The restless syndrome

Paracelsus Elena Klinik, Centre of Parkinsonism and Movement Disorders, Kassel, Germany.
The Lancet Neurology (Impact Factor: 21.9). 09/2005; 4(8):465-75. DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(05)70139-3
Source: PubMed


The restless legs syndrome is a common disorder that encompasses an idiopathic form of genetic or unknown origin and symptomatic forms associated with many causes. Symptomatic forms occur during pregnancy and are coincident with uraemia, iron depletion, polyneuropathy, spinal disorders, and rheumatoid arthritis. For the hereditary forms, at least three gene loci, located on chromosomes 12, 14, and 9, have been traced so far. Prevalence in the general population is between 3% and 9%, increases with age, and is higher in women than in men. Treatment is needed only in the moderate to severe forms of the disorder and mostly in elderly people. Pathophysiology and treatment may be closely linked to the dopaminergic system and iron metabolism. Dopaminergic treatment with levodopa and dopamine agonists is the first choice in idiopathic restless legs syndrome, but augmentation and rebound should be monitored in long-term treatment. Various other drugs, such as opioids, gabapentin, and benzodiazepines, provide alternative treatment possibilities.

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    • "After providing informed consent to participate, subjects were screened for inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria included the existence of each of the following symptoms: (Michaud, Chabli, Lavigne, and Montplaisir, 2000) an urge to move the legs, usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations in the legs; (Perez-Diaz, Iranzo, Rye, and Santamaria, 2011) the urge to move or unpleasant sensations that began or worsened during periods of rest or inactivity such as lying or sitting; (Trenkwalder, Paulus, and Walters, 2005) the urge to move or the unpleasant sensations were partially or totally relieved by movement, such as walking or stretching for at least as long as the activity continued; and (Ondo and Jankovic, 1996) the urge to move or unpleasant sensations were worse in the evening or night than during the day or only occurred in the evening or night. Each included subject scored in the moderate-to-severe range on the international restless legs syndrome rating scale (IRLSRS). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of near infrared (NIR) light could positively modulate symptoms associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Twenty-one subjects with RLS were treated with NIR three times weekly for four weeks. Baseline measures of: (1) international restless legs syndrome rating scale (IRLSRS) score; (2) Semmes Weinstein monofilament (SWM) test; (3) visual analog pain scale (VAS); (4) ankle-brachial index (ABI); and (5) sonographic imaging of the popliteal and posterior tibial arteries were compared to post-treatment values. NIR (850 nm) was delivered transcutaneously at 8 J/cm(2) to four locations on each leg and the plantar surface of each foot. A pre-test-post-test one group design was employed. Baseline and post-treatment measures were compared using either a dependent t-test when data were normal or the Wilcoxon signed rank test in the absence of normality. A significant improvement in IRLSRS scores was observed. Sensation improved from less than protective in 16.6% of sites tested at the baseline to 13.4% post-intervention. There was a significant improvement in ABI scores. VAS and sonographic imaging measures other than ABI remained unchanged. The use of NIR to modulate symptoms associated with RLS was supported by the data.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
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    • "Bothersome tiredness was categorized (0–4) as “none”, “less than 7 days per month”, “7-14 days”, “> 14 days per month” and “daily”. We also had four questions concerning restless legs (“Urge to move the legs”, “Rest worsens the urge”, “Symptoms improve with movement”, “Symptoms worsen in the evening or night” [29]). Usual headache intensity, attack length, photophobia, phonophobia and migraine history duration were recorded from semi-structured nurse interviews (Table 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms associating sleep and migraine are unknown. No previous polysomnographic (PSG) or pain-threshold (PT) study has compared patients with sleep-related migraine attacks (SM), non-sleep related migraine attacks (NSM) and healthy controls. We have performed a blinded, prospective exploratory study with case--control design. Thirty-four healthy controls, 15 patients with SM and 18 patients with NSM had interictal PSG heat-, cold- and pressure PT (HPT, CPT, PPT) recordings and completed diary- and questionnaire on sleep and headache related aspects. NSM patients had more slow-wave sleep (SWS) and more K-bursts than SM patients (K-bursts: p = 0.023 and SWS: p = 0.030) and controls (K-bursts: p = 0.009 and SWS: 0.041). NSM patients also had lower HPT and CPT than controls (p = 0.026 and p = 0.021). In addition, SM patients had more awakenings and less D-bursts than controls (p = 0.025 and p = 0.041). SM- and NSM patients differed in objective-, but not subjective sleep quality. NSM patients had PSG findings indicating foregoing sleep deprivation. As foregoing sleep times were normal, a relative sleep deficit might explain reduced PT among NSM patients. The SM patients had signs of slightly disturbed sleep.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · The Journal of Headache and Pain
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    • "These sensations occur at rest, in particular in the evening or at night, and are relieved by movement. Symptoms are typically attenuated by dopaminergic drugs (Trenkwalder et al., 2005). The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome is poorly understood. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome is poorly understood. A role of the thalamus, specifically of its medial portion which is a part of the limbic system, was suggested by functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate medial thalamus metabolism and structural integrity in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome using a multimodal magnetic resonance approach, including proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, voxel-based morphometry and volumetric and shape analysis. Twenty-three patients and 19 healthy controls were studied in a 1.5 T system. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectra were acquired in the medial region of the thalamus. In diffusion tensor examination, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were determined at the level of medial thalamus using regions of interest delineated to outline the same parenchyma studied by spectroscopy. Voxel-based morphometry was performed focusing the analysis on the thalamus. Thalamic volumes were obtained using FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool software, and shape analysis was performed using the FMRIB Software Library tools. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study disclosed a significantly reduced N-acetylaspartate:creatine ratio and N-acetylaspartate concentrations in the medial thalamus of patients with restless legs syndrome compared with healthy controls (P < 0.01 for both variable). Lower N-acetylaspartate concentrations were significantly associated with a family history of restless legs syndrome (β = -0.49; P = 0.018). On the contrary, diffusion tensor imaging, voxel-based morphometry and volumetric and shape analysis of the thalami did not show differences between the two groups. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic findings in patients with restless legs syndrome indicate an involvement of medial thalamic nuclei of a functional nature; however, the other structural techniques of the same region did not show any changes. These findings support the hypothesis that dysfunction of the limbic system plays a role in the pathophysiology of idiopathic restless legs syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Brain
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