Cost-Effectiveness of Type 2 Diabetes Screening: Results from Recently Published Studies
Type 2 diabetes screening is recommended by various international diabetes associations. We conducted a literature research to identify and describe systematically recently published cost effectiveness analyses (CEA) for type 2 diabetes screening. Three analyses were included. One of them was conducted in Germany, based on the data of the KORA survey S4 (1999/2001). Two studies came from the US. The German as well as one of the US studies evaluated cost per detected diabetic case as main outcome. In contrast to the US study, the German study considered incomplete participation in the screening programs as baseline case. HbA1 c testing combined with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was more expensive than OGTT or fasting glucose testing, but also most effective in detecting cases, due to high participation in this screening strategy. The second US study investigated the lifetime cost effectiveness of type 2 diabetes screening, based on a Markov model to calculate cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Effectiveness data were derived from two large intervention studies in clinically diagnosed (not identified by screening) diabetic subjects. The authors conclude that type 2 diabetes screening is cost effective, in particular targeted screening in elderly hypertensive subjects. Diabetes screening may be cost effective. However, the effectiveness of early detection and treatment of type 2 diabetes has not yet been shown, and data regarding the course of early detected diabetes are lacking so far. In the future, the most important question is whether type 2 diabetes screening and early treatment is effective with respect to clinical outcomes.