ArticleLiterature Review

Vitamin E: Critical Review of Its Current Use in Cosmetic and Clinical Dermatology

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  • Dermatology Specialists, Inc.
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Abstract

The lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E has been used for more than 50 years in clinical and experimental dermatology. However, although a large number of case reports were published, there is still a lack of controlled clinical studies providing a rationale for clinical indications and dosage. In contrast, advances in basic research on the physiology, mechanism of action, penetration, bioconversion, and photoprotection of vitamin E in human skin have led to the development of numerous new formulations for use in cosmetics and skin care products. This article reviews the basic mechanisms and possible cosmetical and clinical implications of the recent advances in cutaneous vitamin E research. Experimental evidence suggests that topical and oral vitamin E has anticarcinogenic, photoprotective, and skin barrier-stabilizing properties. Although its current use is largely limited to cosmetics, controlled clinical studies for indications such as atopic dermatitis or prevention of photocarcinogenesis are needed to evaluate the clinical benefit of vitamin E.

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... This indicate the vitamin E acts as a strong antioxidant and have positive role against lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes 9,13 . The skin in the treatment group shown there is an increase in the rate of wound contraction after treatment with Vitamin E, this agree with the research done in diabetic rats 21 . As well vitamin E treatment increase formation of epithelium in the stratum basale and corneum, as well the dense of collagen fibers have been increase in treated mice 21 . ...
... The skin in the treatment group shown there is an increase in the rate of wound contraction after treatment with Vitamin E, this agree with the research done in diabetic rats 21 . As well vitamin E treatment increase formation of epithelium in the stratum basale and corneum, as well the dense of collagen fibers have been increase in treated mice 21 . ...
... Additionally, previous studies have shown that the ingestion of alpha-tocopherol-containing supplements can improve facial wrinkles in post-menopausal women [9,10]. Alpha-tocopherol has antioxidant and photoprotective functions, especially against ultraviolet type A radiation that is implicated in the development of wrinkles and pigment unevenness [11]. Furthermore, tocopherol has pigment reducing and skin brightening properties [12,13]. ...
... The antioxidant and photoprotective properties from alpha-tocopherols in almonds may serve to reduce development of wrinkles and pigment unevenness [11]. This may further account for the results in the reduction of skin pigmentation in the almond group. ...
Article
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Background: Almonds have long been studied as a rich source of fatty acids, phytochemical polyphenols and antioxidants such as vitamin E. A recent study compared almond supplementations to a calorie-matched intervention for 16 weeks, yielding statistically significant improvement in wrinkle severity in postmenopausal women with Fitzpatrick skin types I and II that received almonds. This study furthers that assessment with a larger population and duration of 24 weeks to assess the influence of almond consumption on wrinkle severity, skin pigmentation and other skin biophysical profiles. Objective: To investigate the effects of almond consumption on photoaging such as wrinkles and pigment intensity as well as facial biophysical parameters such as sebum production, skin hydration and water loss. Design and interventions: A prospective, randomized controlled study assessed postmenopausal women with Fitzpatrick skin types I or II who consumed 20% of their daily energy consumption in either almonds or a calorie-matched snack for 24 weeks. A facial photograph and image analysis system was used to obtain standardized high-resolution photographs and information on wrinkle width and severity at 0, 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin pigmentation, skin hydration and sebum production were also completed at each visit. Results: The average wrinkle severity was significantly decreased in the almond intervention group at week 16 and week 24 compared to baseline by 15% and 16%, respectively. Facial pigment intensity was decreased 20% in the almond group at week 16 and this was maintained by week 24. There were no significant differences in skin hydration or TEWL in the almond group compared to the control, although sebum excretion was increased in the control group. Conclusion: The daily consumption of almonds may improve several aspects of photoaging such as facial wrinkles and pigment intensity in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, the daily consumption of almonds may contribute to the improvement of facial wrinkles and reduction of skin pigmentation among postmenopausal women with Fitzpatrick skin types I and II.
... The antioxidant activity of vitamin E is strongly dependent on the action of other biological agents, such as ascorbic acid, vitamin B3, selenium, and glutathione. The powerful antioxidant activity makes the vitamin E important in the prevention of skin aging, and it has proved to be a useful treatment for many skin conditions: melasma, scar formation preventing and atopic dermatitis [54]. Topical vitamin E application has proved to be safe with few side effects and low incidence of mild irritations. ...
... Vitamin B3 Anti-inflammatory effect [20]; synthesis of proteins and ceramides important for the skin barrier and reduction in trans epidermal water loss [19]; contribution in DNA repair processes [22] Treatment of acne [21], atopic dermatitis [19], actinic keratosis [23], and prevention of skin cancers [22] and photoaging [24] Vitamin B8 Involved in the production of keratin [29] and in several metabolic pathways (gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, amino acid catabolism) [26] Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis [31] and several hair and nail disorders [29] Vitamin C Inhibition of reactive oxygen accumulation [32]; involved in collagen synthesis processes [34] Treatment and prevention of photoaging [36] and photocarcinogenesis [42] Vitamin D Immunomodulatory effect [45]; control of keratinocyte proliferation and calcium homeostasis [43]; reduction of UV-induced DNA damage [48] Treatment of psoriasis [45] and prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers [49] Vitamin E Antioxidant activity [54] and reduction in lipid peroxidation [53] Treatment of scleroderma [57], yellow nail syndrome [55], acne [56], and melasma [58]. Prevention of skin aging [33] Vitamin K Involved in the activation processes of some coagulation factors [59]; antioxidant activity [61••] Treatment of acute and chronic skin wounds [61••] and laser-induced purpura [62] Coenzyme Q10 Antioxidant activities against environmental aggressions; component of mitochondrial respiratory chain [64] Treatment of skin aging [65] subjected to stresses of different nature, and the resulting damage can be repaired through processes that require energy. ...
Article
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Purpose of review: Skin is the main defense organ of the human body against external insults (ultraviolet radiations, infections by pathogenic microorganisms, and mechanical and chemical stress). The integrity and functions of the skin barrier are supported by an adequate supply of micronutrients, such as several vitamins. The purpose of this review was to analyze all vitamin-related skin problems. Recent findings: The World Health Organization has estimated that more than 2 billion people worldwide experience deficiencies in the intake of essential vitamins and minerals; the percentage of adults all over the world using daily vitamin supplements, for treatment or prevention of chronic disease, has increased very rapidly in recent years. In this review, 65 studies have been selected in order to examine the role of the main vitamins and their derivatives involved in maintaining the well-being of the skin and their use as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in the management of skin disorders.
... However, the conversion to the purified (isolated) form is required in skin to obtain the desired effects. Topical applications are designed for treating melasma, protecting against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and improving aging damages [5,6], The association of vitamin E with other antioxidants increase the effects in skin [7]. ...
... The metabolization of derivatives into the active form of vitamin E (alphatocopherol) occurs at a far extend in the nucleated epidermis [6]. Therefore, the conversion is highly dependent on the delivery system of cosmetic preparations into controlling skin permeation [14]. ...
Chapter
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Vitamins are part of the antioxidant system of human skin, and are detectable in different layers, so the topical application can be an alternative to maintain the functionality of the system. The capacity of the antioxidant gradient of keratinocytes is associated with attenuation of the action of related free radicals in both esthetics and health. These problems arise from extrinsic aging and are related to the risk of cancer. Vitamin E has been proven to have antioxidant and moisturizing properties in the skin and can protect against the damage of UVB radiation, with emphasis on the reduction of acute erythema and photoaging. The choice for the use of topical vitamin E, compared to the oral is given by the safety as mild irritation and it has potential for multifunctional topical formulations. The purpose of the chapter is to review the topical use of formulations with vitamin E, addressing the development, safe use and evaluation of effectiveness.
... 7,8 Vitamin E is a group of eight natural compounds that include four tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ) and four tocotrienols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ) which contribute to its activities. 9 Vitamin E inhibits lipid peroxidation 10 and also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. 11 Omega-3 supplements are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that include long-chain ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as well as linoleic acid. ...
Article
This systematic review was conducted to investigate the effects of vitamin E and omega-3 used alone and in combination on the frequency and intensity of hot flushes (primary outcomes) and adverse effects (secondary outcome) in menopausal women. English and Persian databases were searched until March 18, 2021. The quality of the published papers was evaluated using Cochrane Handbook and the meta-analysis was conducted in RevMan 5.3. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. In cases with substantial heterogeneity, a random effects model was used instead of a fixed effects model. A total of 387 papers were obtained from the databases. Finally, 10 papers with a sample size of 1100 participants entered the systematic review and a meta-analysis was conducted on nine of them. The results of the meta-analysis of two studies indicated that using vitamin E and omega-3 in combination significantly reduced the intensity of hot flushes compared to the placebo (mean difference (MD): -0.35; 95% CI: -0.48 to -0.21). The mean frequency (MD: -0.50; 95% CI: -1.58 to 0.58) and intensity (SMD: -0.61; 95% CI: -1.50 to 0.29) of hot flushes in the omega-3 group and the frequency of hot flushes (SMD: -0.21; 95% CI: -0.47 to 0.04) in the vitamin E group showed no significant differences with the placebo. No serious adverse effects were reported in the studies. Given the low number of RCTs, more clinical trials with larger sample size are required.
... In addition to releasing inflammatory mediators, squalene peroxide can also be comedogenic. [10][11][12] El-Akawi et al. in 2006 conducted plasma vitamin E level examination in 100 patients with severe, moderate, and mild AV and 100 control subjects. The severity of AV is determined based on the Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). ...
Article
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Background: Acne vulgaris (AV) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit, particularly among adolescents. The pathogenesis of AV is multifactorial, developing research studies the role of free radicals and antioxidants imbalance that cause oxidative stress in AV. The main antioxidant found in the skin is vitamin E, which functions as a protector against lipid peroxide. Purpose: To compare serum vitamin E levels in adolescents with AV and healthy adolescents without AV (controls). Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational analytic study that involved 17 adolescents with AV and 17 controls in Dermatology and Venereology Outpatient Clinic Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital Surabaya. The subjects have met the inclusion and exclusion criterias. Result: The mean of vitamin E level in adolescent patients with AV was 7.8 ± 1.07 mg/mL and 10 ± 1.06 mg/mL in controls with the p-value in this study was p = 0.0001. Conclusion: It was found that serum vitamin E levels in adolescent AV patients were significantly lower than the controls. Further research is required to find out more about the role of antioxidants in the pathogenesis of AV.
... The research showed that topically applied vitamin E was potentially penetrated into the skin layer where oxidative stress occurs so as to inhibit the photoaging process. 16 Prakoeswa et al. compared the improvement percentages between the subject's first and third visitation data, and they found that there was no significant improvement in terms of wrinkles, spots (polarized), spots (UV) and skin tone between microneedling treatment + AMSC-MP and microneedling treatment + normal saline. 12 A total of 3 subjects had unaffected wrinkle values and 4 subjects experienced a wrinkling value. ...
Article
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Background: Photoaging, also called extrinsic aging, is a premature skin aging mainly resulting from prolonged and extended exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Amniotic Membrane Stem Cell Metabolite Products (AMSC-MP) are derived from amniotic membranes that contain cytokines and growth factors that have a role in the skin rejuvenation process. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that has a photoprotective effect, so it is expected to reduce the appearance of clinical signs of photoaging. Not only having skin rejuvenation effect, but microneedling is also expected to facilitate the penetration to increase the efficacy of AMSC-MP and vitamin E. This combination is expected to have a better effect on clinical photoaging improvement. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a topical combination of AMSC-MP and vitamin E after microneedling on the clinical improvement of photoaging compared to previous skin conditions. Methods: Thirty adult women with photoaging topically administered a combination of AMSC-MP and vitamin E after 3 microneedling sessions at 2 weeks intervals. The evaluation of the improvement of the degree of pores, wrinkles, skin tone and dark spots were performed with the Janus-II Facial Skin Scope System. Result: There was a clinical improvement with a statistically significant difference in terms of the degree of pores, wrinkles, polarized black spots, and UV black spots, which were statistically significant differences (p <0.05). Conclusion: The administration of a topical combination of AMSC-MP and vitamin E after microneedling provided clinical improvement in photoaging as supported by the results of Janus analysis of pores, wrinkles, skin tones, polarized black spots, and UV black spots.
