Miyamoto H, Altuwaijri S, Cai Y, Messing EM, Chang C.. Inhibition of the Akt, cyclooxygenase-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 pathways in combination with androgen deprivation therapy: potential therapeutic approaches for prostate cancer. Mol Carcinog 44: 1-10
Prostate cancer cells are generally dependent on androgen stimulation mediated by the androgen receptor (AR) for growth and survival, and, therefore, hormonal manipulation, such as castration and/or the use of AR antagonists, results in a regression of the cancer. However, this treatment very rarely leads to the "cure" of advanced disease, and cancers eventually become androgen-independent. A number of genes/pathways have been reported to be activated in prostate cancer, most of which are possibly associated with disease progression. In this article, among them, we focus on Akt (also known as protein kinase B), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, whose activities or expressions have been found to be regulated by androgens/AR. Previous studies by us and others, with androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell lines, have demonstrated that androgen deprivation results in activation/overexpression of Akt, COX-2, and MMP-9 in cells. This suggests that androgen deprivation in clinical settings activates the Akt, COX-2, and MMP-9 pathways in prostate cancer, which may increase cell growth and in turn promote the transition to the androgen-independent state. We hypothesize that androgen deprivation, in combination with inhibition of the Akt, COX-2, and MMP-9 pathways, delays the androgen-independent transition and has more beneficial effects than hormonal therapy alone.
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"( ⁄ p < 0.05). et al., 2006; Miyamoto et al., 2005; Yoo et al., 2011), we also determined if relaxin activates Akt. We found that relaxin enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt, and that this phosphorylation was inhibited in the presence of PI3K inhibitor concurrent with the lack of induction of MMP-9 by the hormone (Fig. 6A and B). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the precise role of relaxin family peptide (RXFP) receptors-1 and -2 in the regulation of MMP-9 and -13 by relaxin, and delineated the signaling cascade that contributes to relaxin's modulation of MMP-9 in fibrocartilaginous cells. Relaxin treatment of cells in which RXFP1 was silenced resulted in diminished induction of MMP-9 and -13 by relaxin, whereas overexpression of RXFP1 potentiated the relaxin-induced expression of these proteinases. Suppression or overexpression of RXFP2 resulted in no changes in the relaxin-induced MMP-9 and -13. Studies using chemical inhibitors and siRNAs to signaling molecules showed that PI3K, Akt, ERK and PKC-ζ and the transcription factors Elk-1, c-fos and, to a lesser extent, NF-κB are involved in relaxin's induction of MMP-9. Our findings provide the first characterization of signaling cascade involved in the regulation of any MMP by relaxin and offer mechanistic insights on how relaxin likely mediates extracellular matrix turnover.
"In effect, we arrived at a similar conclusion after examination of the expression of the serine–threonine kinase Akt. Akt functions as the central integrating module of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase – Akt signalling pathway in the cell and regulates a number of critical cellular pathways, including those leading to cellular proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis (Li et al. 2005; Miyamoto et al. 2005). Thus Akt plays an important role in maintaining cell survival (Datta, et al. 1999; Kandel and Hay 1999; Downward 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the protective potential of the Cotinus coggygria Scop. methanol extract, Wistar rats were treated with the hepatotoxic compound pyrogallol, which possesses a potent ability to generate free radicals and induce oxidative stress. The ability of the extract to counteract the oxidative stress was examined in rats that were injected with the extract intraperitoneally (500 mg·(kg body weight)(-1)) either 2 or 12 h before the pyrogallol treatment. The extract possesses a reducing activity in vitro and an ability to chelate the ferrous ion both in vivo and in vitro. Application of the extract prior to pyrogallol treatment led to a decrease in the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of DNA damage, as well as increased Akt activity and inhibition of NF-κB protein expression. Treatment with the extract 12 h prior to pyrogallol administration was more effective in suppressing pyrogallol-induced oxidative damage than the 2 h pretreatment. Extract administration promoted an increase in acute phase reactants haptoglobin and α(2)-macroglobulin that was short of a full-fledged acute phase response. Administration of the extract considerably improved the markers of oxidative stress, thus revealing a potential hepatoprotective activity. Our results suggest that Akt activation, NF-κB inhibition, and induction of the acute phase play important roles in mediating hepatic protection by the extract. The greater effectiveness of the 12 h pretreatment with extract points to the important role that preconditioning assumes in improving resistance to subsequent exposure to oxidative stress.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
"Activated AR moves into nucleus, binds to androgen response element (ARE) and regulates transcription of many target genes, such as Akt, cox-2, and mmp9 . These genes are activated in prostate cancer and associated with cancer progression . AR could be activated through cytokine or growth factor pathways in androgen-independent stage to promote cancer cell survival. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trace element Selenium is suggested having cancer prevention activity and used as food supplement. Previous results had shown Selenium nanoparticles are safer compared with other Selenium compounds like selenomethionine, sodium selenite and monomethylated Selenium, however, its anticancer activity and intrinsic mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we prepared Selenium nanoparticles and investigated its inherent anticancer mechanisms. We found Selenium nanoparticles inhibit growth of prostate LNCaP cancer cells partially through caspases mediated apoptosis. Selenium nanoparticles suppress transcriptional activity of androgen receptor via down-regulating its mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, Selenium nanoparticles activate Akt kinase by increasing its phosphorylation, promote Akt-dependent androgen receptor phosphorylation and Mdm2 regulated degradation through proteasome pathway. We suggest Selenium nanoparticles suppress prostate cancer cells growth by disrupting androgen receptor, implicating a potential application in cancer treatment.