CI: 1.15–4.72), demonstrating a 50% decrease in the risk of developing ARSR ≥ G2. There was a trend to faster recovery from ARSR G2 in the CSNF group (100% versus 47%; p = 0.078). The proportion of patients requiring rescue treatment during RT and follow-up was markedly higher in the control compared to the CSNF group (1% to 51% versus 0% to 15%). CSNF gel and lotion were well tolerated both during and after RT. Conclusions This pilot study provides the first evidence on the potential pharmacological effectiveness of CSNF extract in prevention of RT-induced ARSR and recovery of skin irritation in patients undergoing postoperative whole breast RT and may reflect a novel concept for prevention of RT-induced ARSR and care of irritated skin.
  • ... Green tea polyphenols extract incorporated in derma gels were found to display significant antioxidant activity and prevent adverse effects of UV radiation by improving the elasticity of the skin. 4,5 Catechins and epigalocatechin gallate from green tea and cocoa beans extracts were found to possibly contribute to this effect. [5][6][7] In addition, catechin could stabilise the structure of collagen suggesting the involvement of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions as major forces in its stabilisation. ...
    Article
    The aim of this study is to separate polyphenols from grape pomace using a surfactant-based separation, Colloidal Gas Aphrons (CGA) and to investigate their inhibitory activity against skin relevant enzymes, collagenase and elastase. Ethanolic (EE) and hot water crude extracts (HWE) were produced first and then the CGA generated using TWEEN20 were applied resulting in polyphenols enriched fractions (CGA-EE and CGA-HWE, ethanol and hot water extracts derived fractions respectively). Both crude extracts inhibited the enzymes in a dose-dependent manner however, further extraction by CGA led to fractions with higher inhibitory efficiency against collagenase. Although gallic acid was the main component of the CGA-HWE, others such as kaempferol must have contributed to its potency which was over six times more than gallic acid's. The CGA-EE was found to be about four times more efficient than its crude extract and over six times more efficient than gallic acid in collagenase's inhibition; quercetin was the major polyphenol in this fraction. It is evident that ethanol and hot water extraction processes led to different polyphenols composition and thus different inhibitory activity against collagenase and elastase. Further separation with CGA increased the inhibitory potency of both extracts against collagenase. Overall the results here showed the potential application of the CGA fractions from grape extracts in cosmetics.
  • ... The antioxidant mechanism of polyphenol is based on its ability to donate hydrogen atoms and the ability to chelate metal ions. After donating a hydrogen atom, phenolic becomes stable and not susceptible to resonance, thus they do not easily participate in other radical reactions [21,25]. By reducing the reactivity of free radicals, the administration of these polyphenols could prevent the synthesis and accumulation of MMP in the skin. ...
  • ... [33] . A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial has been executed with moderate photoaging treated with either a combination regimen of 10% green tea cream and 300 mg twice-daily green tea oral supplementation or a placebo regimen for eight weeks to monitor the clinical and histologic appearance of photoaging skin [34] . Patients treated with topical as well as oral combination regimens have shown histological improvement in tissue elasticity, but no clinically significant changes have been found and may require a longer reinforcement for clinically observable developments. ...
  • ... Hundreds of plant extracts from plant seeds, stems, skins, and fruits have been used in antiaging cosmetics [18]. Green tea extracts have shown antiphotoaging effect in clinical trial [19]. Algal extracts can resist UVB-induced skin lesion in BALB/C mice due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects [20]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    In oriental medicine, mixtures of medical plants are always used as prescriptions for diseases. Natural products extracted from herbs have great potential antiaging effects. Previous studies and clinical trials have shown several critical functions of Erjingwan (EJW), such as nourishing Yin, kidney tonifying and aging-resistance. We assumed that EJW extracts exerted the antiaging effects through nourishing Yin. We examined the antiaging effects of EJW extracts on healthy human skin by noninvasive measurements. Then we estimated the cell proliferation and DPPH radical scavenging rate. Western blotting analysis was used to determine the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), type I collagen (COL1A2), p-NF- κ B, NF- κ B, p-I κ B α , I κ B α , p-Nrf2, and HO-1. EJW extracts did not affect moisture content, TEWL and skin chroma, while it significantly improved skin glossiness and skin elasticity. Moreover, EJW extracts could downregulate the MMP1 expression and upregulate the COL1A2 expression. In addition, it promoted the Nrf2 pathway while it inhibited the NF- κ B pathway. With the application of cream containing EJW extracts, the skin aging state was significantly improved. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that EJW extracts contributed to the repair of skin after injury. Taken together, the antiaging effects of EJW extracts were related to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities.
  • ... Setelah mendonorkan satu atom hidrogen, senyawa fenolik menjadi senyawa yang stabil dan tidak mudah mengalami resonansi, sehingga tidak mudah berpartisipasi dalam reaksi radikal yang lain. 13,14 Kulit lemon juga mengandung flavonoid yang merupakan suatu antioksidan golongan fenol yang banyak ditemukan di sayuran, buah-buahan, kulit pohon, akar, bunga, teh, dan wine. Konstribusi flavonoid untuk sistem pertahanan antioksidan sangat besar mengingat total asupan harian flavonoid dapat berkisar 50-800 mg. ...