... Upon exposing to U.V. radiations a depletion of vitamin E occurs as part of defense mechanism against U.V. damaging consequences, whereas skin photooxidative damage suffers a very early and sensitive event in which α-tocopherol depleted in stratum corneum (Thiele & Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage, 2007). Numerous reports have been recommended oral supplement of vitamin E in the therapy of vibration disease, claudication, collagen synthesis and wound healing, yellow nail syndrome, cutaneous ulcers, bullosa, epidermolysis and cancer prevention (Thiele, Hsieh, & Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage, 2005). Vitamin E shows to have a chemo-protective characteristics, as it reported to improve some conditions including pigmented contact dermatitis, cloasma, and atopic dermatitis, the most influence has been observed in the area of a photo-protection. ...
Article
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Earth is abundant with oxygen which used in living system for burning metabolic fuel in order to produce energy. Oxygen is somewhat considered as a toxic agent, due to its ability of formation free radicals. Free radicals are very reactive substances, produced normally in the human body and exhibit a positive effects at normal levels but, in elevated status the development of oxidative injury is inevitable. In order to limit the harmful effects of free radicals, a counter protective system composed of antioxidants have been recognized, these antioxidants arise from endogenous and exogenous sources and work together in a sophisticated system, scavenging free radicals and eliminate their consequences. The skin is known as the largest organ of the human body, and the first line defense of it. It have been reported that many of skin diseases are followed with a remarkable oxidative stress markers. Here in this article we demonstrated some of the pathogenesis of the skin and the association of oxidative stress.
... These beneficial effects include prevention of arteriosclerosis (and cardiovascular diseases) along with anti-inflammatory, immune-supporting, and anti-angiogenic effects of these micronutrients [10][11][12][13]. Also, in cosmetics (creams, make-up) vitamin E is considered an important ingredient for skin protection [14]. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2017-2018) indicated mean vitamin E intakes of 10.5 mg/day and 8.6 mg/ day, respectively, for adult males and females (> 19 y) from the U.S. [15]. ...
Article
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A variety of vitamin E dietary supplement capsules (DSC) based on different natural oils or synthesis products are currently found on the market whose vitamin contents need to be controlled before and after marketing. Here, we present an instrumental thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method which allows a direct determination of all tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) as well as α -tocopherol acetate simultaneously in one run with short analysis time. For this purpose, contents of the DSC were extracted, applied on silica gel 60 plates, and developed with n -hexane/ethyl acetate/acetic acid, 90:10:2 ( v/v/v ) as mobile phase. The UV scan of the plate at 293 nm was used for quantification based on the peak height. Following the scan, the plate was treated with 10% sulphuric acid in methanol which led to characteristic yellow-to-brown colouring of the tocochromanol spots which allowed to distinguish tocochromanols from matrix components with similar R f values. In most cases, determined vitamin E contents matched well with the information listed on the label of the investigated DSC samples. The method is fast, easy to perform and gently treats the analytes as it requires no thermal treatment prior to quantification, which makes it suitable as a screening method.
... Vitamin E is a widely used antioxidant in clinical and experimental dermatology. According to Thiele et al. (2006), vitamin E is the major lipophilic antioxidant which found in plasma, membrane, and tissues. Vitamin E form from four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. ...
Article
The effectiveness and efficiency of a cosmetic product depends not only on the active ingredients, but also on the stability of formulation devoted in improving the bio-functionality. Thus, improving the stability of topical applications with vitamin E is important. The study aimed to optimise kenaf seed oil percentage on gel-cream formulations supplemented with palm-based α-tocopherol and determine their physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, and α-tocopherol content. The samples were produced by high shear homogenisation and subjected to optimisation to obtain the best formulation with good physical stability and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activities were determined by radical scavenging assays and α-tocopherol content was quantified by ultra-high performance chromatography. Vitamin E gel-cream formulated from 9% kenaf seed oil (S3) was selected based on its stability in viscosity and antioxidant activities. S3, with pH 6.02 showed viscosity value at 6106.3 cP was physically stable. Also, the α-tocopherol obtained for S3 was 9.34 mg/g sample that indicated 3.63 mg TE/g sample and 10.42 mg TE/g sample for diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzot-hiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activities, respectively. For 12 weeks storage stability study at 25 ± 2 °C and 40 ± 2 °C, S3 showed good microbial stability but with mild depletion of tocopherol content. Overall, the results herein gathered are very promising towards the development of new cosmetic formulations using kenaf seed oil and palm-based α-tocopherol.
... Vitamin E extracted from crude palm oil is mainly composed of a mixture of 70% tocotrienols and 30% tocopherols and referred to as a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) [9,10]. The many distinctive roles of tocotrienols in cancer, inflammation, neuroprotection and metabolic syndromes exemplify that tocotrienols have significant implications for clinical use [10][11][12][13][14]. Tocotrienols identified as antioxidants have been well-known in the field of dermatology for many years [15]. Zampieri et al. [16] confirmed the positive effect of topical vitamin E in surgical wound repair. ...
Article
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Background: An experimental study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) with tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) cream in the wound-healing process on skin with deep partial-thickness burn in rats. Methods: A total of 180 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups of six each and were: untreated control, treated with Silverdin® cream, base cream, base cream with c% EGF, base cream with 3% TRF or base cream with c% EGF and 3% TRF, respectively. Creams were applied once daily for 21 consecutive days. Six animals from each group were sacrificed using anaesthetic overdose on the third, seventh, 11th, 14th and 21st day post-burn. Skin tissues with the wound to be examined were excised for macroscopic and microscopic evaluation and biochemical analyses. Results: EGF + TRF formulation decreased the number of neutrophils, lymphocytes and myofibroblasts post-burn. However, no effects on the number of adipose cells in the healing process were recorded. In addition, lipid peroxidation and nitrite production were found to be reduced post-burn, reducing oxidative stress. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that the addition of EGF with TRF have ameliorating effects on deep-partial thickness burn healing parameters.
... Figure S5: Size distribution of nanoemulsion with different oil phases: (a) oleic acid, (b) Limanthes alba (Meadowfoam) seed oil, (c) tocopherol in Helianthus annuus oil, (d) Cananga oil, (e) Listea cubeba fruit oil, (f) organic buckwheat oil, (g) carrot seed oil organic, (h) chaulmoogra oil organic, (i) tocopherol, (j) pressed tamanu oil, (k) pressed avocado oil, (l) pressed pomegranate oil, (m) ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate, (n) Passilflora incarnata seed oil, (o) rapeseed oil, (p) sea bucktorn pulp oil, (r) fatty acid ethyl esters, and (s) capryloyl glycine. Table S1: Topical α-tocopherol is mostly used at a concentration of 5% or less [66]. The highest a-tocopherol levels were found in the lower stratum corneum, whereas the lowest levels were present in the upper layers [14]. ...
Article
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The developing field of bio-nanotechnology aims to advance colloidal research via the introduction of multifunctional nanoparticles to augment the dermal effectiveness of active substances. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS)—isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants, solvents and co-solvents or surfactants—are attracting interest in the cosmeceutical field. As part of this study, SEDDS systems containing vitamin C or vitamin E and curcumin were developed, whereby the bioavailability of the active compounds increased by enhancing their permeability to deeper layers of the skin. A composition consisting of 50% surfactin from Bacillus subtilis, 30% Transcutol and 20% oil phase was designed to encapsulate the active substances, i.e., vitamin C or vitamin E and curcumin, contained in the oil phase. The developed carriers were characterized by average particle sizes of 69–183 nm. The formulations with the vitamins were found to be physically and chemically stable for 6 months. Transdermal tests were carried out, showing that the carriers enable the transport of active substances deep into the skin, stopping at the dermis border. The formulations with vitamin C and vitamin E reduced the discoloration, the vascular lesions, and the depth of the wrinkles on the tested skin, which can be useful in cosmetics in the treatment of problem skin, including capillary and sensitive skin.
... food, cosmetics. . .), especially related to the ability of scavenging lipid peroxyl radicals (Thiele et al., 2005;Montenegro et al., 2015;Shahidi and de Camargo, 2016). The fatty acids that compose the lipid fraction of the four samples are predominantly monounsaturated (Table 1). ...
Article
Olive pomace, a wet semi-solid paste that remains after olive oil extraction, is a major waste of the process and its recovery is mandatory due to its phytotoxicity when rejected directly into the soil. Innovative applications have been studied, but simple and reliable methods that fulfil the gap between the recovery of compounds and their use by industries (contributing to the sustainability and circular economy of the chain) still need to be explored. In this work, four monocultivar olive pomaces (Arbequina, Arbosana, Oliana, and Koroneiki) were studied regarding their nutritional composition, fatty acids and vitamin E profiles, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity, and Fourier Transform Near Infrared and Mid Infrared spectra. Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis were used to discriminate samples. Arbosana pomace presented the highest total fat (15%, dw) and vitamin E contents (1.4 mg/g of oil), being α-tocopherol the main vitamer in all samples. Koroneiki pomace was the richest in phenolic compounds (9 g gallic acid eq./kg). The major fatty acid was oleic acid. Stearic acid, linoleic acid, and FRAP levels differed significantly among cultivars. NIR spectra showed differences in all spectral regions (best separation from 6504 to 5389 cm⁻¹ and 4961 to 4035 cm⁻¹), while MIR spectra presented differences only in some spectral regions. The results showed that Near Infrared spectroscopy together with Principal Component Analysis is a powerful tool to discriminate olive pomace cultivars, with ability to be used in an industrial context.
... Vitamin E is a promising chemo-preventive and pharmacologically safe agent, which can be exploited or tested against skin cancer [137]. Experimental evidence suggests that topical and oral vitamin E has anticarcinogenic, photoprotective, and skin barrierstabilizing properties [138].The topical use of resveratol, a polyphenol from red grapes with great antioxidantactivity in skin care formulation Farris et.al, 2014 reported that significant improvement in fine lines and wrinkles, skin firmness, skin elasticity, skin laxity, hyperpigmentation, radiance, and skin roughness over baseline in 12 weeks after using a topically applied proprietary blend containing 1% resveratrol, 0.5% baicalin, and 1% vitamin E.Ultrasound measurements in the periorbital area showed an average improvement of 18.9% in dermal thickness suggesting significant dermal remodeling [139].Combination of vitamin E, vitamin C, and ferulic acid can reduce the incidence of oxidative stress-induced tumors, and their antioxidant effects are much better than the use of vitamin C alone [140]. Burns et.al, 2013 demonstrated that topical 5% alpha tocopherol may actually promote carcinogenesis when applied on chronically UVB-damaged skin while treating with a more stable antioxidant compound may offer therapeutic benefits [141]. ...
... Das Auf der molekularen Ebene unterstützt Vitamin C die Regeneration von Vitamin E aus seiner oxidierten Form und erhöht dadurch die antioxidative Gesamtkapazität [77,78]. Aus diesem Grund erscheint es sinnvoll, Vitamin E-haltigen dermokosmetischen Zubereitungen zusätzlich Vitamin C zuzusetzen. ...
Article
Falten reduzieren, die Haut straff halten und einen frischen Teint herbeizaubern — diese Versprechungen machen Cosmeceuticals. Sie enthalten meist effektivere Inhaltsstoffe als herkömmliche Kosmetika.
... Vitamin E is a promising chemo-preventive and pharmacologically safe agent, which can be exploited or tested against skin cancer [137]. Experimental evidence suggests that topical and oral vitamin E has anticarcinogenic, photoprotective, and skin barrier-stabilizing properties [138]. The topical use of resveratol, a polyphenol from red grapes with great anti oxidant activity in skin care formulation reported that significant improvement in fine lines and wrinkles, skin firmness, skin elasticity, skin laxity, hyper pigmentation, radiance, and skin roughness over baseline in 12 weeks after using a topically applied proprietary blend containing 1% resveratrol, 0.5% baicalin, and 1% vitamin E. Ultrasound measurements in the periorbital area showed an average improvement of 18.9% in dermal thickness suggesting significant dermal remodeling [139]. ...
... Our study indicates that DPE and its vapor results in significantly altered expression of several proteins reported to be involved in maintenance of skin epithelial integrity, regulation of skin hydration and oxidative stress. Vitamin E is a well-studied antioxidant with known beneficial roles in skin [27]. We observed that treatment with vitamin E alleviated the adverse effects of chronic exposure to environmental pollution. ...
