Response to Comment on "HST2 Mediates SIR2-Independent Life-Span Extension by Calorie Restriction"
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States Science
(Impact Factor: 33.61).
10/2005; 309(5742):1861-4. DOI: 10.1126/science.1113611
Calorie restriction (CR) extends the life span of numerous species, from yeast to rodents. Yeast Sir2 is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase that has been proposed to mediate the effects of CR. However, this hypothesis has been challenged by the observation that CR can extend yeast life span in the absence of Sir2. Here, we show that Sir2-independent life-span extension is mediated by Hst2, a Sir2 homolog that promotes the stability of repetitive ribosomal DNA, the same mechanism by which Sir2 extends life span. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of DNA stability is critical for yeast life-span extension by CR and suggest that, in higher organisms, multiple members of the Sir2 family may regulate life span in response to diet.
Available from: Ziyun Wu
- "Silent Information Regulator 2 (Sir2) has been proposed to mediate lifespan extension , . Deletion of SIR2 decreases RLS, whereas over-expression of SIR2 increases RLS . "
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ABSTRACT: It is established that glucose restriction extends yeast chronological and replicative lifespan, but little is known about the influence of amino acids on yeast lifespan, although some amino acids were reported to delay aging in rodents. Here we show that amino acid composition greatly alters yeast chronological lifespan. We found that non-essential amino acids (to yeast) methionine and glutamic acid had the most significant impact on yeast chronological lifespan extension, restriction of methionine and/or increase of glutamic acid led to longevity that was not the result of low acetic acid production and acidification in aging media. Remarkably, low methionine, high glutamic acid and glucose restriction additively and independently extended yeast lifespan, which could not be further extended by buffering the medium (pH 6.0). Our preliminary findings using yeasts with gene deletion demonstrate that glutamic acid addition, methionine and glucose restriction prompt yeast longevity through distinct mechanisms. This study may help to fill a gap in yeast model for the fast developing view that nutrient balance is a critical factor to extend lifespan.
Available from: Dejian Huang
- "This result is similar to those observed in most higher eukaryotes in that starvation does not extend lifespan, and high food intake results in high reproduction and shorter lifespan . The difference between our results and those observations that severe DR (0.05%) extended lifespan could arise from different culture conditions , , . "
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ABSTRACT: The traditional view on dietary restriction has been challenged with regard to extending lifespan of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This is because studies have shown that changing the balance of dietary components without reduction of dietary intake can increase lifespan, suggesting that nutrient composition other than dietary restriction play a pivotal role in regulation of longevity. However, this opinion has not been reflected in yeast aging studies. Inspired by this new finding, response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the relationships between nutrients (glucose, amino acids and yeast nitrogen base) and lifespan as well as biomass production in four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (wild-type BY4742, sch9Δ, tor1Δ, and sir2Δ mutants) using a high throughput screening assay. Our results indicate that lifespan extension by a typical dietary restriction regime was dependent on the nutrients in media and that nutrient composition was a key determinant for yeast longevity. Four different yeast strains were cultured in various media, which showed similar response surface trends in biomass production and viability at day two but greatly different trends in lifespan. The pH of aging media was dependent on glucose concentration and had no apparent correlation with lifespan under conditions where amino acids and YNB were varied widely, and simply buffering the pH of media could extend lifespan significantly. Furthermore, the results showed that strain sch9Δ was more responsive in nutrient-sensing than the other three strains, suggesting that Sch9 (serine-threonine kinase pathway) was a major nutrient-sensing factor that regulates cell growth, cell size, metabolism, stress resistance and longevity. Overall, our findings support the notion that nutrient composition might be a more effective way than simple dietary restriction to optimize lifespan and biomass production from yeast to other organisms.
Available from: plosone.org
- "Of these, Hst1 exhibits the highest homology with Sir2 and mediates transcriptional regulation independent of the SIR silencing complex . Hst2 functions in concert with Hst1 to downregulate subtelomeric gene expression  and plays a role in regulating rDNA silencing and recombination , . Hst3 and Hst4 together maintain telomeric silencing and cell cycle progression . "
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ABSTRACT: The regulation of energy metabolism, such as calorie restriction (CR), is a major determinant of cellular longevity. Although augmented gluconeogenesis is known to occur in aged yeast cells, the role of enhanced gluconeogenesis in aged cells remains undefined. Here, we show that age-enhanced gluconeogenesis is suppressed by the deletion of the tdh2 gene, which encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a protein that is involved in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in yeast cells. The deletion of TDH2 restores the chronological lifespan of cells with deletions of both the HST3 and HST4 genes, which encode yeast sirtuins, and represses the activation of gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, the tdh2 gene deletion can extend the replicative lifespan in a CR pathway-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that the repression of enhanced gluconeogenesis effectively extends the cellular lifespan.
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