    Article
    Ultraviolet B (UVB) is a source of free radicals that accelerate aging process of the skin such as activating enzymes that degrade collagen and inhibit collagen production by inducing the expression of MMP-1. Lemon peel contains vitamin C, vitamin A, tannins and phenols which possess antioxidant activity and prevent oxidative stress. This study was aimed to prove that oral administration of lemon peel extract could decrease MMP-1 levels and increase the number of collagen in the UVB-induced male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). This was a true experimental study with the post test only control group design. Subjects were 30 male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), aged 2-3 months, body weight 120 g, divided into 3 groups, as follows: the control group (P0) which were not exposed to UVB; the treatment group 1 (P1) given aquabidest and UVB ray exposure; and the treatment group 2 (P2) given lemon peel extract and UVB ray exposure. After 15 days of treatment, all rats were anesthetized and their skin tissues were prepared for histological examination of MMP1 and collagen. The results showed that the average expression of MMP1 in P0 group was 22.02±3.20%; in the P1 group was 29.04±6.36%; and in P2 group was 7.98±2.76% (P <0.01). In addition, the average amount of collagen in P0 group was 70.01±2.99%; in the P1 group was 57.68±4.84%; and in P2 group was 77.45±4.29% (P <0.01). Conclusion: Oral administration of lemon peel extract could decrease the expression of MMP-1 and increase the amount of collagen in the UVB-induced male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus).Keywords: lemon peels, collagen, MMP-1, UVB Abstrak: Ultraviolet B (UVB) merupakan sumber radikal bebas yang mempercepat proses penuaan kulit dengan mengaktivasi enzim yang mendegradasi kolagen dan menghambat produksi kkolagen melalui induksi ekspresi MMP-1. Kulit buah lemon mengandung vitamin C, vitamin A, tanin, dan fenol yang memiliki aktivitas antioksidan dan mencegah stres oksidatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan bahwa pemberian ekstrak kulit buah lemon per oral dapat menurunkan kadar MMP-1 dan meningkatkan jumlah kolagen pada tikus putih jantan galur Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) yang dipajan sinar UVB. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental murni dengan post test only control group design. Subjek penelitian ialah 30 ekor tikus putih jantan, galur Wistar (Rattus norvegicus), umur 2-3 bulan, dengan berat badan 120 gr yang dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok, masing-masing berjumlah 10 ekor tikus. Kelompok kontrol (P0) tidak dipapar sinar UVB; kelompok perlakuan 1 (P1) diberikan aquabides oral dan paparan sinar UVB; dan kelompok perlakuan 2 (P2) diberikan ekstrak kulit buah lemon oral dan paparan sinar UVB. Setelah 15 hari perlakuan, seluruh tikus dianestesi kemudian diambil jaringan kulitnya untuk dibuat preparat histologik dan dihitung jumlah kolagen dermisnya sebagai data post test. Hasil analisis menunjukkan rerata jumlah ekspresi MMP1 pada kelompok P0 ialah 22,02±3,20%; kelompok P1 ialah 29,04±6,36%; dan kelompok P2 ialah 7,98±2,76% (P <0,01). Rerata jumlah kolagen pada kelompok P0 ialah 70,01±2,99%; kelompok P1 ialah 57,68±4,84%; dan kelompok P2 ialah 77,45±4,29% (P <0,01). Simpulan: Pemberian ekstrak kulit buah lemon per oral dapat menurunkan ekspresi MMP-1 dan meningkatkan jumlah kolagen pada tikus putih jantan galur Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) yang dipajan sinar UVB. Kata kunci: kulit buah lemon, kolagen, MMP-1, UVB
  • ... 7 Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa epigallocatechin 3-0-gallate (EGCG) yang merupakan salah satu derivat polifenol, mampu menurunkan aktivitas tirosinase, terutama komponen EGCG, EGC, dan CG yang mempunyai daya hambat terhadap terjadinya pigmentasi karena pajanan UV-B. 8 Ekstrak daun teh hijau merupakan kandidat bahan anti hiperpigmentasi yang potensial. Telah diketahui bahwa teh hijau mempunyai daya hambat tirosinase yang kuat dan telah dibuktikan bahwa teh hijau mempunyai efek antiinflarnasi dan anti karsinogenik yang dapat digunakan untuk mengatasi berbagai gangguan kulit. ...
    Article
    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 20% green tea extract in preventing the increase of melanin in guinea pig skin exposed to UV-B and to compare the effectiveness of this treatment to 4% hydroquinone cream. This was an experimental study with the post-test only control group design. Subjects were four groups; each consisted of 7 male guinea pigs. Group 1, the control group, was exposed to UV-B only. Group 2 was exposed to UV-B and applied with cream based substance. Group 3 was exposed to UV-B and applied with 4% hydroquinone cream. Group 4 was exposed to UV-B and applied with 20% green tea extract. The total UV-B intensity was 390 mJ/cm2 consistently exposed for two weeks. Histopathological slides of the skin tissue were stained with Masson Fontana technique. The total amount of melanin was calculated in percentage of pixel compared to pixel of melanin in total epidermis. The results showed that the highest amount of melanin was in group 1 (24.44%) and the lowest amount of melanin was in group 3 (1.04%) meanwhile the amount of melanin in group 4 (1.34%) was nearly the same with group 3. There were significant differences between group 1 to group 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between group 3 and group 4 (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The 20% green tea extract was as effective as 4% hydroquinone cream in inhibiting the increase of melanin in guinea pigs’skin exposed to UV-B.Keywords: green tea extract, melanin, ultraviolet BAbstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek pemberian krim ekstrak teh hijau 20% terhadap peningkatan jumlah melanin pada kulit marmut yang dipajan sinar UVB serta membandingkan efektivitasnya dengan krim hidrokuinon 4%. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental murni dengan post test only control group design. Subyek penelitian terdiri dari empat kelompok dengan 7 ekor marmut jantan setiap kelompok. Kelompok 1 (kelompok kontrol) diberi pajanan sinar UV-B saja. Kelompok 2 diberi pajanan sinar UV-B dan diolesi krim dasar. Kelompok 3 diberi pajanan sinar UV-B dan krim hidrokuinon 4% sedangkan kelompok 4 diberi pajanan sinar UV-B dan krim ekstrak teh hijau 20%. Dosis total UVB yaitu 390 mJ/cm2 diberikan selama 2 minggu. Sediaan histopatologik jaringan kulit dipulas dengan pewarnaan Masson Fontana. Jumlah melanin dihitung dengan persentase pixel luas area melanin dibandingkan dengan pixel seluruh jaringan epidermis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jumlah melanin tertinggi pada kelompok 1 (24,44%) dan terendah pada kelompok 3 (1,04%). Jumlah melanin pada kelompok 4 (1,34%) hampir sama dengan kelompok 3. Terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara kelompok 1 dengan kelompok 3 dan 4 (P < 0,05). Perbandingan antara kelompok 3 dan 4 tidak berbeda bermakna dalam mencegah peningkatan jumlah melanin (P > 0,05). Simpulan: Pemberian krim ekstrak teh hijau 20% sama efektif dengan krim hidrokuinon 4% dalam mencegah peningkatan jumlah melanin kulit marmut yang dipajan sinar UV-B.Kata kunci: krim ekstrak teh hijau, melanin, ultraviolet B
  • Chapter
    The terms cosmeceutical and evidence-based may not belong in the same phrase. Cosmeceuticals are considered by many scientists to represent fluff without stuff, and indeed the reader may come to a similar conclusion at the end of this chapter. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to examine the state of the science for cosmeceuticals as they represent an ever-expanding field in dermatology with perhaps much yet unrealized promise. Cosmeceuticals extend beyond cosmetics to enhance skin functioning, usually aiming to return the skin to a more youthful state. For example, wrinkle-reducing moisturizers, antioxidant serums, and skin-lightening salves all fall into this category. Cosmeceuticals are somewhat confusing, however, as both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) products have been labeled by this term. Drug cosmeceuticals include topical retinoids for improving dermal collagen production, topical minoxidil for enhanced scalp hair growth, and eflornithine for facial hair growth reduction. These products will not be discussed, as they are not available to the consumer except by prescription. The second category of cosmeceuticals includes OTC drugs, such as sunscreens and antiperspirants. These also are outside the realm of this chapter. The discussion will focus on cosmeceuticals that are topically applied for the purpose of improving skin appearance.