Article
Background: Skin acts as a protective barrier against direct contact with pollutants but inhalation and systemic exposure have indirect effect on keratinocytes. Exposure to diesel exhaust has been linked to increased oxidative stress. Objective: To investigate global proteomic alterations in diesel particulate extract (DPE)/ its vapor exposed skin keratinocytes. Methods: We employed Tandem Mass Tag (TMT)-based proteomics to study effect of DPE/ DPE vapor on primary skin keratinocytes. Results: We observed an increased expression of oxidative stress response protein NRF2, upon chronic exposure of primary keratinocytes to DPE/ its vapor which includes volatile components such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics led to identification 4490 proteins of which 201 and 374 proteins were significantly dysregulated (≥1.5 fold, p ≤ 0.05) in each condition, respectively. Proteins involved in cellular processes such as cornification (cornifin A), wound healing (antileukoproteinase) and differentiation (suprabasin) were significantly downregulated in primary keratinocytes exposed to DPE/ DPE vapor. These results were corroborated in 3D skin models chronically exposed to DPE/ DPE vapor. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that DPE and its vapor affect distinct molecular processes in skin keratinocytes. Components of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation machinery were seen to be exclusively overexpressed upon chronic DPE vapor exposure. In addition, treatment with an antioxidant like vitamin E partially restores expression of proteins altered upon exposure to DPE/ DPE vapor. Conclusions: Our study highlights distinct adverse effects of chronic exposure to DPE/ DPE vapor on skin keratinocytes and the potential role of vitamin E in alleviating adverse effects of environmental pollution.
... Hence, future studies could explore lower doses of almonds when studying its effects on the skin. Although vitamin E consumed through food sources such as nuts and legumes has not shown toxicity, it is important to note that vitamin E supplementation in cumulative doses excess of 1,000 IU/day can inhibit clotting functions in the blood and interact with medications (Thiele, Hsieh, & Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage, 2005). No toxicities were noted in our study. ...
Article
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Objective: Almonds are a rich source of fatty acids and antioxidants, and their supplementation is known to significantly modulate serum lipids. The effects of almond on the skin's lipid barrier and the appearance of wrinkles have not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of almond consumption on facial sebum production and wrinkles. Methods: This was a prospective, investigator-blinded, randomized controlled trial in which subjects consumed 20% of their daily energy consumption in either almonds or a calorie-matched snack for 16 weeks. This study was completed at the UC Davis Dermatology clinic. Participants were a volunteer sample of generally healthy postmenopausal females with Fitzpatrick skin types 1 and 2. A facial photograph and image analysis system was used to obtain standardized photographs and information on wrinkle width and severity at 0, 8, and 16 weeks. Measurements of transepidermal water loss and sebum production were also completed at 0, 8, and 16 weeks. Results: Fifty healthy postmenopausal females were recruited, 31 participants were enrolled, and 28 completed the study. Under photographic analysis, the almond group had significantly decreased wrinkle severity and width compared with the control group at 16 weeks (p < .02). Changes in skin barrier function were nonsignificant, measured by the transepidermal water loss (p = .65) between the almond and control groups relative to baseline after 16 weeks. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that daily almond consumption may reduce wrinkle severity in postmenopausal females to potentially have natural antiaging benefits.
... Vitamin E is a promising chemo-preventive and pharmacologically safe agent, which can be exploited or tested against skin cancer [125]. Experimental evidence suggests that topical and oral vitamin E has anticarcinogenic, photoprotective, and skin barrier-stabilizing properties [126]. The topical use of resveratol, a polyphenol from red grapes with great antioxidant activity in skin care formulation Farris Figure 12: The interdependence of vitamins E and C, and glutathione, in the scavenging of free radicals and regeneration of the reduced antioxidants [131]. ...
... Fermented roselle seeds are used as a spice in northern Nigeria. The seed oil is richer in gamma-tocopherol [4], which is an antioxidant used widely in food and cosmetic industries [5], than the sepals, leaves, and stems extracts [4]. Topical antioxidants from natural sources are one of the approaches used to reverse signs of skin aging. ...
Article
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Roselle Hibiscus is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine. The parts of the flower, calyx, and bracts, are regularly used but the seed of roselle has not been used and studied for antioxidant activities. The objective of the present work was to determine the antioxidant activity of roselle seed oil extract extracted using dichloromethane maceration. The extraction then was formulated as nanoemulsions and evaluated for its physicochemical properties and stability. The oil obtained from Roselle Hibiscus seed demonstrated good antioxidant activity, according to the DPPH assays. Roselle seed oil extract nanoemulsions were developed using non-ionic surfactants and water by ultrasonic emulsification method and evaluated to achieve optimum stability. Nanoemulsions formulated using Tween 60 and Tween 80 had a relatively small droplet size ranging from 20-30 nm. After a seven-day stability test at the room temperature and a 6-cycle heating-cooling study, phase separation or creaming did not occur to the nanoemulsions formulated by Tween 60 and Tween 80. The ratio of roselle seed oil extract and Tween 60 that yielded the best physical properties for the nanoemulsions was 1% and 5%, respectively. The results indicated that nanoemulsions had nanoscale droplet size and were stable under the normal and stress storage condition.
... They are important ingredients in many cosmetic products. [90,91]. Vitamin E is a collective name for four tocopherol isoforms (α-,β-,γ-,δ-) and 4 tocotrienols (α-,β-,γ-,δ-) that are naturally occurring lipophilic non-enzymatic antioxidants. ...
Article
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The incidence of inflammatory skin diseases is increasing, so the search for relevant therapeutics is of major concern. Plants are rich in phytochemicals which can alleviate many symptoms. In this review we concentrate on compounds found in the seeds of widely cultivated plants, regularly used for oil production. The oils from these plants are often used to alleviate the symptoms of inflammatory diseases through synergetic action of unsaturated fatty acids and other phytochemicals most commonly derived from the terpenoid pathway. The knowledge of the chemical composition of oil seeds and the understanding of the mechanisms of action of single components should allow for a more tailored approach to treatment for many diseases. In many cases these seeds could serve as an efficient material for the isolation of pure phytochemicals. Here we present the content of phytochemicals, assumed to be responsible for healing properties of plant oils, in widely cultivated oil seed plants and review the proposed mechanism of action for fatty acids, selected mono-, sesqui-, di- and triterpenes, carotenoids, tocopherol and polyphenols.
... Tocopherols play an important role in preventing the oxidation of almond lipids, resulting in increasing the possibility of lengthening kernel storage [5][6][7]. Recently, the cosmetic industry and clinical dermatology have paid more attention to tocols due to their photoprotection and antioxidant properties [8]. Tocols can limit lipid peroxidation in cell membranes and scavenging reactive oxygen species and protect tissues from consequent oxidative damage. ...
Article
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The consumption of vegetable oil is an important way for the body to obtain tocols. However, the impact of oil types and grades on the tocopherol and tocotrienol contents in vegetable oils is unclear. In this study, nine types of traditional edible oils and ten types of self-produced new types of vegetable oil were used to analyze eight kinds of tocols. The results showed that the oil types exerted a great impact on the tocol content of traditional edible oils. Soybean oils, corn oils, and rapeseed oils all could be well distinguished from sunflower oils. Both sunflower oils and cotton seed oils showed major differences from camellia oils as well as sesame oils. Among them, rice bran oils contained the most abundant types of tocols. New types of oil, especially sacha inchi oil, have provided a new approach to obtaining oils with a high tocol content. Oil refinement leads to the loss of tocols in vegetable oil, and the degree of oil refinement determines the oil grade. However, the oil grade could not imply the final tocol content in oil from market. This study could be beneficial for the oil industry and dietary nutrition.
... Conventional formulations [42] and nanotechnological-based formulations [16,43] have been used to deliver vitamin E and its derivatives into the skin due Erythema decrease [27,28] Inflammation reduction [29] Cancer prevention Pyrimidine dimers reduction [30] Reduction of melanoma progression Apoptosis induction [31,32] Cell cycle arrest [32] Improvement of melasma Reduction of tyrosinase activity [33,34] Down-regulation of TYRP-2 expression [34] Down-regulation of TYR, TYRP-1, TYRP-2* [35] Reduction of Skin Aging Increased collagen expression [36,37] Decrease metalloproteinases expression [37] *TYR: Tyrosinase, TYRP-1: tyrosinase-related protein-1, TYRP-2: tyrosinase-related protein-2. to its moisturizing, photoprotective, antioxidant [44,45] and anticancer properties [46]. Some formulations applied to skin care are summarized in Table 2. ...
Chapter
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Vitamin E is fundamental for a proper function of human cells. Mostly obtained from vegetable oils, it has antioxidant and non-antioxidant actions. At times, its oral intake or skin application are employed. Oral intake is recommended in some cases. Differently, the topical application is a part of daily skin routine. Both in oral or in topical formulations, it is employed in its isoforms or derivatives. Tocopherols and tocotrienols are isoforms while derivatives are synthetic forms. In pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations, vitamin E and its derivatives are widely used due to its antioxidant and photoprotective properties. However, the clinical success treatment is often impaired by its low skin penetration, high lipophilicity, and chemical instability. A rational formulation design in the development of novel vitamin E dosage forms is required. In this chapter, the most successful and innovative approaches towards Vitamin E and its derivatives loaded in formulations for skin health promotion are reviewed. Conventional and nanoparticle-based formulations enable vitamin E chemical stabilization, and they are suitable vehicles for its release on the skin. Further, nano-sized carriers can increase vitamin E content in formulations as well as favor its skin penetration.
... Vitamin E also has a role in photoadduct formation and immunosuppression. 52 Most of the over-the-counter antiaging creams contain 0.5%-1% of vitamin E. 53 ...
Article
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Skin health is an important aspect of aesthetics. Dermatologists and scientists try to develop novel methods and materials to fulfill this aim. Facial cosmetics keep skin moist and remove sebum from the skin to maintain proper skin health. The use of suitable cosmetics according to the facial skin type results in healthy skin. Facial masks are the most prevalent cosmetic products utilized for skin rejuvenation. Facial masks are divided into four groups: (a) sheet masks; (b) peel‐off masks; (c) rinse‐off masks; and (d) hydrogels. Each of these has some advantages for specific skin types based on the ingredients used. The following article presents the available information about the facial mask. Also, we have focused on the facial masks available in the market. Despite several developments in this field, extensive research is required for performing successful and precise clinical trials in the future. Further improvements would enable the researchers to develop new products in this field. In this review, we present the most recent breakthroughs in the field of skin care and rejuvenation by cosmeceutical facial mask. This information is valuable to get the picture of the latest trends and also helpful for clinicians and related manufacturing companies.
... Numerous studies showed that topical application of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or dα -tocopherol (vitamin E) or mixed tocopherols can inhibit many of the consequences of UV irradiation of skin, including erythema, sunburn cell formation (UV-induced apoptosis) and DNA damage (Farris, 2005), (Thiele et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
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There is a worldwide trend toward the use of natural cosmetics and to formulate high Ultraviolet protection sunscreens using lower concentrations of chemical sunscreens. The addition of natural compounds to the synthetic agents may be an effective strategy to prevent the deleterious effects of UV radiation. New compounds, especially those derived from plants, which have the ability to absorb or block UV radiation, have been extensively studied. Among these active principles extracted from plants are flavonoids, tannins, carotenoid and anthraquinones. Various studies demonstrated that phenolic compounds derived from propolis, tea (Camellia sinensis), grape (Vitis vinifera), Ginkgo biloba, and milk thistle (Silybum marianum) may provide sun protection through minimizing oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunosuppression. The whole herbal extracts of some plants as Aloe vera, green tea (Camellia sinensis), pomegranate (Punica granatum), walnut (Juglans regia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) also provide protection against the harmful effects of UV radiation on the skin. Herbal oils also have sun protection factor determinate and were used in cosmetics for that reason ,such as olive, coconut, castor, almond, basil, Jojoba, sesame and cottonseed oil.
... The antioxidant vitamin E has also photoprotective and skin barrier-stabilizing properties [91], being indicated to atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, skin cancer prevention, wound healing, and melasma [92]. ...
... Vitamin E is known to have a key role in the prevention of many pathogens thanks to its anti-inflammatory effects (Konieczka et al., 2019). It is therefore a pivotal nutrient in dermatological application (Thiele et al., 2005) because it seems to affect collagen turnover to improve wound healing (Hobson, 2016). ...
... [8,12] Vitamin E is an essential nutrient that has been extensively investigated as an active agent for both pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications because of its antioxidative and photoprotective properties. [13] A derived of vitamin E, tocopheryl acetate, was formulated in a lipid nanoparticle-based product, [8] while alpha-tocopherol, the most abundant in nature and the most active form of the vitamin E family of compounds, was included in several types (SLN and NLC) of solid lipid nanoparticles. Particularly, in the past two years, NLC is being used more for vitamin E due to the better retention of the encapsulated substance. ...
