Testing a Model of Pain Appraisal and Coping in Children With Chronic Abdominal Pain.

Division of Adolescent Medicine and Behavioral Science, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-3571, USA.
Health Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.59). 08/2005; 24(4):364-74. DOI: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.4.364
Source: PubMed


This prospective study of children with recurrent abdominal pain (N=133; ages 8--15 years) used path analysis to examine relations among dispositional pain beliefs and coping styles, cognitions and behavior related to a specific pain episode, and short- and long-term outcomes. Children believing they could not reduce or accept pain appraised their episode-specific coping ability as low and reported passive coping behavior. Dispositional passive coping had direct effects on both episode-specific passive coping and long-term symptoms and disability. Accommodative coping (acceptance and self-encouragement) was associated with reduced episode-specific distress, which itself predicted reduced depressive symptoms 3 months later. Results suggest that coping-skill interventions for children with chronic pain should target reductions in passive coping and consider the potential benefits of accommodative coping strategies.

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Available from: Lynn S Walker
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    • "The Pain Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ; Walker et al., 2005) assesses children's pain appraisals (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Smith & Lazarus, 1990). The Primary Appraisal subscale (20 items) assesses the degree to which pain is perceived as threatening to one's well-being (e.g., " My stomach aches mean I have a serious illness " ). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Evaluate the psychometric properties of child- and parent-report versions of the four-item Abdominal Pain Index (API) in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and healthy controls, using a revised scoring method that facilitates comparisons of scores across samples and time. Methods Pediatric patients aged 8–18 years with FAP and controls completed the API at baseline (N = 1,967); a subset of their parents (N = 290) completed the API regarding the child’s pain. Subsets of patients completed follow-up assessments at 2 weeks (N = 231), 3 months (N = 330), and 6 months (N = 107). Subsets of both patients (N = 389) and healthy controls (N = 172) completed a long-term follow-up assessment (mean age at follow-up = 20.21 years, SD = 3.75). Results The API demonstrated good concurrent, discriminant, and construct validity, as well as good internal consistency. Conclusion We conclude that the API, using the revised scoring method, is a useful, reliable, and valid measure of abdominal pain severity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Pediatric Psychology
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    • "Negative and positive beliefs that children have about their abdominal pain are assessed using the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ). A Dutch translation of the PBQ, which is reliable and validated in children and adolescents is used [38,39]. The PBQ consists of 32 items scored on a 5-point Likert scale. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (syndrome) (FAP(S)) are common pediatric disorders, characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain. Treatment is challenging, especially in children with persisting symptoms. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) performed by a therapist has been shown to be effective in these children, but is still unavailable to many children due to costs, a lack of qualified child hypnotherapists and because it requires a significant investment of time by child and parent(s). Home-based hypnotherapy by means of exercises on CD has been shown effective as well, and has potential benefits, such as lower costs and less time investment. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare cost-effectiveness of individual HT performed by a qualified therapist with HT by means of CD recorded self-exercises at home in children with IBS or FAP(S). Methods/Design: 260 children, aged 8-18 years with IBS or FAP(S) according to Rome III criteria are included in this currently conducted RCT with a follow-up period of one year. Children are randomized to either 6 sessions of individual HT given by a qualified therapist over a 3-month period or HT through self-exercises at home with CD for 3 months. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients in which treatment is successful at the end of treatment and after one year follow-up. Treatment success is defined as at least 50% reduction in both abdominal pain frequency and intensity scores. Secondary outcomes include adequate relief, cost-effectiveness and effects of both therapies on depression and anxiety scores, somatization scores, QoL, pain beliefs and coping strategies. Discussion: If the effectiveness of home-based HT with CD is comparable to, or only slightly lower, than HT by a therapist, this treatment may become an attractive form of therapy in children with IBS or FAP(S), because of its low costs and direct availability.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Pediatrics
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    • "It is also sensitive to experimental manipulation [69] . Process variables (mediators) Parental perceptions regarding the threat of their child's pain were assessed using the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ; Walker et al., 2005) [71]. The parent-report version of the PBQ is a 32-item measure designed to assess parents' beliefs about various aspects of their children's abdominal pain [72]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive-behavioral interventions improve outcomes for many pediatric health conditions, but little is known about which mechanisms mediate these outcomes. The goal of this study was to identify whether changes in targeted process variables from baseline to one week post-treatment mediate improvement in outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention for idiopathic childhood abdominal pain. Two-hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a 3-session social learning and cognitive-behavioral treatment (SLCBT) (N=100), or a 3-session educational intervention controlling for time and attention (N=100). Outcomes were assessed at 3, 6 and 12 month follow-ups. The intervention focused on altering parental responses to pain and on increasing adaptive cognitions and coping strategies related to pain in both parents and children. Multiple mediation analyses were applied to examine the extent to which the effects of the SLCBT condition on child GI symptom severity and pain as reported by children and their parents were mediated by changes in targeted cognitive process variables and parents' solicitous responses to their child's pain symptoms. Reductions in parents' perceived threat regarding their child's pain mediated reductions in both parent- and child-reported GI symptom severity and pain. Reductions in children's catastrophic cognitions mediated reductions in child-reported GI symptom severity but no other outcomes. Reductions in parental solicitousness did not mediate outcomes. Results suggest that reductions in reports of children's pain and GI symptoms following a social learning and cognitive-behavioral intervention were mediated at least in part by decreasing maladaptive parent and child cognitions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · The Clinical journal of pain
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