  • Chapter
    Full-text available
    Skin, the largest human organ, is not sufficiently protected against intrinsic (e.g., physio-pathological oxidative stress) and extrinsic (e.g., radiation and other environmental) injuries. To supplement its own antioxidant arsenal and manage continuous insults, skin care requires multi-disciplinary approaches (e.g., nutraceutics, chemotherapeutics, cosmeceutics, and esthetics). One of them might be the use of polyphenols as natural adjuvant therapeutics. Polyphenols, a superfamily of naturally occurring phytochemicals, are gaining popularity because of their potential skin benefits (i.e., prevention, protection and repair of skin damages). Depending on its structure and physical-chemical features (e.g., bioavailability), the beneficial effects (e.g., enhanced antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, anti-aging properties) exerted by polyphenols in their bulk form may vary. Interestingly, an increasing number of studies suggest that controlled-topical delivery of nano-encapsulated polyphenols (e.g., (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol) might overcome some limitations frequently observed with topical or systemic bulk polyphenols (e.g., bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, targeting efficacy, toxicity and safety). Therefore, topical application of nano-polyphenols would represent valuable preventive and therapeutic options to provide clinical benefits for individuals with certain skin conditions (e.g., skin inflammation, skin cancers, premature skin aging, skin wound healing). In this chapter, we provide an up-to-date review on available polyphenols in their bulk- and nano-forms that are used for transdermal application and skin engineering (e.g. tissue repair such as wound healing/cicatrization).
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol, influences cutaneous wound healing because of its antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. We previously showed the role of EGCG in scarring in ex vivo human scar models. Here, we evaluate direct application of topical EGCG compared with zonal priming, a unique concept in the immediate treatment of the zone of injury at the time of wounding before scar formation. Trial design: Double-blind randomized controlled trial. Methods: We assessed EGCG application compared with placebo over 1–6 weeks in scars created in 62 human volunteers using quantitative noninvasive devices, immunohistochemical analysis, mRNA sequencing, and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase–PCR of tissue biopsy samples. Results: EGCG reduced mast cells at weeks 1–3, as evidenced by gene and protein analyses (P ≤ 0.01). M2 macrophages were increased with EGCG compared with placebo. EGCG application by zonal priming significantly down-regulated VEGFA and CD31 at week 1 and at 1–2 weeks after direct application (P ≤ 0.01). Direct EGCG application also reduced scar thickness at weeks 1–3 (P = 0.001) and increased scar elasticity at week 4 (P = 0.01). Increased hydration was evident both noninvasively and by increased hyaluronic acid levels (P < 0.01) at week 3. Conclusions: We show the beneficial role of both zonal priming and direct EGCG application in scar therapy with positive effects on scar thickness, erythema, hydration, and elasticity. Trial register: International standard randomized controlled trial, registration number ISRCTN 18643079; July 16, 2018.
  • Chapter
    Cosmeceuticals have biologically active ingredients and show beneficial results. However, they may not be US FDA approved. Most cosmeceuticals are made of extracts from marine algae, fruits, herbs, and other botanicals, and these ingredients may be existing already. There are a number of topical antiaging cos‐meceuticals that patients can use depending on their needs. Also known as fruit acids, alpha‐hydroxy acids (AHAs) are a group of chemical compounds that consist of a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon. The cosmetic and the pharmaceutical market is flooded with lightening products each claiming to be the best, but with limited clinical evidence to support their claim. Botanicals are active compounds that are isolated from plants. The potential concerns could be the lack of proper testing for efficacy. There are many false claims made, and products are highly priced.
  • Article
    Appearance-based interventions have had some success in reducing smoking and sun exposure. Appearance may also motivate dietary behavior change if it was established that dietary improvement had a positive impact on appearance. The aims of this review are to evaluate the current evidence examining the relationship between dietary intake and appearance and to determine the effectiveness of dietary interventions on perceived or actual appearance. An electronic search of English-language studies up to August 2012 was conducted using Cochrane, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and PsycINFO databases. Studies that included participants aged at least 18 years, that observed or altered dietary intake from actual food or dietary supplement use, and assessed appearance-related outcomes were considered eligible. Data from 27 studies were extracted and assessed for quality using standardized tools. Nineteen studies were assessed as being of "positive" and 4 of "neutral" quality. All observational studies (n = 4741 participants) indicated that there was a significant association between various aspects of dietary intake and skin coloration and skin aging. The majority (16 studies, 769 participants) evaluated the effect of dietary supplements on skin appearance among women. Only 1 study examined the effect of actual food intake on appearance. Significant improvements in at least 1 actual or perceived appearance-related outcome (facial wrinkling, skin elasticity, roughness, and skin color) following dietary intervention were shown as a result of supplementation. Further studies are needed in representative populations that examine actual food intake on appearance, using validated tools in well-designed high-quality randomized control trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Article
    Hintergrund Die von Gesundheitswissenschaftlern und Fachgesellschaften gegebenen Empfehlungen zu einem gesundheitsförderlichen Lebensstil werden bisher nur von einem kleinen Prozentsatz der Bevölkerung tatsächlich in die tägliche Praxis umgesetzt. Offensichtlich reicht die Aussicht auf eine zukünftig bessere Gesundheit als Motivationsanreiz nicht aus, um breite Bevölkerungsschichten anzusprechen und dauerhafte Verhaltensänderungen zu erzielen. Ziel Exemplarisch werden verschiedene Studien vorgestellt, die bereits enge Verbindungen zwischen Attraktivität und einem gesundheitsförderlichen Lebensstil herstellen konnten. Mögliche Ansatzpunkte für neue Konzepte werden diskutiert. Schlussfolgerung Durch die verstärkte Betonung der Zusammenhänge zwischen einem gesundheitsförderlichen Lebensstil und dem Thema „Attraktivität“ lassen sich möglicherweise auch Zielgruppen erreichen, die durch bisherige Kampagnen nicht angesprochen werden konnten. Es sollte geprüft werden, inwieweit sich die Erkenntnisse in Gesundheitskampagnen integrieren lassen, um auch gesundheitsferne Zielgruppen dazu zu bewegen, ihren Lebensstil zu überdenken. Aufgrund der noch recht geringen Datenlage sollten weitere Studien zu dem Thema durchgeführt werden.