Article
Solid lipid nanoparticles have excellent properties as delivery systems for dermal cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations because they have good compatibility with the skin, protect the encapsulated substance from the medium, and control its release at the site of action. This work describes the preparation and characterization of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) containing vitamin E (NLC‐VE). The emulsion‐solidification technique was used to prepare the particles. Three non‐ionic surfactants (Tween 80, Cremophor RH40 and Pluronic F‐127) were used in two concentrations (5 and 10% (w/w)) and three liquid lipids (avocado oil, coconut oil and medium chain triglycerides (MCT)) were mixed with the solid lipid (stearic acid) to form the oil phase. Some processing variables (emulsification procedure, and time and energy during sonication) were modified to find the most suitable NLC in terms of particle size and release profile. Higher surfactant concentration produced more homogeneous nanoparticles with smaller diameter. The liquid lipid and its proportion in the oil phase also modified the characteristics of NLC‐VE. Time and sonication energy did not strongly affect the particle size (24–28 nm), with the exception of the highest time and amplitude, which produced particles with 14 nm. NLC‐VE prepared with stearic acid as solid lipid, 10% (w/w) Tween 80 as surfactant, and MCT as liquid lipid in a 1:3 mass proportion of solid lipid‐to‐liquid lipid, had a unimodal size distribution and the best vitamin E release (50% in 24 h). Results indicate that this system can be used to improve the delivery of vitamin E.
... Vitamin C Inhibition of melanogenesis, promotion of collagen bi osynthesis and prevention of free radical formation; s kin-whitening agent; regenerating vitamin E [14,15] Arbutin Skin-whitening agent, and restrains the activity of tyr osinase and melanin [16,17] Curcumin Prevent UV damage; Anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, antioxidative, free radical scavenger [18] Resveratrol Antioxidant, antimutagenic, ant-inflammatory, inhibit tumorigenesis [19] Vitamin E A major lipophilic antioxidant in plasma, membranes, and tissues; reducing acute skin responses (erythema and edema, sunburn, lipid peroxidation) [20] Vitamin A Absorbing ultraviolet, free radical scavenger [21] Vitamin K Reduction of pigments, minimize appearance of freckles [22] Coenzyme Q10 Free radical scavenger, anti-aging agent [23] Idebenone Free radical scavenger, anti-aging agent [24] Silymarin Antitumor, reduce UV induced sunburn cell formatio n, antioxidant [25] 7 ...
Article
Antioxidants play a crucial role in the protection and maintenance of health and are also integral ingredients in beauty products. The active antioxidants possess numerous outstanding features that are useful for cosmetic formulations. However, there are many problems related to their instability and insolubility that have been restricting their practical applications and which has led to the advent of core-shell materials, mainly lipid nanoparticles and nanoemulsions as one of the most effective solutions to protect those antioxidants and broaden their applicability to cosmetic products. Unfortunately, the production and application of core-shell materials in the cosmetics industry face many other challenges as well. Here, some of the main problems relating to the loss of the protective function as well as the limitations of material's preparation techniques are reviewed and discussed in depth. Simultaneously, development strategies for resolving the corresponding problems are underlined. These strategies have been meeting the development needs of the cosmetics industry in the present and will continue to do so for at least the near future. In addition, strategies for stimulating the progress of the cosmetics industry are anticipated.
... Moreover, α-tocotrienol has 40-60 times greater antioxidant activity than α-tocopherol in liver microsomes (Serbinova & Packer, 1994) and has unique anti-carcinogenic properties (Büsing & Ternes, 2011). Tocotrienols are also attracting increasing attention in the food industry, cosmetic and clinical dermatology, because of their photoprotection and antioxidant properties (Thiele, Hsieh, & Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage, 2005). Studies in vitro have shown that plastochromanol-8 also is a strong antioxidant, much better than the tocopherols (Gruszka, Pawlak, & Kruk, 2008;Nowicka, Gruszka, & Kruk, 2013). ...
Article
Vitamin E is a family of related compounds with different vitamin E activities and antioxidant properties that includes tocopherols, tocotrienols and plastochromanol-8. Plant oils could serve as an industrial source not only of tocopherols, but also tocotrienols and plastochromanol-8, which exhibit much stronger antioxidant activities than tocopherols. The aim of this study was a quantitative and qualitative analysis of vitamin E in certain plant oils. We demonstrated the presence of vitamin E derivatives in all the plant oils tested. The highest tocopherol contents were in pomegranate, wheat germ and raspberry seed oils. In general, γ-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol homologue. Tocotrienols were also identified in most of the oils, but their content was much lower. The highest concentration of tocotrienols was in coriander seed oil. Plastochromanol-8 was present in most of the oils, but wheat germ oil was the richest source.
... Vitamin E is a promising chemo-preventive and pharmacologically safe agent, which can be exploited or tested against skin cancer [129]. Experimental evidence suggests that topical and oral vitamin E has anticarcinogenic, photoprotective, and skin barrier-stabilizing properties [130]. ...
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Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. In contrast to thin and atrophic, finely wrinkled and dry intrinsically aged skin, premature photoaged skin typically shows a thickened epidermis, mottled discoloration, deep wrinkles, laxity, dullness and roughness. Gradual loss of skin elasticity leads to the phenomenon of sagging. Slowing of the epidermal turnover rate and cell cycle lengthening coincides with a slower wound healing and less effective desquamation in older adults. This fact is important when esthetic procedures are scheduled. On the other side, many of these features are targets to product application or procedures to accelerate the cell cycle, in the belief that a faster turnover rate will yield improvement in skin appearance and will speed wound healing. A marked loss of fibrillin-positive structures as well as a reduced content of collagen type VII (Col-7, may contribute to wrinkles by weakening the bond between dermis and epidermis of extrinsically age skin. Sun-exposed aged skin is characterized by the solar elastosis. The sparse distribution and decrease in collagen content in photoaged skin can be due to increased collagen degradation by various matrix metalloproteinases, serine, and other proteases irrespective of the same collagen production. The overall collagen content per unit area of the skin surface is known to decline approximately 1%/year. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs are among the primary dermal skin matrix constituents assisting in binding water. In photo-aged skin, GAGs may be associated with abnormal elastotic material and thus be unable to function effectively. The total hyaluronic acid (HA level in the dermis of skin that age intrinsically remains stable; however, epidermal HA diminishes markedly. Decreased estrogen levels may play a role in skin aging in women and compounds stimulating estrogen receptors could potentially counteract some of the visible signs of aging. As people live longer, women spend a larger portion of their lives in a post-menopausal state, with a deficiency of estrogen as compared to their younger selves. Changes in diet and increasing exercise, together with a regimen of antioxidants, nutritional supplements, and growth factors, can alter how the genes express themselves. Both factors can greatly enhance the healing capability of the skin and can improve the results of cosmetic surgeries.
... Therefore, these three groups are important ingredients in the cosmetic industry [1,2]. The widespread use of vitamin E over the past several decades is mostly associated with its antioxidant activity [3]. Vitamin E is used in cosmetics as a cosmetically active ingredient (occlusive, humectant, emollient, and miscellaneous agent) [4] or as a stabilizer of other, unstable components of the cosmetic product [5,6]. ...
Article
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Vitamins A and E and coenzyme Q10 are common ingredients in anti-ageing cosmetic products. Within this study, we evaluated the quality of commercial cosmetics with vitamin A (35 products), vitamin E (49 products), and coenzyme Q10 (27 products) by using validated HPLC–UV methods. Vitamin A was determined as retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl propionate, β carotene, and hydroxypinacolone retinoate in concentrations ranging from 950 ng/g to 19 mg/g. Total vitamin A contents, expressed with retinol equivalents, ranged from 160 ng/g to 19 mg/g, and were above the maximum concentration recommended by the SCCS in six of the 35 tested cosmetics. The content-related quality control of 10 cosmetics with specified vitamin A content revealed significant deviations (between 0% and 400%) of the label claim. Vitamin E was determined as both tocopherol and tocopheryl acetate in concentrations between 8.5 µg/g and 16 mg/g. Coenzyme Q10 was determined as ubiquinone in 24 tested cosmetics, which labelled it, in concentrations between 4.2 µg/g and 100 µg/g. Labelling irregularities were observed in all three active compound groups, resulting in a significant share (42%) of improperly labelled cosmetic products. The results of this study reveal the need for stricter cosmetics regulation and highlight the importance of their quality control, especially by evaluating the contents of the active compounds, in their efficacy and safety assurance.
... Page16 eight naturally occurring molecules (four tocopherols and four tocotrienols) that have vitamin E activity. In humans, alpha tocopherol (α-Toc) is the most abundant vitamin E derivative, followed by gamma tocopherol [128]. There is a large body of experimental evidence proving its photoprotective effects. ...
Article
Hyperpigmentation is one of the most common skin disorders that affects both men and women of all ethnic groups, caused by several factors, such as UV exposure and skin inflammation. Topical whitening agents were found to be the best and the least aggressive therapy for treating hyperpigmentation compared to instrumental approaches. However, topical treatment faces several obstacles due to the low stability of the whitening agents. The number of patients that visit dermatologists with pigmentary disorders is significant. Patients are often overwhelmed with numerous OTC skin lightening agents, many without clinical evidence of efficacy. However, evidence-based studies on many of these agents are still lacking. The treatment of melasma should include a multimodality approach that incorporates photoprotective agents, antioxidant treatments, skin lighteners, exfoliants, and resurfacing procedures, as needed. Evidence-based studies suggest that first line therapies for melasma encompass intense photoprotection and topical lightening agents. Second-line treatments, such as chemical peels and lasers, are efficacious in some patients, but these approaches can be associated with acute and long-term complications, particularly in individuals with darker skin types. Given the global negative impact of melasma on the quality of life, a quest to find more efficacious treatments that offer sustained long-term remission for patients with this frustrating and therapeutically challenging disorder is ongoing.
... Vitamin E is known to have a key role in the prevention of many pathogens thanks to its anti-inflammatory effects (Konieczka et al., 2019). It is therefore a pivotal nutrient in dermatological application (Thiele et al., 2005) because it seems to affect collagen turnover to improve wound healing (Hobson, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The regeneration of small periodontal defects has been considered an important divide and challenging issue for dental practitioners. The aim of this preliminary in vitro study was to analyze the effects of polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers enriched with hyaluronic acid and vitamin E vs. nude nanofibers on gingival fibroblasts activity, an innovative graft for periodontal soft tissue regeneration purposes. Methods: Nanofibers were produced in PCL (NF) or PCL enriched with hyaluronic acid and vitamin E (NFE) by electrospinning technique. NF and NFE were stereologically and morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and composition was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Human fibroblasts were obtained from one gingival tissue fragment (HGF) and then seeded on NF, NFE, and plastic (CT). Cell adhesion and morphology were evaluated using SEM at 24 h and cell viability after 24, 48, and 72 h by alamarBlue® assay. Gene expression for COL-I, LH2b, TIMP-1, PAX, and VNC was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR in samples run in triplicate and GAPDH was used as housekeeping gene. Slot blot analysis was performed and immunoreactive bands were revealed for MMP-1 and COL-I. YAP and p-YAP were analyzed by Western blot and membranes were reprobed by α-tubulin. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: IR spectrum revealed the presence of PCL in NF and PCL and vitamin E and hyaluronic acid in NFE. At 24 h, HGF adhered on NF and NFE conserving fibroblast like morphology. At 72 h from seeding, statistically significant differences were found in proliferation of HGF cultured on NF compared to NFE. Expression of genes (LH2b, TIMP-1, and MMP-1) and proteins (COL-I) related to collagen turnover revealed a reduction of COL-1 secretion in cells cultured on NF and NFE compared to CT; however, NFE stimulated cross-linked collagen deposition. Mechanosensor genes (PAX, VNC, and YAP) were upregulated in HGF on NF while they were decreased in cells grown on NFE. Conclusion: Preliminary data suggest that PCL-enriched nanofibers could represent a support to induce HGF proliferation, adhesion, collagen cross-linking, and to reduce collagen degradation, therefore favoring collagen deposition in gingival connective tissue.
... Vitamin E with high antioxidant activity showed potential protection against UV-induced skin photodamage (Krol et al., 2000). From Thiele et al. (2006) topical application of vitamin E up to 1% is considered safe and effective to improve the level of skin vitamin E. According to Krol et al. (2000) topical application of α-tocopherol was found to inhibit the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine photoproducts in the animal model. Vitamin E protects the skin from various deleterious effects that mainly contributed to lipid peroxidation interactions with enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways of other antioxidant systems and acts as a freeradical scavenger (Anstey, 2002;Ribeiro et al., 2015). ...
Article
The photoprotective skincare products are in high demand to meet the consumer market with concern on skin health. Seed oils are commonly used as ingredients in many cosmetic products due to their natural antioxidants and now being increasingly recognized for their effects on skin health and photoprotection. This article briefly reviews the application of seed oils in sunscreen development focusing on the antioxidants that contribute to photoprotection, thus preventing UV‐induced erythema and photoaging. The addition of seed oils that contain specific natural bioactive compounds was discussed in the review. Besides that, seed oils acting in molecular pathways that benefit photoprotection were also summarized. Seed oils (pomegranate seed oil, castor oil, cocoa butter, jojoba oil, rosehip oil, grapeseed oil, kenaf seed oil, and pumpkin seed oil) utilization have high potential to act as natural UV filters and at the same time help in skin repairing. The seed oils contributed beneficial properties to the sunscreen formulation due to their synergistic effect with antioxidants, antiaging properties, anti‐inflammatory effect, and potential hormetic effect. The finding of specific bioactive compound from seed oils provides a better understanding of the contribution of seed oils in sunscreen formulation.
... Vitamin E is a promising chemo-preventive and pharmacologically safe agent, which can be exploited or tested against skin cancer [137]. Experimental evidence suggests that topical and oral vitamin E has anticarcinogenic, photoprotective, and skin barrierstabilizing properties [138].The topical use of resveratol, a polyphenol from red grapes with great antioxidantactivity in skin care formulation Farris et.al, 2014 reported that significant improvement in fine lines and wrinkles, skin firmness, skin elasticity, skin laxity, hyperpigmentation, radiance, and skin roughness over baseline in 12 weeks after using a topically applied proprietary blend containing 1% resveratrol, 0.5% baicalin, and 1% vitamin E.Ultrasound measurements in the periorbital area showed an average improvement of 18.9% in dermal thickness suggesting significant dermal remodeling [139].Combination of vitamin E, vitamin C, and ferulic acid can reduce the incidence of oxidative stress-induced tumors, and their antioxidant effects are much better than the use of vitamin C alone [140]. Burns et.al, 2013 demonstrated that topical 5% alpha tocopherol may actually promote carcinogenesis when applied on chronically UVB-damaged skin while treating with a more stable antioxidant compound may offer therapeutic benefits [141]. ...
Article
As the most voluminous organ of the body that is exposed to the outer environment, the skin suffers from both intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors. Skin aging is characterized by features such as wrinkling, loss of elasticity, laxity, and rough-textured appearance. This aging process is accompanied with phenotypic changes in cutaneous cells as well as structural and functional changes in extracellular matrix components such as collagens and elastin. With intrinsic aging, structural changes occur in the skin as a natural consequence of the biological changes over time and produce a certain number of histological, physiological, and biochemical modifications. Intrinsic aging is determined genetically (influence of gender and ethnic group), variable in function of skin site, and also influenced by hormonal changes. Visually it is characterized by fine wrinkles. By comparison, “photoaging” is the term used to describe the changes occurring in the skin, resulting from repetitive exposure to sunlight. The histological, physiological, and biochemical changes in the different layers of the skin are much more drastic. From a mechanical point of view, human skin appears as a layered composite containing the stiff thin cover layer presented by the stratum corneum, below which are the more compliant layers of viable epidermis and dermis and further below the much more compliant adjacent layer of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.
... In fact, the Onset 1 temperature and the inflection temperature of the main peak were slightly increased (Table 1). This could reasonably be due to the radical scavenger activity of Vit-E [34]. In fact, a reduced reactivity of radicals thanks to this scavenging action, can contrast, at least partially, the thermal degradation mechanism [35]. ...
Article
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A stable water-based suspension containing chitin nanofibrils (CN), chitin nanofibrils complexed with nanolignin and the latter containing Vitamin E was prepared starting from CN nanosuspension and nanostructured powders. The water-based coating was deposited by a spray technique on three different renewable and biodegradable films consisting of biodegradable polyesters and starch to prepare possible beauty mask prototypes. After drying, the films were extracted with water to control their potential release on the wet skin and different amounts of released materials were obtained. The results were discussed considering the composition and morphology of the adopted substrates and their interactions with the coating. The eco-compatibility of these films is related to the absence of preservatives and their easy biodegradability in several environmental conditions, decreasing their burden on solid waste management with respect to fossil-based versions.
... Vitamin E has been broadly applied in cosmetic formulations to prevent acute skin problems from UV exposure, including erythema, edema, sunburn cell formation [60], lipid peroxidation [61], immune suppression [62], ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced binding of photosensitizers [63], deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adduct formation, and chemiluminescence. Chronic skin reactions induced by long-term exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) or UVA lights, including skin tumors and skin wrinkling, are treated by topical vitamin E formulations [64]. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid, a water-soluble vitamin, is often found in fruits, vegetables, teas and herb plants [65]. ...
Chapter
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Herbal cosmetics are referred as natural cosmetics formulated by a wide range of cosmetic ingredients in which herbal extract compounds play a vital role in treatment of skin problems. There is currently an increasing interest for bioactive compounds originated from herbal extracts for the body care formulations due to dramatically increase of consumer expectations worldwide. Generally, herbal extracts are incorporated in the body care cosmetic products to enhance human beauty their functional features including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Besides, herbal extracts also show other beneficial features, i.e. mildness, efficacy, biodegradability, low toxicity, cleansing ability, emulsification, moisturization, skin appearance, feel, fragrance, and lubrication. Therefore, herbal body care cosmetics have become more popular among the population. In this chapter, we provide a general description and definition about main compounds, advanced extraction techniques, and novel technologies for encapsulation and delivery of herbal extraction in body care cosmetic formulation. Furthermore, some detailed body care products designed and developed based on herbal extracts are also discussed and depicted in deep.
... Vitamin E is a promising chemo-preventive and pharmacologically safe agent, which can be exploited or tested against skin cancer [137]. Experimental evidence suggests that topical and oral vitamin E has anticarcinogenic, photoprotective, and skin barrier-stabilizing properties [138]. The topical use of resveratol, a polyphenol from red grapes with great antioxidant activity in skin care formulation Farris et al., 2014 reported that significant improvement in fine lines and wrinkles, skin firmness, skin elasticity, skin laxity, hyperpigmentation, radiance, and skin roughness over baseline in 12 weeks after using a topically applied proprietary blend containing 1% resveratrol, 0.5% baicalin, and 1% vitamin E.Ultrasound measurements in the periorbital area showed an Cell death of all skin cells, with associated inflammation. ...
Article
Full-text available
As the most voluminous organ of the body that is exposed to the outer environment, the skin suffers from both intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors. Skin aging is characterized by features such as wrinkling, loss of elasticity, laxity, and rough-textured appearance. This aging process is accompanied with phenotypic changes in cutaneous cells as well as structural and functional changes in extracellular matrix components such as collagens and elastin. With intrinsic aging, structural changes occur in the skin as a natural consequence of the biological changes over time and produce a certain number of histological, physiological, and biochemical modifications. Intrinsic aging is determined genetically (influence of gender and ethnic group), variable in function of skin site, and also influenced by hormonal changes. Visually it is characterized by fine wrinkles. By comparison, “photoaging” is the term used to describe the changes occurring in the skin, resulting from repetitive exposure to sunlight. The histological, physiological, and biochemical changes in the different layers of the skin are much more drastic. From a mechanical point of view, human skin appears as a layered composite containing the stiff thin cover layer presented by the stratum corneum, below which are the more compliant layers of viable epidermis and dermis and further below the much more compliant adjacent layer of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Upon exposure to a strain, such a multi-layer system demonstrates structural instabilities in its stiffer layers, which in its simplest form is the wrinkling. These instabilities appear hierarchically when the mechanical strain in the skin exceeds some critical values. Their appearance is mainly dependent on the mismatch in mechanical properties between adjacent skin layers or between the skin and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, on the adhesive strength and thickness ratios between the layers, on their bending and tensile stiffness as well as on the value of the stress existing in single layers. Gradual reduction of elastic fibers in aging significantly reduces the skin’s ability to bend, prompting an up to 4-fold reduction of its stability against wrinkling, thereby explaining the role of these fibers in skin aging. Anti-aging medicine is practiced by physicians, scientists, and researchers dedicated to the belief that the process of physical aging in humans can be slowed, stopped, or even reversed through existing medical and scientific interventions. This specialty of medicine is based on the very early detection and prevention of age-related diseases. Physicians practicing anti-aging medicine seek to enhance the quality of life as well as its length, limiting the period of illness and disability toward the end of one’s life. Anti-aging medicine encompasses lifestyle changes (diet and exercise); hormone replacement therapies, as needed, determined by a physician through blood testing (DHEA, melatonin, thyroid, human growth hormone, estrogen, testosterone); antioxidants and vitamin supplements; and testing protocols that can measure not only hormone levels and blood chemistry but every metabolic factor right down to the cellular level.
Article
Simple and rapid voltammetric method for simultaneous determination of all‐trans‐retinyl acetate (RAc) or all‐trans‐retinyl palmitate (RPa) and α‐tocopheryl acetate (α‐TOAc) has been proposed. The respective method was based on the anodic oxidation of the compounds of interest by square‐wave voltammetry in acetone with 0.1 mol L−1 LiClO4 at the glassy carbon electrode. The procedure was also beneficial with respect to simple dissolution of sample directly in the supporting electrolyte. The all‐trans‐retinyl acetate could be quantified in two linear ranges (3.1–140 μmol L−1 and 140–400 μmol L−1) and α‐tocopheryl acetate in linear range 5.3–400 μmol L−1 with detection limits of 0.9 μmol L−1 RAc (or 0.8 μmol L−1 RPa) and of 1.6 μmol L−1 α‐TOAc. Selected commercial cosmetic products were analysed achieving satisfactory recoveries.
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A comprehensive identification of lipid compositions and tocochromanols in Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) and Bombyx mori (B. mori) pupae oil is reported in the present study. Fatty acid profiling showed that both oils contained high levels (79.67% versus 71.11%) of unsaturated fatty acids especially linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Moreover, linolenic acid was preferentially enriched at the sn‐2 positions of triacylglycerols (TAG). Liquid chromatograph‐mass spectrometer (LC‐MS) analysis demonstrated that POO (TAG with one palmitoyl and two oleoyls) was the primary TAG form with percentages of 20.18% in A. pernyi and 15.00% in B. mori. The dominating phospholipid species were phosphatidylcholines (PC, 30.40% v.s. 54.61%) and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE, 34.82% v.s. 20.39%). Four sterol constituents with total contents of 382.56 ± 3.12 μg/g and 371.65 ± 2.98 μg/g were identified and analyzed quantitatively. Additionally, the levels of tocochromanols (20.15 ± 0.89 mg/g v.s. 17.15 ± 0.71 mg/g) were quantified in both silkworm pupae oils. Overall, silkworm oil acts as an enriched source of functional lipids and tocochromanols. Practical Application: A systematic investigation on the principal lipid classes and tocochromanols of Antheraea pernyi pupae and Bombyx mori pupae oil is reported in this study. The informative data provide supporting evidence for comprehensive utilization of silkworm oil for production of nutritional and healthy products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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The choice of a (bio)material plays a crucial role in the development of a drug delivery system because it confers specific biopharmaceutical properties to the formulation and modulates the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of the entrapped compound(s). In this context, the exploitation of natural raw materials is increasing due to their versatility and safety. Some of them can be recycled from agricultural biomasses and are a way to valorize waste for pharmaceutical and biomedical purposes. In this regard, plant proteins emerge as convenient raw materials because of their wide availability, low-cost and possibility of being chemically modified and degraded into safe by-products. Among them the gliadins, alcohol-soluble prolamins obtained from wheat, are versatile polymers to be used for the development of various systems and for different applications. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview concerning the use of gliadins as biomaterials useful for furnishing nanoparticles, nanofibers and films with the capacity to retain various active compounds. In addition, the most important pharmaceutical, biomedical, alimentary and cosmetic applications of these formulations will be discussed.
Article
PurposeResearch has shown that co-administration of preparations containing HQ and azelaic acid (AZ) or vitamin C (vit C) may be more effective than HQ alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of HQ in the presence of AZ and vit C as active ingredients in the extemporaneous preparations prepared with different techniques.Methods Topical preparations containing HQ, vit C, and AZ were prepared using with aqueous and none-aqueous extemporaneous techniques. Some auxiliary antioxidants were used to stabilize vit C. Thermal stress condition was applied for stability evaluation. Digital images and HPLC analysis were performed to control the color changes and drug loss, respectively.ResultsSevere color changes happened in some formulations and dark brown color appeared. Color change was directly attributed to vit C loss but not related to HQ loss. HQ ointment with no antioxidant, showed no loss after stress incubation. AZ was partially able to increase the HQ and vit C stability in a combination formulation, but this stabilizing effect in binary formulations of HQ and AZ was not seen. SMB enhanced vit C stability. Aqueous preparation methods decreased the stability of formulations significantly. It can be recommended that HQ, vit C, and AZ be formulated in separate dosage forms.Conclusion Avoiding water incorporating or aqueous methods will enhance the stability of these formulations, as well. Intrinsic low stability of vit C in topical formulations may be enhanced using non-water incorporating or non-aqueous methods and utilizing SMB in suitable concentrations.