  • Chapter
    Chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure of skin leads to typical effects: changes in the collagen and elastic tissue matrix is considered the characteristic histological finding in aged skin, followed by visible wrinkling and pigmentary changes. Changes in the epidermis include thinning to atrophy, hyperplasia of melanocytes, and disturbances in the texture of keratinocytes. Assessment of the degrees of photoaging by a grading system with low interobserver coefficient of variation seems to be of special interest. Different clinical methods have been proposed including descriptive grading clinical scales, visual analogue scales, and photographic grading scales [1]. Some of these methods like “skin surface topography grading” [2] were compared with histological changes like actinic elastosis. Other studies used histological scoring of dermal aging independent of a noninvasive scoring system. The following approaches were used: quantification of elastic tissue [3], type III procollagen, type III to type I procollagen ratio, quantification of the grenz zone (a wide band of eosinophilic material just beneath the epidermis, devoid of oxytalan fibers) [4], activated fibroblasts with positive procollagen staining [5], acid mucopolysaccharides, improved quality of elastic fibers, and increased density of collagen [6], quantification of changes in the epidermis (thinning of the stratum corneum, granular layer enhancement, and epidermal thickening) [7]. One disadvantage of most of these methods is that actinic and instrinsic aging cannot be distinguished from one another.
  • Chapter
    Skin, known to be the largest organ, consists of epidermis and dermis. Any physiological change associated with age is ultimately reflected by a person’s skin. Two major factors responsible for premature aging are intrinsic, i.e., involvement of genes, and extrinsic that covers exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV rays induce the oxidative stress and consequently cause the loss of cellular regulation. Dietary nutriments may help the body to fight against signs of early aging as antioxidants and by regulating keratinocytes proliferation and differentiation. Main ingredients of these dietary supplements include several vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, omega-3 fatty acids, amino acids, and probiotics. Vitamin A, C, D, and E assist in maintaining skin veracity. Zinc, copper, and selenium are the main minerals which are involved in sustenance of healthy skin. Phytochemicals consisting of flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids with antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidative property may benefit the texture and physiological parameters of skin delaying its aging. Amino acids like arginine, proline, ornithine, and glutamine alone as well as in combination support the healthy being of skin. The probiotic bacteria like Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus plantarum commonly found in intestine aid in delaying aging by hydrating the skin as well as by showing protective effect on UV-exposed area. Though many clinical studies favor the role of dietary substances in prevention of early skin aging there is a need to cover the wider population and understand the various contributory factors.
  • Article
    There is a growing demand for noninvasive anti-aging products for which the periorbital region serves as a critical aspect of facial rejuvenation. This article reviews a multitude of cosmeceutical ingredients that have good scientific data, specifically for the periorbital region. Topical treatment options have exponentially grown from extensively studied retinoids, to recently developed technology, such as growth factors and peptides. With a focus on the periorbital anatomy, the authors review the mechanisms of action of topical cosmeceutical ingredients, effectiveness of ingredient penetration through the stratum corneum, and validity of clinical trials.
  • Chapter
    Chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure of skin leads to typical effects: changes in the collagen and elastic tissue matrix is considered the characteristic histological finding in aged skin, followed by visible wrinkling and pigmentary changes. Changes in the epidermis include thinning to atrophy, hyperplasia of melanocytes, and disturbances in the texture of keratinocytes. Assessment of the degrees of photoaging by a grading system with low interobserver coefficient of variation seems to be of special interest. Different clinical methods have been proposed including descriptive grading clinical scales, visual analog scales, and photographic grading scales (J Cosmet Dermatol 3:23–5, 2004). Some of these methods like “skin surface topography grading” (Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 22:39–45, 2006) were compared with histological changes like actinic elastosis. Other studies used histological scoring of dermal aging independent of a noninvasive scoring system. The following approaches were used: quantification of elastic tissue (Dermatol Surg 31:855–60, 2005), type III procollagen, type III to type I procollagen ratio, quantification of the grenz zone (a wide band of eosinophilic material just beneath the epidermis, devoid of oxytalan fibers) (Skin Pharmacol Physiol 18:81–7, 2005), activated fibroblasts with positive procollagen staining (J Cosmet Laser Ther 3:129–36), acid mucopolysaccharides, improved quality of elastic fibers, and increased density of collagen (J Am Acad Dermatol 34:187–95), quantification of changes in the epidermis (thinning of the stratum corneum, granular layer enhancement, and epidermal thickening) (Dermatol Surg 22:455–60). One disadvantage of most of these methods is that actinic and instrinsic aging cannot be distinguished from one another.
  • Article
    A 58-year-old white female presents to the office with complaints of wrinkles and light brown “sun spots” on her cheeks and forehead. The patient reports that people often mistake her for a much older woman. She admits to frequent sunbathing during the summer months until age 40 with little to no use of sunscreen and feels that her skin changes may be related to this prior sun exposure. She reports feeling overwhelmed by the number of over-the-counter anti-wrinkle creams and would like to know which cosmeceuticals are most effective and will truly help her appear her stated age.
  • Article
    Cosmeceuticals represent functional cosmetics and skincare products. The cutaneous effect of a cosmeceutical is the combined action of the moisturizing abilities of the vehicle combined with the intent of the active ingredients. The most common antiaging effect of cosmeceuticals on the skin is to enhance barrier function and provide photoprotection. Areas of research in cosmeceutical ingredients include substances intended to improve skin function by activating a receptor, altering an enzyme, functioning as a cellular messenger, acting as an antioxidant, or providing anti-inflammatory capabilities. Cosmeceuticals are considered cosmetics and, because of their unregulated status, their manufacturers can only make appearance-related claims.