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Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin, discovered in 1922, that presents important physiological functions, including antioxidant, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotector capabilities. However, it is extremely sensitive to high temperatures, light, oxygen and alkaline conditions, which, together with its poor water solubility, can limit vitamin E applications. In this context, encapsulation emerges as a suitable option for the protection of vitamin E, allowing its future incorporation into functional products for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. This procedure that, in addition to the protection of vitamin E, also allows its controlled delivery, can be performed by different techniques and using different materials, which should be selected according to the delivery system’s final purpose. The therapeutic properties of vitamin E have caught the attention of the scientific community in the last decades, with several research works being developed. However, there are still several fields to be explored, which will allow the wider use of vitamin E and the development of new functional products.
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Consumer's needs and desires for green, natural and sustainable cosmetic ingredients has driven the advances in technology needed to synthesise these ingredients using biocatalytic methods, which are described in this review.
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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) can be due to primary autoimmune and secondary causes, including e‐cigarette, or vaping, product use‐associated lung injury. We present a 33‐year‐old male presenting with PAP and a history of vaping. Serum anti‐granulocyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor antibodies were present. Vitamin E (VE), but not VE acetate, was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage. This is the first report of potential association between vaping and autoimmune PAP. We present a 33‐year‐old male presenting with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and a history of vaping. Serum anti‐granulocyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor antibodies were present. Vitamin E (VE), but not VE acetate, was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage. This is the first report of potential association between vaping and autoimmune PAP.
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Many people in developing countries rely primarily on medicinal plants as their main source of healthcare, particularly for the treatment of skin infections. Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants, there is a lack of literature describing the relevance and risks of exposure of the phytochemicals present. Galenia africana has been used traditionally in the form of pastes, decoctions, and lotions to treat wounds and other skin-related ailments. This is a report on the phytochemical composition of G. africana and a review on the pharmacological importance and relevance of these phytochemicals. The major groups of phytochemicals identified in G. africana extracts were aliphatics, aliphatic triterpenoids, fatty acids, flavonoids, and phenolic and tocopherol compounds. These have been found to exhibit medicinal properties, thus highlighting the need to assess the safety of G. africana for topical application. The information related to the safety of the various compounds could indicate the potential risks related to accidental intake of the extract upon topical product applications. This report concludes that the quantities of the phytochemicals present in G. africana should not cause undue risk to human health, which provides comfort to pursue future work on using and developing G. africana as a therapeutic agent.
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Conventional treatments for atopic dermatitis include topical corticosteroids, emollients, and topical and/or systemic immunomodulators (e.g., dupilumab). However, there is an increasing interest and demand from patients for alternative therapies. In this chapter, we discuss CAM approaches with clinical evidence in atopic dermatitis. Topics discussed include topical and oral oils, topical and oral micronutrients, bathing additives, fabrics, and topical endocannabinoids. Evidence-based CAM therapies can be strategically integrated with conventional therapies to augment response in appropriate cases.
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The role of dietary factors is an important and controversial topic in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Despite the preponderance of consumer products utilizing oral micronutrients supplementation for relief AD symptoms, less attention has been paid on the utility of topical micronutrients, specifically for individuals with AD. We review evidence on topical formulations of vitamins (A, B, C, D, and E) and trace minerals (magnesium, manganese, zinc, and iodine) for treatment of AD. While topical B, C, and E formulations appear to provide some benefit to AD individuals, topical vitamin A has no utility, and topical vitamin D may exacerbate symptoms. Magnesium, zinc, and iodine all appear to improve AD through anti‐inflammatory and anti‐microbial effects, though future studies must evaluate their use as monotherapy. The exposition of the effects that topical micronutrients have on AD offers an adjuvant treatment modality for this common inflammatory dermatosis.
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The skin of the skh-1 mouse after ultraviolet B (280-320 nm, UVB) irradiation shows the pathological changes typical of sunburn damage: spongiosis (edematous spaces) around some cells, necrosis of keratinocytes, giving rise to sunburn cells, inflammatory infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, etc. In our previous study, these were accompanied by erythema, increased skin sensitivity, and edematous swelling. The topical application of tocopherol acetate (TA) immediately after the UVB exposure decreased these changes. In this paper, multiple measurements of the skin thickness were made at different locations along the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cross-sectional image of the skin. This permits effects to be quantified with (if desired) the contralateral half of the back serving as an internal control, either exposed (positive control) or unexposed (negative control). Topical application of TA resulted in an increase in the concentration of free tocopherol in the skin. No qualitative differences in ultrastructural appearance of the UVB-irradiated, TA-treated skin could be discerned by careful examination. In vivo high resolution video microscopy of blood flow in venules of the irradiated mouse ear revealed a large (tenfold) but not statistically significant decrease in stationary lymphocytes adhering to the venule walls. The delaying of the application of TA up to 8 hours after the termination of UVB irradiation still offered statistically significant protection as did immediate application of 5% TA in diluent Myritol 318 (Delios S, Henkel).
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Radioactive tocopherol acetate was diluted with either (1) unlabelled tocopherol acetate or (2) Delios S (Henkel, a medium chain triglyceride prepared from fractionated coconut oil), a cosmetic base. These preparations were applied topically to a 2 cm diameter circle of skin. After 24 hours the percent of label which was still removable by swabbing the skin surface was 1.7% for (1) and 11.5% for (2). The central circles contained 2.86% of the label applied in 259 mg skin for (1) and 24.2% of the label applied in 226 mg skin for Delios S for (2). Surprisingly, combined samples of approximately one third of the side skin contained 0.7% of the label applied in 460 mg for (1) and 13.2% of the applied label in one third of the side skin in 523 mg for (2). The percent conversion to tocopherol in the skin central areas was 4.52% by HPLC and 4.13% by TLC for (1) and 5.97% for (2). In the side skin the percent conversion to tocopherol was 5.0% for (1) and 6.01% for (2).
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Ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm) exposure results in a variety of cellular insults including induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Accumulation of these lesions can lead to mutations in critical genes and contribute to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Topically applied alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) has previously been shown to prevent the induction of skin tumors in UVB irradiated female C3H/HeNTac mice. We hypothesized that alpha-tocopherol, which absorbs strongly in the UVB, may act as a sunscreen to prevent photodamage. To explore possible mechanisms of photoprotection, we topically applied alpha-tocopherol dispersed in a neutral cream vehicle to the dorsal epidermis of female C3H/HeNTac mice and exposed them to 2.5 J/m2/s of UVB for 60 min. Immediately after exposure, we analyzed thymine dimer levels in DNA by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Epidermal DNA from mice receiving this UVB dose contained 247 +/- 42 pmol thymine dimers/micromol thymine. Topical application of alpha-tocopherol inhibited dimer formation in a dose-dependent manner. A 1% alpha-tocopherol dispersion inhibited the formation of thymine dimers to 43% of levels in vehicle controls. Several vitamin E compounds, including alpha-tocopherol acetate, alpha-tocopherol methyl ether, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol also inhibited thymine dimer formation, but were five- to ten-fold less potent than alpha-tocopherol. A variety of commercially available sunscreens were also less potent than alpha-tocopherol in their ability to reduce dimer formation. These results suggest that DNA photoprotection is an important mechanism by which topically applied alpha-tocopherol can inhibit UVB induced skin cancer. Alpha-Tocopherol acetate, the most common form of vitamin E in commercial skin care products, conferred less protection, perhaps due to its lower absorptivity in the UVB. Our results further underscore the importance of determining which forms of vitamin E can inhibit specific lesions involved in photocarcinogenesis.
Article
Tocopherol, the major biologically active form of vitamin E, represents a frequently added lipophilic compound of skin care products. Despite its emerging use in rinse-off formulations, little is known on its efficacy with respect to its deposition or its antioxidant potential in human skin. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the single use of an ·-tocopherol-enriched rinse-off product provides effective deposition of ·-toco-pherol on human stratum corneum. To test this, forearm skin of 13 volunteers was washed either with an ·-toco-pherol-enriched rinse-off product (test product, TP) or with an ·-tocopherol-free vehicle control (control product , CP) (contralateral arm) using a standardized wash protocol. Thereafter, skin surface lipids were extracted with pure ethanol after the wash procedure as well as after 24 h. Additionally, one group of volunteers was subjected to irradiation of their forearms with low-dose UVA (8 J/cm 2) prior to lipid extraction. Skin lipid extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography using electrochemical detection for vitamin E and UV detection for squalene (SQ) and squalene monohy-droperoxide. The results of this in vivo study demonstrated that (1) while CP treatment lowers, TP treatment strongly increases ·-tocopherol levels of skin barrier lip-ids; (2) increased vitamin E deposition levels were maintained for a period of at least 24 h, and (3) TP treatment significantly inhibited photooxidation of SQ. In conclusion , the use of ·-tocopherol-enriched rinse-off products may help to maintain the integrity of the skin barrier by providing protection against photooxidative stress at the level of skin surface lipids.
Article
The objective of this research was to investigate the permeation and metabolism of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-TAc) and alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) from solution and emulsion formulations and to delineate the kinetics of such metabolism. Simple formulations containing alpha-TAc and alpha-T were applied to fresh, viable micro-Yucatan skin dermatomed to a thickness of 250-300 mum, as a finite dose in a flow-through diffusion system. The experiments were stopped at time intervals of 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours. At the end of each time interval, the amounts removed by washing, retained in the stratum corneum (SC), and penetrated into the viable skin and receptor were determined by a validated HPLC method. Receptor concentrations were below the limit of detection. alpha-TAc underwent metabolism in pig skin to the active antioxidant alpha-T. The metabolite appeared as early as two hours after application. The extent of metabolism was highest at 6-12 hours after application, No metabolism was detected in the stratum corneum. Delivery of alpha-T from isopropyl myristate (IPM) solution was more efficient than utilization of alpha-TAc from the same solution. Approximately 1.5% of alpha-T yielded the same viable skin concentration as 5% alpha-TAc. Topical application of alpha-tocopherol or its prodrug acetate was capable of enhancing the overall antioxidant capacity of pig skin. The hydrolytic pathway of alpha-TAc leading to the active antioxidant alpha-T could possibly be saturable.
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A search of the literature has not revealed any reports of allergic eczematous contact dermatitis due to the topical application of vitamin E. A case of contact allergy to synthetically produced α-tocopherol is herein reported. It is felt that this is a rare event in view of the fact that this vitamin is widely used topically in this country and abroad.
Article
Es wird eine Literaturübersicht über neuere Forschungsergebnisse auf dem Gebiet der topischen Anwendung von Vitamin E gegeben. In diesem Zusammenhang werden auch einige bisher unveröffentlichte Wirkungen von Vitamin E auf die Haut beschrieben und Angaben zu möglichen Wirkungsmechanismen gemacht. Vitamin E übt im gesamten Organismus eine außerordentlich wichtige Schutzfunktion aus. Für die breite biologische Wirksamkeit von Vitamin E sind im wesentlichen zwei Eigenschaften verantwortlich: 1) Es ist ein sehr effizientes lipophiles Antioxidans, das die Lipidperoxidation hemmt. 2) Durch die verzweigte Seitenkette in der natürlichen Konfiguration besitzt es eine hohe Affinität zu biologischen Membranen und stabilisiert sie durch physikalische Wechselwirkungen. Sowohl für kosmetische als auch für dermatologische Zwecke ist eine lokal erhöhte Vitamin-E-Versorgung von großem Nutzen, wie anhand zahlreicher Beispiele belegt werden kann. Wegen des guten Penetrationsvermögens durch die Haut ist oft die topische Applikation vorteilhaft. Als Beispiele für seine Wirkung im kosmetischen Bereich werden angeführt: Vitamin E verbessert die Mikrozirkulation in der Haut, fördert das Haar-wachstum, schützt vor UV-Lichteinwirkung, verzögert den Hautalterungsprozeß und beeinflußt die Hautfeuchtigkeit günstig. Beim dermatologischen Einsatz kann hervorgehoben werden: Entzündungen werden gehemmt, Gingivitis wird zurückgedrängt, Juckreiz wird gelinder, Wundheilung und Vernarbung werden verbessert, Aknebehandlung wird unterstützt und Pilzerkrankungen werden bekämpft. Die dermatologischen und kosmetischen Befunde bedürfen vielfach noch genauerer mechanistischer Erklärungen. Es ist zu erwarten, daß spezielle biochemische, insbesondere zellbiologische Untersuchungen zur Aufklärung von Wirkprinzpien auf diesem Gebiet beitragen.