  • Article
    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) - the primary polyphenol found in green teaextract is one of the widely researched polyphenolic compounds in food industry due toits strong anti-oxidant properties. The propensity of EGCG to interact non-covalentlywith macromolecules like proteins and polymers has been well documented. Here wepresent the review of the formation of colloidal particles from non-covalent interactionsof EGCG with cellulose derivative which could be further utilized to generate novelmicro-structures for encapsulation applications.
  • Chapter
    The term “cosmeceuticals”, suggested by Kligman more than 20 years ago, refers to topical products that lie in a gray zone where they are viewed as having both pharmaceutical and cosmetic properties [1]. Although the neologism was innovative and relevant, it was rejected from the US Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that, according to the 1938s US Congress, labels as drug every substance for use in the diagnosis, cure, treatment or prevention of disease, and as cosmetic any product intended for beautifying and promoting attractiveness. In spite of this, the term cosmeceuticals has recently been gaining increasing popularity, as the term cosmetic seems to be restrictive for those substances that have druglike beneficial effects. On the other hand, the “cosmeceuticals” concept has caused a lot of confusion, because of similar neologisms such as neutraceuticals and/or neoceuticals. Actually, in USA and Canada, most cosmeceuticals are regulated as over the counter (OTC) products, while in Europe they are considered as cosmetics. Only in Japan, a new class of products, called quasi-drugs, has been created [2].
  • Chapter
    Full-text available
    The statement “Beauty from within” perhaps best describes the field or purpose of Nutricosmetics. Though considered a niche market in the West, the realization that skin health is affected by inner health is not new. The skin is the largest organ of the body and it not only provides cover and protection to inner organs, it also acts as a secondary organ of elimination. Whatever we eat or enters through the gastrointestinal tract is in some way expressed on the skin, hence the phrase “We are what we eat” makes sense. Even ordinary skin problems such as acne, rashes, dryness, or oily skin can be traced back to the food we eat. Today Nutricosmetics is viewed as a hybrid field of Cosmeceutical and Nutraceuticals. In this chapter we will be discussing the nutricosmetic potential of selected botanicals, their activities, and the formulation of concepts using these botanicals.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Free radicals are unstable chemical species, highly reactive, being formed by cellular entities of different tissues. Increased production of these species without proper effective action of endogenous and exogenous antioxidant systems, generates a condition of oxidative stress, potentially provider of skin disorders that extend from functional impairments (skin cancer, dermatitis, chronic and acute inflammatory processes) even aesthetic character, with the destruction of structural proteins and cellular changes with the appearance of stains, marks and lines of expressions and other signs inherent to the intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging process. The antioxidants are chemical substances commonly used in clinical practice for topical application and may contribute in the fight against the radical species responsible for many skin damage. This paper summarized the main evidence of the benefits brought by the topical application of antioxidants in the skin, considering the amplitude of the indicative performance of antioxidant activity by in vitro and ex-vivo tests as well as in vivo tests. It is recognized that a breadth of product performance tests should be explored to truly identify the effectiveness of antioxidant products for an anti-aging effect.
  • Chapter
    Full-text available
    The interest in natural plant remedies in assisting with reducing health problems around the world is growing. This directly causes an increase in the consumption of herbal teas. Studies show that the preferentially high antioxidant activities of the flavonoids in herbal teas are due to their chemical structure. The hydroxyl groups on the B ring and the C ring of flavonoids and O-methylation of flavonoids have a greater influence on their antioxidant activity. In respect of phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acid are influencing factors. Methods used in the quantification and identification of polyphenols include liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Both these chromatography methods are more popular compared to capillary electrophoresis. Phenolic compounds are significant in the prevention and management of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardio-specific diseases and obesity. Researchers have also illustrated the use of phenolic extracts in enhancing both food quality and food safety.
  • Article
    Collagens and hyaluronic acid have long been used in pharmaceuticals and food supplements for the improvement of skin elasticity and hydration. These compounds provide the building blocks of the skin. Ovoderm is an oral supplement obtained from eggshells that contains naturally occurring collagen and glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid. We evaluated the efficacy of Ovoderm on skin biophysical parameters related to cutaneous aging such as elasticity, hydration, and pigmentation. Two pilot studies were run to assess the effect of daily oral supplementation with 300 mg Ovoderm on skin parameters. The first consisted of a self-assessment questionnaire intended to perform an assessment on skin, hair, and nail health after 50 days of treatment. The second measured the effect of 5-week treatment on hydration by corneometry, on elasticity with the cutometer, and on pigmentation with the mexameter. In the pilot study 1, participants were predominantly satisfied with the effects obtained on general face (100% volunteers satisfied) and body (94% volunteers satisfied) skin condition and skin properties (100% volunteers satisfied with facial skin softness, 94% with facial skin hydration, and 89% with body skin hydration) and partly with effects on hair (67% volunteers satisfied) and nail (50% volunteers satisfied) condition. The study 2 revealed a statistically significant improvement in skin elasticity (12% increase, p =.0136), a tendency to reduce skin pigmentation (5% decrease), and no significant change in skin hydration. Our study reflects that oral supplementation with Ovoderm is efficacious to reduce the gradual loss of skin elasticity characteristic of aged skin, which helps to improve the appearance of the skin.
  • Chapter
    The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defines drugs as products that cure, treat, mitigate or prevent disease, or affect the structure or function of the human body [1]. The dermatology and cosmetic industries recognize “cosmeceuticals” as cosmetics that have drug-like benefits. The term “cosmeceutical” was first used by Dr. Albert Kligman to describe a cosmetic product that exerts a therapeutic benefit in the appearance of the skin, but not necessarily a biologic effect on skin function, which would then classify it as a drug [2–4]. The Food and Drug Administration does not recognize or regulate cosmeceuticals. The symbiotic relationship between a drug and a cosmetic has become increasingly evident with the rapid growth of the cosmeceutical industry over the last decade. There are now both prescription cosmeceuticals and over-the-counter cosmeceuticals available to consumers. This arbitrary distinction varies in different countries. For example, drugs such as tretinoin, available only by prescription in the United States, are sold as over-the-counter cosmeceuticals in Central America. Antiperspirant is also regulated as a drug in the United States while being considered a cosmetic in Europe.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Ultraviolet B (UVB) photosensitivities of eight catechins were screened. In both water and ethanol, epicatechin (EC, 575 μM) and catechin (C, 575M) exhibited low photostabilities under 6 h UVB radiation with the generation of yellow photoproducts, while other catechins (epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechingallate, gallocatechin, catechin gallate) were relatively UVB-insensitive. Photoisomerization and photolysis were two important UVB-induced reactions to EC whereas photolysis was the dominant reaction for C. The influencing factors of time (2-10 h), solvent (water, ethanol) and substrate concentration (71.875-1150μM) on UVB-induced chemical conversions of EC and C were investigated, and eight photoproducts were identified through ultra performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-MS/MS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR analysis). Photolysis reaction involved two pathways, including radical reaction and photo-induced electron transfer reaction. The 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging abilities of eight catechins did not change upon 6 h UVB irradiation. EC and C are photosensitive catechins among eight catechins causing deep color.
  • Chapter
    Chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure of skin leads to typical effects: changes in the collagen and elastic tissue matrix are considered the characteristic histological findings in aged skin, followed by visible wrinkling and pigmentary changes. Assessment of the degrees of photoaging by a grading system with low interobserver coefficient of variation seems to be of special interest. Certain methods like “skin surface topography grading” were compared with histological changes like actinic elastosis. Advantages disadvantages of different approaches are listed in this chapter.
  • Treating photodamage intracellularly: from treating photodamage to wound healing and more, leading experts discuss the multi-faceted role of tretinoin
    • W Bergfeld
    • R Ceilley
    • S Kang
    • Roberts
    Bergfeld W, Ceilley R, Kang S, Roberts W. Treating photodamage intracellularly: from treating photodamage to wound healing and more, leading experts discuss the multi-faceted role of tretinoin. Skin Aging 2003;11 Suppl:4–8.
  • Histologic changes in elastic tissue (ϫ100 original magni-fication
    • Chiu Al
    • Green
    • For
    • Skin
    858 CHIU ET AL: GREEN TEA FOR PHOTOAGING SKIN Dermatol Surg 31:7 Part 2:July 2005 Figure 2. Histologic changes in elastic tissue (ϫ100 original magni-fication; elastin van Gieson stain).
  • Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols
    • Elmets Ca D Singh
    • K Tubesing
    Elmets CA, Singh D, Tubesing K, et al. Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols. J Am Acad Derma-tol 2001;44:425–32.
  • Article
    Consumption of tea, especially green tea, has been shown to reduce the incidence of ultraviolet (UV)-related skin tumors in hairless mice. Because milk is added to much of the tea consumed in Western cultures, we have studied the effects of including milk in the tea consumed by hairless mice receiving simulated solar radiation. Under these conditions, mice consuming tea with 10% whole milk had 30% fewer papillomas, 50% fewer tumors, and 55% smaller lesions than mice consuming water. Mice consuming tea alone had fewer papillomas and tumors than mice consuming tea with milk; however, the difference in area affected was not statistically significant. In separate experiments, there was a significant dose response to black tea as a preventive against UV-related skin lesions, and also consumption of black tea was associated with a small but significant reduction in the incidence of papillomas in mice previously exposed to UV radiation. The results of these studies demonstrate that, in hairless mice, black tea can inhibit the formation of UV-induced skin tumors in a dose-dependent manner and, even with the addition of milk, can still inhibit the growth of UV-related skin tumors.
  • Article
    The tea plant Camellia sinesis is cultivated in >30 countries. Epidemiologic observations and laboratory studies have indicated that polyphenolic compounds present in tea may reduce the risk of a variety of illnesses, including cancer and coronary heart disease. Most studies involved green tea, however; only a few evaluated black tea. Results from studies in rats, mice, and hamsters showed that tea consumption protects against lung, forestomach, esophagus, duodenum, pancreas, liver, breast, colon, and skin cancers induced by chemical carcinogens. Other studies showed the preventive effect of green tea consumption against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, high blood cholesterol concentrations, and high blood pressure. Because the epidemiologic studies and research findings in laboratory animals have shown the chemopreventive potential of tea polyphenols in cancer, the usefulness of tea polyphenols for humans should be evaluated in clinical trials. One such phase 1 clinical trial is currently under way at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in collaboration with Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. This study will examine the safety and possible efficacy of consuming the equivalent of > or =10 cups (> or =2.4 L) of green tea per day. The usefulness of tea polyphenols may be extended by combining them with other consumer products such as food items and vitamin supplements. This "designer-item" approach may be useful for human populations, but it requires further study.
  • Article
    To discuss the current knowledge of polyphenolic compounds present in green tea as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic in skin. References identified from bibliographies of pertinent articles, including our work in related fields. Articles were selected based on the use of green tea or its polyphenolic constituents for prevention against inflammation and cancer in the skin. Also discussed is the possible use of green tea to treat various inflammatory dermatoses. The polyphenolic compounds from green tea were tested against chemical carcinogenesis and photocarcinogenesis in murine skin. These green tea polyphenols were found to afford protection against chemical carcinogenesis as well as photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin. A few experimental studies were conducted in human skin in our laboratory. Analysis of published studies demonstrates that green tea polyphenols have anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. These effects appear to correlate with antioxidant properties of green tea polyphenols. The outcome of the several experimental studies suggests that green tea possess anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic potential, which can be exploited against a variety of skin disorders. Although more clinical studies are needed, supplementation of skin care products with green tea may have a profound impact on various skin disorders in the years to come. Arch Dermatol. 2000;136:989-994
  • Article
    The use of naturally occurring botanicals with substantial antioxidant activity to afford protection to human skin against UV damage is receiving increasing attention. The green tea constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a potent antioxidant and has shown remarkable preventive effects against photocarcinogenesis and phototoxicity in mouse models. In this study we have investigated the effects of topical application of EGCG, the major polyphenol present in green tea, to human skin before UV irradiation on UV-induced markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes. Using immunohistochemistry and analytical enzyme assays, we found that application of EGCG (mg/cm(2) skin) before a single UV exposure of 4x minimal erythema dose (MED) markedly decreases UV-induced production of hydrogen peroxide (68-90%, P < 0.025-0.005) and nitric oxide (30-100%, P < 0.025-0.005) in both epidermis and dermis in a time-dependent manner. EGCG pretreatment also inhibits UV-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes, particularly CD11b(+) cells (a surface marker of monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils), into the skin, which are considered to be the major producers of reactive oxygen species. EGCG treatment was also found to inhibit UV-induced epidermal lipid peroxidation at each time point studied (41-84%, P < 0.05). A single UV exposure of 4x MED to human skin was found to increase catalase activity (109-145%) and decrease glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (36-54%) and total glutathione (GSH) level (13-36%) at different time points studied. Pretreatment with EGCG was found to restore the UV-induced decrease in GSH level and afforded protection to the antioxidant enzyme GPx. Further studies are warranted to study the preventive effects of EGCG against multiple exposures to UV light of human skin.