Article
Currently available kwowledge on 1)the presence and physiological distribution of natural antioxidants in skin 2)their response to oxidative environmental stressors 3)the photoprotective potential of topically applied antioxidants.
Article
— The photoprotective effect of topically applied α-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E acetate), a stable derivative of α-tocopherol (vitamin E), and its possible bioconversion to the active antioxidant species (α-tocopherol) was examined in skin tissue of female hairless mice (HRS/J) exposed to UV-B irradiation. Our results indicate that topically applied α-tocopheryl acetate is absorbed into and retained by skin tissue. Furthermore, skin tissue from UV-B-irradiated animals that received daily topical α-tocopheryl acetate treatments contained significantly higher levels (P < 0.001) of α-tocopheryl acetate than non-UV-B-irradiated mice that received identical daily topical α-tocopheryl acetate treatments. Finally, free α-tocopherol levels in skin also were significantly increased (P < 0.00 1) by topical applications of α-tocopheryl acetate and skin levels of free α-tocopherol were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in UV-B-irradiated animals that received daily topical α-tocopheryl acetate treatments than in non-UV-Birradiated animals. These results suggest that UV-B irradiation enhances both the absorption of α-tocopheryl acetate and its bioconversion to free α-tocopherol.
Article
Background: In Spring 1992, an epidemic outbreak of papular and follicular rashes caused by a new line of cosmetics occurred throughout Switzerland. Objective: Epidemiological and clinical data were collected in order to identify the offending agent and to specify the pathophysiological mechanisms. Methods: The data concerning 263 patients seen by dermatologists plus 642 additional cases directly reported by consumers to the manufacturer were analyzed. Seventy-seven patients were patch-tested, 26 extensively, and 15 performed a repeated open application test for a duration of 4 weeks. Control patch and use tests were performed in 73 and 25 patients, respectively. The results were analyzed statistically. In addition, 12 skin biopsies were performed for histological examination. Biochemical studies on the cosmetics (final products and offending ingredient) supplemented the clinical studies. Results: The lesions were mainly papular and follicular, widely distributed, with pronounced pruritus, which was aggravated by sweating or heat exposure, and were long lasting. In a few cases, the papules were located on intensely erythematous, well-defined plaques, suggesting irritation rather than allergy. Both immediate and delayed onsets of the lesions were observed. Skin biopsies showed signs of folliculitis and perifolliculitis with little alteration of the interfollicular epidermis. Patch and use testing disclosed vitamin E linoleate® (a mixture of tocopheryl esters, mainly tocopheryl linoleate) as the offending agent. An in vitro time-dependent formation of oxidative products under storage or oxidation-stimulating conditions was observed. Conclusion: Though vitamin E esters have been widely and safely used for decades in dermatological preparations and in cosmetics, vitamin E linoleate was the cause of about 1,000 cases of unusual papular mainly follicular contact dermatitis. Oxidized vitamin E derivatives could act in vivo as haptens and/or irritants, possibly with synergistic effects.
Article
Background. Vitamin E is a generic term for a group of tocol and tocotrienol derivatives. Since the discovery that vitamin E is the major lipid soluble antioxidant in skin, this substance has been tried for the treatment of almost every type of skin lesion imaginable. Anecdotal reports claim that vitamin E speeds wound healing and improves the cosmetic outcome of burns and other wounds. Many lay people use vitamin E on a regular basis to improve the outcome of scars and several physicians recommend topical vitamin E after skin surgery or resurfacing.Objective. We attempted to determine whether topically applied vitamin E has any effect on the cosmetic appearance of scars as suggested by multiple anectodal reports.Methods. Fifteen patients who had undergone skin cancer removal surgery were enrolled in the study. All wounds were primarily closed in 2 layers. After the surgery, the patients were given two ointments each labeled A or B. A was Aquaphor, a regular emollient, and the B was Aquaphor mixed with vitamin E. The scars were randomly divided into parts A and B. Patients were asked to put the A ointment on part A and the B ointment on part B twice daily for 4 weeks. The study was double blinded. The physicians and the patients independently evaluated the scars for cosmetic appearance on Weeks 1, 4, and 12. The criteria was simply to recognize which side of the scar looked better if there was any difference. The patients’ and the physicians’ opinions were recorded. A third blinded investigator was shown photographs of the outcomes and their opinion was also noted.Results. The results of this study show that topically applied vitamin E does not help in improving the cosmetic appearance of scars and leads to a high incidence of contact dermatitis.Conclusions. This study shows that there is no benefit to the cosmetic outcome of scars by applying vitamin E after skin surgery and that the application of topical vitamin E may actually be detrimental to the cosmetic appearance of a scar. In 90% of the cases in this study, topical vitamin E either had no effect on, or actually worsened, the cosmetic appearance of scars. Of the patients studied, 33% developed a contact dermatitis to the vitamin E. Therefore we conclude that use of topical vitamin E on surgical wounds should be discouraged.
Article
Skin plays an important part in the protection against oxidative stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and chemicals. This study was based on the observation that upper facial stratum corneum contained significantly higher levels of the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol than corresponding layers of arm stratum corneum. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanism involves sebaceous gland secretion of vitamin E. To test this, we examined in eight human volunteers: (i) stratum corneum levels and distribution profiles of vitamin E in sites with a different sebaceous gland density (arm versus cheek); (ii) whether vitamin E is a significant constituent of human sebum; and (iii) if there is a correlation between levels of vitamin E and squalene, a marker of sebum secretion, in skin surface lipids. Using standardized techniques for stratum corneum tape stripping and sebum collection, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols and squalene, we found that: (i) the ratio of cheek versus upper arm alpha-tocopherol levels was 20 : 1 for the upper stratum corneum and decreased gradually with stratum corneum depth; (ii) vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol forms) is a significant constituent of human sebum and is continuously secreted at cheek and forehead sites during a test period of 135 min; and (iii) vitamin E correlates well with levels of cosecreted squalene (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.001). In conclusion, sebaceous gland secretion is a relevant physiologic pathway for the delivery of vitamin E to upper layers of facial skin. This mechanism may serve to protect skin surface lipids and the upper stratum corneum from harmful oxidation.
Article
Synopsis This paper assesses the suitability of UVB induced skin erythema measured by reflectance spectrophotometry in humans as a model for differentiating topical efficacy of free radical scavengers. Two different formulations (aqueous gels and O/W emulsions) of each active compound (tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione, ascorbyl palmitate) were tested on healthy human volunteers before and after skin exposure to UVB radiation. Skin erythema was monitored by calculating erythema index values from the skin spectral data obtained using a reflectance spectrophotometer. The free radical scavengers tested were not able to inhibit UVB induced skin erythema from both formulations when they were topically applied before UVB irradiation. Applying the free radical scavenger formulations after skin exposure to UVB radiation, glutathione and SOD showed the best ability in inhibiting the induced erythema (percentage inhibition 53.3 and 41.6%, respectively from gels). Tocopherol and tocopherol acetate inhibited UVB skin erythema by 27% while ascorbyl palmitate showed a poor efficacy. For all the active compounds tested, no significant difference was observed comparing the results obtained from gels to those from emulsions. Liposomal gel formulations containing the free radical scavengers which showed the best activity (SOD and glutathione) were prepared and topically applied after skin exposure to UVB radiation. SOD and glutathione liposomal formulations were more effective than the corresponding conventional gels. The proposed model, if validated by further studies, could be useful for differentiating the effectiveness of free radical scavengers in inhibiting photoaging due to long-term sunlight skin exposure.
Article
VITAMIN E (α-tocopherol) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) react rapidly with organic free radicals, and it is widely accepted that the antioxidant properties of these compounds are responsible in part for their biological activity1-5. Tissue vitamin C levels are often considerably greater than those of vitamin E, for example in liver the values are approximately 2 mM and 0.02 mM, respectively. Nevertheless, vitamin E is considerably more lipophilic than vitamin C, and in biomembranes has been found to be the more potent antioxidant, particularly with respect to lipid peroxidation; penetration to a precise site in the membrane may be an important feature of the protection against highly reactive radicals6. Tappel has suggested that the two vitamins act synergistically, vitamin E acting as the primary antioxidant and the resulting vitamin E radical then reacting with vitamin C to regenerate vitamin E7. We now report direct observation of this interaction, which we feel may be an important feature in the maintenance of vitamin E levels in tissues.
Article
Exposure of the skin of the back of skh-1 hairless mice to UVB (310 nm peak) irradiation at doses of 0.115-0.23 J/cm2 results after 24-48 h in an erythema which can be quantified using an erythema meter, providing a useful model of sunburn. Application of pure d-alpha-tocopherol acetate, a thick oil, to the skin immediately following the exposure to UVB significantly reduces the increase in erythema index, by 40-55%. At the lower dose (0.115 J/cm2), skin thickness (associated with edematous swelling of the sunburned skin) was measured by a novel non-invasive technique not previously reported for this purpose--magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In two experiments the UVB-induced increase in skin thickness was significantly reduced at 24 hr by 29 and 54%, and at 48 hr by 26 and 61%. After 8 days the untreated irradiated mouse skin still showed a significant increase in thickness (24%) compared to the untreated unirradiated control, while the treated irradiated control was not significantly thicker than the unexposed control. Skin sensitivity was tested using a modification of the technique of esthesiometry, by observing rapid avoidance responses of the mouse to a pressure of 0.96 g/cm2 exerted by applying to the skin the tip of a nylon esthesiometer fiber extended to 60 mm in length. The untreated irradiated mice were more sensitive (p less than 0.07, Wilcoxon test) than the treated irradiated mice, and also significantly different from the untreated unirradiated control mice (p less than 0.04, Wilcoxon test), but the treated irradiated mice were not significantly differently sensitive when compared to the unirradiated controls (p less than 0.32). Taken together these data indicate that the erythema, edema, and skin sensitivity commonly associated with UVB-induced sunburn are significantly reduced by topical application of tocopherol acetate even after the exposure has occurred. This observation suggests that treatment of sunburn may be possible even after the irradiation has stopped, by a derivative of d-alpha-tocopherol which is stable to autooxidation.
Article
Hairless mice were fed diets containing different levels of vitamin E or received topical applications of the vitamin for three weeks before a single exposure equivalent to one minimal erythematous dose of ultraviolet light provided by an artificial sunlight source. Lipid peroxidation and suppression of incorporation of thymidine into DNA were used to estimate the degree of damage caused by the radiation. Restriction of dietary vitamin E had little effect on degree of epidermal lipid peroxidation or on thymidine incorporation into DNA. High dietary levels of the vitamin did not alter the degree of lipid peroxidation; however, the incorporation of thymidine was restored to levels comparable to those of unirradiated animals. Topical administration of a 1% solution of the vitamin in ethanol 1 or 24 hours before irradiation also restored thymidine incorporation and reduced the degree of lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that both dietary and topical vitamin E are effective in protecting the epidermis against some of the early damage induced by ultraviolet radiation.
Article
4 cases of cosmetic allergy to tocopheryl acetate are reported. The literature on contact allergy to vitamin E and its derivatives is reviewed.