  • Article
    Green tea is consumed as a popular beverage worldwide particularly in Asian countries like China, Korea, Japan and India. It contains polyphenolic compounds also known as epicatechins, which are antioxidant in nature. Many laboratories have shown that topical treatment or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols inhibits chemical carcinogen- or ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumorigenesis in different animal models. Studies have shown that green tea extract also possesses anti-inflammatory activity. These anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties of green tea are due to their polyphenolic constituents present therein. The major and most chemopreventive constituent in green tea responsible for these biochemical or pharmacological effects is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these effects of green tea is a subject of investigation in many laboratories. Treatment of green tea polyphenols to skin has been shown to modulate the biochemical pathways involved in inflammatory responses, cell proliferation and responses of chemical tumor promoters as well as ultraviolet (UV) light-induced inflammatory markers of skin inflammation. Topical treatment with EGCG on mouse skin also results in prevention of UVB-induced immunosuppression, and oxidative stress. The protective effects of green tea treatment on human skin either topically or consumed orally against UV light-induced inflammatory or carcinogenic responses are not well understood. Based on documented extensive beneficial effects of green tea on mouse skin models and very little in human skin, many pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies are supplementing their skin care products with green tea extracts. Therefore, the focus of this communication is to review and analyze the photoprotective effects of green tea polyphenols to skin.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Tea catechins and other flavonoids have been shown to potentially protect against chronic cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. In this study, 6-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed green tea extract (50 mg/100 ml in drinking water) up to the age of 22 months, and the age-associated changes in Maillard-type fluorescence and carbonyl groups in the aortic and skin collagen were compared with those occurring in the water-fed control animals. Collagen-linked Maillard-type fluorescence was found to increase in both the aortic and skin tissues as animals aged. The age-associated increase in the fluorescence in the aortic collagen was remarkably inhibited by the green tea extract treatment, while that occurring in the skin collagen was not significantly inhibited by the treatment. The collagen carbonyl content also increased in both the aortic and skin tissues as animals aged. In contrast with the case of Maillard-type fluorescence, however, the age-associated increase in the carbonyl content was not inhibited by the green tea extract treatment either in the aortic or skin collagen. These results suggest that the inhibition of AGE formation in collagen is an important mechanism for the protective effects of tea catechins against cardiovascular diseases.
  • Article
    Tea has received a great deal of attention because tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants, and tea preparations have inhibitory activity against tumorigenesis. The bioavailability and biotransformation of tea polyphenols, however, are key factors limiting these activities in vivo. The inhibition of tumorigenesis by green or black tea preparations has been demonstrated in animal models on different organ sites such as skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, forestomach, stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, and mammary gland. Epidemiological studies, however, have not yielded clear conclusions concerning the protective effects of tea consumption against cancer formation in humans. The discrepancy between the results from humans and animal models could be due to 1) the much higher doses of tea used in animals in comparison to human consumption, 2) the differences in causative factors between the cancers in humans and animals, and 3) confounding factors limiting the power of epidemiological studies to detect an effect. It is possible that tea may be only effective against specific types of cancer caused by certain etiological factors. Many mechanisms have been proposed for the inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea, including the modulation of signal transduction pathways that leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and transformation, induction of apoptosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells, as well as inhibition of tumor invasion and angiogenesis. These mechanisms need to be evaluated and verified in animal models or humans in order to gain more understanding on the effect of tea consumption on human cancer.
  • Article
    Green tea is a popular beverage consumed worldwide. The epicatechin derivatives, which are commonly called 'polyphenols', are the active ingredients in green tea and possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Studies conducted by our group on human skin have demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTP) prevent ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), which are considered to be mediators of UVB-induced immune suppression and skin cancer induction. GTP treated human skin prevented penetration of UV radiation, which was demonstrated by the absence of immunostaining for CPD in the reticular dermis. The topical application of GTP or its most potent chemopreventive constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prior to exposure to UVB protects against UVB-induced local as well as systemic immune suppression in laboratory animals. Additionally, studies have shown that EGCG treatment of mouse skin inhibits UVB-induced infiltration of CD11b+ cells. CD11b is a cell surface marker for activated macrophages and neutrophils, which are associated with induction of UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity responses. EGCG treatment also results in reduction of the UVB-induced immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in skin as well as in draining lymph nodes, and an elevated amount of IL-12 in draining lymph nodes. These in vivo observations suggest that GTPs are photoprotective, and can be used as pharmacological agents for the prevention of solar UVB light-induced skin disorders associated with immune suppression and DNA damage.
  • Article
    A number of biological activities have been ascribed to the major green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to explain its chemopreventive properties. Its antioxidant properties emerge as a potentially important mode of action. We have examined the effect of EGCG treatment on the damaging oxidative effects of UVA radiation in a human keratinocyte line (HaCaT). Using the ROS-sensitive probes dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), we detected a reduction in fluorescence in UVA-irradiated (100 kJ/m(2)) cells in the case of the former but not the latter probe after a 24-hr treatment with EGCG (e.g., 14%, [p < 0.05] after 10 microM EGCG). In the absence of UVA, however, both DHR and DCFH detected a pro-oxidant effect of EGCG at the highest concentration used of 50 microM. Measurements of DNA damage in UVA-exposed cells using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) also showed the protective effects of EGCG. A concentration of 10 microM EGCG decreased the level of DNA single strand breaks and alkali-labile sites to 62% of the level observed in non-EGCG, irradiated cells (p < 0.001) with a 5-fold higher concentration producing little further effect. Correspondingly, EGCG ablated the mutagenic effects of UVA (500 kJ/m(2)) reducing an induced hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutant frequency of (3.39 +/- 0.73) x 10(-6) to spontaneous levels (1.09 +/- 0.19) x 10(-6). Despite having an antiproliferative effect in the absence of UVA, EGCG also served to protect against the cytotoxic effects of UVA radiation. Our data demonstrate the ability of EGCG to modify endpoints directly relevant to the carcinogenic process in skin.