Article
The possible formation of singlet oxygen via photoexcited psoralens has been associated with the occurrence of, amongst others, erythema. Therefore it has been suggested to combine PUVA with the topical or systemic administration of antioxidants. However, the effect of these antioxidants on the photobinding of psoralens to DNA, which is held responsible for the anti-proliferative effect, should be taken into account. In the present study the effect of two phenolic antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol (AT) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), on the in vivo photobinding of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) to not only epidermal DNA, but also proteins and lipids was determined. After topical application of an ethanolic antioxidant solution onto the shaven skin of Wistar rats, labeled 8-MOP was applied using the same solvent. After this the rats were exposed to UV-A. By separating epidermal lipids, DNA/RNA and proteins by a selective extraction method, irreversible binding of 8-MOP to each of these biomacromolecules was determined. Both AT and BHT caused a decrease in the photobinding of 8-MOP to epidermal DNA and proteins. To investigate the underlying mechanism of this protection, the effect of AT was compared with that of AT-acetate. It also proved helpful to study the effects of the antioxidants on the photobinding of another photosensitizer, namely chlorpromazine. From these experiments it was concluded that AT and BHT affect 8-MOP photobinding by quenching reactive 8-MOP intermediates, involving the phenolic hydroxyl group of the antioxidants. BHT offered protection against lipid binding of 8-MOP but AT, especially at high concentrations, enhanced the UV-A-induced binding of 8-MOP to lipids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of C3H/HeN mice induces skin cancer and an immunosuppression that prevents the host from rejecting antigenic UV-induced tumors. The capacity of topical vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol) to prevent photocarcinogenesis or the immunosuppression induced by UV irradiation were assessed. Skin cancer incidence in UV-irradiated mice was 81% at 33 weeks after the first UV exposure; application to mice of 25 mg vitamin E three times per week for three weeks before UV irradiation, and throughout the experiment, reduced this incidence to 42% (p = 0.0065, log rank test). Immunoenhancement by vitamin E was assessed by comparing levels of immunosuppression by splenocytes from normal or UV-irradiated mice, with and without topical vitamin E treatment. Transfer of splenocytes from UV-irradiated mice to naive mice prevented the recipients from rejecting a UV-induced tumor challenge, whereas splenocytes from UV-irradiated mice treated with vitamin E did not prevent recipients from rejecting a similar tumor challenge. Phenotypic analysis of splenocytes used in the passive transfer assay, conducted with a biotin-avidin-immunoperoxidase technique, revealed that vitamin E treatment of mice undergoing UV irradiation prevented the UV-induced down regulation of Ia expression in splenocytes and increased the proportion of Lyt-2+ and L3T4+ splenocytes. Therefore, chronically applied vitamin E can effectively reduce cancer formation and immunosuppression induced by UV irradiation. Prevention of UV-induced down regulation of Ia expression may have contributed to this immunomodulation.
Article
Albino hairless mice (Skh:HR-1) exposed chronically to suberythemal doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation display visible and histological alterations in the skin. One alteration is an increase in dermal cellularity, including inflammatory cells. This suggested a role for inflammation in chronic photodamage. We evaluated the photoprotective effect of topical hydrocortisone, ibuprofen, and naproxen against photodamage. All 3 agents protected against UVB radiation-induced visible wrinkling, tumor formation, and histological alterations. Hydrocortisone and naproxen were also evaluated for protection against UVA radiation-induced visible skin sagging and histological alterations. Both were very effective. These data indicate that chronic topical application of anti-inflammatory agents provides broad solar UV spectrum photoprotection.
Article
Albino hairless mice (Skh:HR-1) exposed chronically to suberythemal doses of ultraviolet radiation develop visible skin changes, histological alterations, and tumors. Topical treatment of mice with solutions of superoxide-scavenging antioxidants (such as alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, propyl gallate and Trolox) prior to each UVB radiation exposure reduced significantly the severity of these events. Tocopherol esters and ascorbyl palmitate were not as effective as the parent compounds in providing protection. The data suggest a role for superoxide in UVB radiation-induced skin photoaging and the protective potential of superoxide scavengers. In contrast, the severity of UVA radiation-induced mouse skin damage was not reduced by topical application of the antioxidants tested here.
Article
The purpose of this study was to confirm the photoprotective effect on skin of vitamins A and E, due to inhibition of polyamine synthesis and production of free radicals. These variables were measured in the lumbar epidermis of the female hairless mouse subjected to UVA + B irradiation. Polyamines were assayed in epidermal homogenate by HPLC, and production of oxygenated free radicals was determined by spectrofluorometric assay of malonyl dialdehyde. It was determined that butyl-hydroxy-toluene and vitamin E inhibited production of free radicals (56% and 60%, respectively) and caused a significant reduction in polyamine biosynthesis (P less than 0.01), whereas the inhibitory effect of malonyl dialdehyde induced by vitamin A (30%) had no associated effect on polyamine metabolism.
Article
One hundred fifty-nine operative procedures for postburn contractures of interdigital webs (96), the axilla (46), or the neck (17) were prospectively randomized to be treated postoperatively for four months with a topical steroid (Aristocort A), topical vitamin E, or the base cream carrier for these drugs. The nature of the medication was blinded both to the patient and to the evaluator. Patients were followed for one year. Observations were made for range of motion, scar thickness, change in graft size, and ultimate cosmetic appearance. No beneficial effect of either vitamin E or topical steroid could be demonstrated. However, adverse reactions occurred in 16.4% of patients receiving active drug, compared to 5.9% treated only with base cream. Interestingly, the grafts initially contracted and subsequently grew to be a size larger (about 20%) than the original graft by one year. It is concluded that neither topical steroid nor topical vitamin E is effective in reducing scar formation after grafting procedures for reconstruction for postburn contractures.
Article
By spraying 14C-labeled α-tocopheryl acetate on the surface of the skin, and by conducting microradiographic investigations on the condition of its absorption in seven cases and 14 samples, the following observation have been acquired, and at the same time, some discussion have been made.1. α-Tocopheryl acetate is absorbed well through the healthy hartless skin.2. There are two routes of absorption from the surface of the skin to the dermis. The first one leads through the horny layer, the epidermis and the borderline between the epidermis and the dermis. The second one goes through the pilo-sebaceous canal, the interior of hair follicles, inner and outer root sheaths and connective-tissue sheaths. No route through the sebaceous gland and sweat ducts has been detected.3. The material has proven to have a high affinity for small blood vessels everywhere.4. Hesitation in the absorption of the material has been observed in line with the lower part of the horny layer, the borderline between the epidermis and dermis, the borderline of inner and outer root sheaths, and the borderline between epidermal and connective-tissue hair follicles.5. Noticeable observations on the study of microdistribution are as follows:(a) In a comparatively short period of time, a large quantity of the material has appeared in hair papillae.(b) Although a large quantity of the material is seen in the sebaceous gland and excretory ducts, it is scarcely detected in the environment of those systems.(c) The material has not been seen in the sweat gland and sweat ducts. However, a large quantity of the agent has been witnessed in the environment of these systems and also in the blood vessels around them.(d) Although the agent has not been observed in the fatty cell, it was seen in the fatty intercellular septum in large quantities.
Article
Influence of antioxidants on two phototoxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) was studied: erythema and changes in mechanoelectrical properties of skin. alpha-Tocopherol and its analogs with shortened lateral hydrocarbon chains at C2-atoms of chromane groups (chromanols) were used as antioxidants. alpha-Tocopherol and its analogs inhibited both phototoxic effects of 8-MOP. Inhibition was observed only if antioxidants were present in skin during irradiation. When applied after irradiation these antioxidants produce no inhibitory effect. The antioxidant antierythemal action depends greatly on their concentration. The protective effects is maximal at antioxidant concentrations 2.5 . 10(-10) - 5 . 10(-9) mol . cm-2 of skin, at concentrations higher than 5 . 10(-9) mol . cm-2 the protective action is decreased. The protective effect of antioxidants depends on the irradiation dose.
Article
A multi-clinical double-blind study on therapeutic effect of combination preparation of vitamins E and C was undertaken in comparison with single preparation of vitamin E and vitamin C in the treatment of chloasma or pigmented contact dermatitis (PCD). Combination treatment resulted in significantly better clinical improvement than vitamin C alone in both diseases. Objective data compiled from color difference measurements and color photographs revealed significantly better results with combination treatment in chloasma than vitamin C alone and, in PCD, than vitamin E or C alone. Differences in skin luminosity between hyperpigmented and normal areas significantly decreased in all three groups, with the combination group producing the most significant change. The total serum lipoperoxide level and its ratio to total serum lipids tended to decline in the combination group, and decreased significantly in vitamin E group. The sebum lipoperoxide level decreased significantly only in the combination group (EC).
Article
Vitamin E acetate is often used rather than vitamin E as an ingredient of skin care products and dermatological preparations, because it lacks the free phenolic OH group. However, because of this the acetate as such is biologically inactive. In spite of this intrinsic inactivity, the skin is protected against the harmful effects of sunlight after topical application of vitamin E acetate. Therefore it is supposed that hydrolysis takes place in the skin and that the reaction product, the radical scavenger vitamin E, is responsible for the protection observed. In this in vivo study with the rat, we have investigated the hydrolysis of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E acetate) in the epidermis in relation to UV radiation protection. (As a measure of protection, we used the UV-induced binding of 8-methoxypsoralen to epidermal biomacromolecules.) After a period of 5 h from a single application of vitamin E acetate, hydrolysis into free vitamin E was not observed. No protection was found at this time point, corresponding with the absence of vitamin E. After treatment for 5 days, consisting of one topical application daily, the percentage of acetate present in the stratum corneum which was hydrolysed into free vitamin E was less than 1%, whereas the corresponding value for the viable layer of the epidermis was about 5%. The hydrolysis of vitamin E acetate in the epidermis proceeded very slowly. As a result, the absolute amount of free vitamin E, found in the total epidermis after treatment for 5 days with the acetate, was only a few times higher than the normal level. Yet, this very small amount of free vitamin E proved to be sufficient for maximal protection in this animal model. The results show that vitamin E acetate acts as a prodrug, which very slowly releases minute amounts of active vitamin E.
Article
Superoxide-driven reduction of alpha-tocopheroxyl radical in the presence of ubiquinone-10 has been demonstrated in dimethylsulfoxide. Our HPLC measurements showed that ubiquinone-10 protected alpha-tocopherol against oxidation by KO2 in a concentration-dependent manner. alpha-Tocopherol was oxidized by KO2 to form ESR-detectable radicals of tocopherol ubisemiquinone. In the presence of ubiquinone-10, neither these radicals nor alpha-tocopheroxyl radicals (generated by uv light or PbO2) could be detected in ESR spectra. Instead, ESR signals of ubisemiquinone-10 radicals were observed. Formation of ubisemiquinone-10 radicals from ubiquinone-10 upon addition of KO2 was ascertained by their characteristic ESR and uv-vis spectra. alpha-Tocopherol caused a concentration-dependent decrease of the ubisemiquinone-10 radical steady-state concentration. We conclude that one-electron reduction of ubiquinone-10 by superoxide ion resulting in the formation of ubiquinone-10 radicals caused redox-cycling of alpha-tocopherol from its phenoxyl radical, thus preventing loss of alpha-tocopherol. This suggests that coenzyme Q may have another physiological function, i.e., protection of alpha-tocopherol against superoxide-driven oxidation.
Article
Previously, we demonstrated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy that ultraviolet radiation induces free-radical formation in Skh-1 hairless mouse skin. Because free-radical oxidative stress is thought to play a principal role in skin photoaging and cancer, oxidative stress and subsequent photodamage should be decreased by supplementation of skin with antioxidants. Using both the ascorbate free radical and an EPR spin-trapping system to detect short-lived radicals, we evaluated the effect of the topically applied antioxidants tocopherol sorbate, alpha-tocopherol, and tocopherol acetate on ultraviolet radiation-induced free-radical formation. We show that tocopherol sorbate significantly decreases the ultraviolet radiation-induced radical flux in skin. With our chronically exposed mouse model, tocopherol sorbate was also found to be significantly more protective against skin photoaging than alpha-tocopherol and tocopherol acetate. These results extend our previous observations of ultraviolet radiation-induced free-radical generation in skin and indicate the utility of tocopherol sorbate as an antioxidant in providing significant protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative damage.
Article
In Spring 1992, an epidemic outbreak of papular and follicular rashes caused by a new line of cosmetics occurred throughout Switzerland. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected in order to identify the offending agent and to specify the pathophysiological mechanisms. The data concerning 263 patients seen by dermatologists plus 642 additional cases directly reported by consumers to the manufacturer were analyzed. Seventy-seven patients were patch-tested, 26 extensively, and 15 performed a repeated open application test for a duration of 4 weeks. Control patch and use tests were performed in 73 and 25 patients, respectively. The results were analyzed statistically. In addition, 12 skin biopsies were performed for histological examination. Biochemical studies on the cosmetics (final products and offending ingredient) supplemented the clinical studies. The lesions were mainly papular and follicular, widely distributed, with pronounced pruritus, which was aggravated by sweating or heat exposure, and were long lasting. In a few cases, the papules were located on intensely erythematous, well-defined plaques, suggesting irritation rather than allergy. Both immediate and delayed onsets of the lesions were observed. Skin biopsies showed signs of folliculitis and perifolliculitis with little alteration of the interfollicular epidermis. Patch and use testing disclosed vitamin E linoleate (a mixture of tocopheryl esters, mainly tocopheryl linoleate) as the offending agent. An in vitro time-dependent formation of oxidative products under storage or oxidation-stimulating conditions was observed. Though vitamin E esters have been widely and safely used for decades in dermatological preparations and in cosmetics, vitamin E linoleate was the cause of about 1,000 cases of unusual papular mainly follicular contact dermatitis. Oxidized vitamin E derivatives could act in vivo as haptens and/or irritants, possibly with synergistic effects.