  • Article
    Unlabelled: New methods to protect skin from photodamage from sun exposure are necessary if we are to conquer skin cancer and photoaging. Sunscreens are useful, but their protection is not ideal because of inadequate use, incomplete spectral protection, and toxicity. Skin naturally uses antioxidants (AOs) to protect itself from photodamage. This scientific review summarizes what is known about how photodamage occurs; why sunscreens--the current gold standard of photoprotection--are inadequate; and how topical AOs help protect against skin cancer and photoaging changes. This review is intended to be a reference source, including pertinent comprehensive reviews whenever available. Although not all AOs are included, an attempt has been made to select those AOs for which sufficient information is available to document their potential topical uses and benefits. Reviewed are the following physiologic and plant AOs: vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc, silymarin, soy isoflavones, and tea polyphenols. Their topical use may favorably supplement sunscreen protection and provide additional anticarcinogenic protection. (J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:1-19.) Learning objective: At the completion of this learning activity, participants should have an understanding of current information about how the sun damages skin to produce skin cancer and photoaging changes, how the skin naturally protects itself from the sun, the shortcomings of sunscreens, and the added advantages of topical AOs for photoprotection.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major constituent of green tea, possesses significant anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive properties. Studies have shown the photochemopreventive effects of green tea and EGCG in cell culture, animal models, and human skin. The molecular mechanism(s) of photochemopreventive effects of EGCG are incompletely understood. We recently showed that EGCG treatment of the normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) inhibits ultraviolet (UV)B-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In this study, we evaluated the effect of EGCG on UVB-mediated modulation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) pathway, which is known to play a critical role in a variety of physiological functions and is involved in inflammation and development of cancer. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that the treatment of NHEK with EGCG (10-40 microM) for 24 h resulted in a significant inhibition of UVB (40 mJ/cm(2))-mediated degradation and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and activation of IKKalpha, in a dose-dependent manner. UVB-mediated degradation and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and activation of IKKalpha was also observed in a time-dependent protocol (15 and 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 h post-UVB exposure). Employing immunoblot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gel shift assay, we demonstrate that EGCG treatment of the cells resulted in a significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition of UVB-mediated activation and nuclear translocation of a NF-kappaB/p65. Our data suggest that EGCG protects against the adverse effects of UV radiation via modulations in NF-kappaB pathway, and provide a molecular basis for the photochemopreventive effect of EGCG.
  • Article
    In skin inflammation, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and IL-8 play an important role and are produced by activated keratinocytes. Recently, some polyphenols have been reported to exhibit antiinflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. We therefore evaluated the effects of green tea, its major component epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and an isoflavone derived from soybean (genistein) on the release of VEGF and IL-8 by activated normal human keratinocytes (NHK). NHK cultured in defined medium were stimulated for 48 h with the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha with the addition or not of different concentrations of polyphenols. Levels of VEGF and IL-8 were measured in cell supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The different constituents tested inhibited keratinocyte proliferation without inducing apoptosis. They reduced in a dose-dependent manner the basal release and the upregulation of VEGF in NHK. Green tea and EGCG were also potent inhibitors of IL-8 release by TNFalpha-stimulated NHK, whereas genistein exerted only minor effects. These results underline the divergent pathways involved in the downregulation of VEGF and IL-8 by polyphenols in activated keratinocytes. They also suggest that polyphenols may contribute to moderate inflammatory processes in skin diseases associated with angiogenesis.
  • Article
    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation is responsible for skin tumor development via gene mutations and immunosuppression, and possibly for photoaging. In this review, recent understanding of DNA damage caused by direct UV radiation and by indirect stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA repair mechanisms, particularly nucleotide excision repair of human cells, are discussed. In addition, mutations induced by solar UV radiation in p53, ras and patched genes of non-melanoma skin cancer cells, and the role of ROS as both a promoter in UV-carcinogenesis and an inducer of UV-apoptosis, are described based primarily on the findings reported during the last decade. Furthermore, the effect of UV on immunological reaction in the skin is discussed. Finally, possible prevention of UV-induced skin cancer by feeding or topical use of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, and vitamin E, is discussed.
  • Article
    Because of a characteristic aroma and health benefits, green tea is consumed worldwide as a popular beverage. The epicatechin derivatives, commonly called polyphenols, present in green tea possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The major and most highly chemopreventive constituent in green tea responsible for the biochemical or pharmacological effects is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Epidemiological, clinical and biological studies have implicated that solar ultraviolet (UV) light is a complete carcinogen and repeated exposure can lead to the development of various skin disorders including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We and others have shown that topical treatment or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) inhibit chemical carcinogen- or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in different laboratory animal models. Topical treatment of GTP and EGCG or oral consumption of GTP resulted in prevention of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, immunosuppression and oxidative stress, which are the biomarkers of several skin disease states. Topical application of GTP and EGCG prior to exposure of UVB protects against UVB-induced local as well as systemic immune suppression in laboratory animals, which was associated with the inhibition of UVB-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of immune responses by EGCG was also associated with the reduction in immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 production at UV irradiated skin and draining lymph nodes, whereas IL-12 production was significantly enhanced in draining lymph nodes. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of green tea were also observed in human skin. Treatment of EGCG to human skin resulted in the inhibition of UVB-induced erythema, oxidative stress and infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. We also showed that treatment of GTP to human skin prevents UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers formation, which are considered to be mediators of UVB-induced immune suppression and skin cancer induction. The in vitro and in vivo animal and human studies suggest that green tea polyphenols are photoprotective in nature, and can be used as pharmacological agents for the prevention of solar UVB light-induced skin disorders including photoaging, melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers after more clinical trials in humans.
  • Article
    The most abundant green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), was found to induce differential effects between tumor cells and normal cells. Nevertheless, how normal epithelial cells respond to the polyphenol at concentrations for which tumor cells undergo apoptosis is undefined. The current study tested exponentially growing and aged primary human epidermal keratinocytes in response to EGCG or a mixture of the four major green tea polyphenols. EGCG elicited cell differentiation with associated induction of p57/KIP2 within 24 h in growing keratinocytes, measured by the expression of keratin 1, filaggrin, and transglutaminase activity. Aged keratinocytes, which exhibited low basal cellular activities after culturing in growth medium for up to 25 days, renewed DNA synthesis and activated succinate dehydrogenase up to 37-fold upon exposure to either EGCG or the polyphenols. These results suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for treatment of wounds or certain skin conditions characterized by altered cellular activities or metabolism.