Thyroid Cancer in the Thyroid Nodules Evaluated by Ultrasonography and Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Thyroid (Impact Factor: 4.49). 08/2005; 15(7):708-17. DOI: 10.1089/thy.2005.15.708
Source: PubMed


Thyroid nodule is common disorder in endocrine clinics. In Taiwan, thyroid ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the first-line examination procedure. Data in large series on the incidence of thyroid malignancy presenting with thyroid nodules are lacking in this area. To determine the incidence of malignancy in thyroid nodules and compare the results with other populations, this investigation retrospectively reviewed 21,748 subjects who were examined in one medical center from January 1986 to December 1999. All patients underwent thyroid ultrasonography studies using a real-time ultrasonographic machine and a 10-MHz transducer. Fine-needle aspirations were made in the suspected thyroid nodule and stained using the Romanowsky- based method developed by Liu. By the end of 2002, some 3629 patients (16.7%) had thyroid nodules after surgical treatment. This group comprised 3011 women with a mean age of 41.5 +/- 13.9 years, and 618 men with a mean age of 45.7 +/- 14.9 years. Of patients undergoing surgical treatment, 2761 (76.1%) patients were diagnosed with benign nodules, 858 (23.6%) with malignant nodules, and 10 (0.3%) with atypical adenoma (7 follicular and 3 Hürthle cells). The percentages of thyroid malignancy in each age group revealed two peaks in both genders, namely in patients aged 20 to 29 years and in elderly patients (aged over 65 years). The peak age for thyroid malignancy in both genders was 41 to 60 years (male) and 21 to 40 years (female). The highest ratio of malignancy occurred in the elderly group (37.2%) receiving surgical treatment. In young patients (below 19 years) the percentage of malignancy was no greater than for the whole age group (20.2% versus 25.6%). Anaplastic and metastatic cancers affecting the thyroid were the main subjects in the age group. The present results demonstrated a younger distribution for well-differentiated thyroid cancer, particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma, compared to previous studies. This outcome may have resulted from the routine application of ultrasonography with FNAC in assessing the thyroid nodules, possibly helping to achieve more timely detection. The incidence of thyroid malignancy in young patients was no higher than in adults. Early detection of thyroid malignancy may be the main reason for this phenomenon. Male subjects with thyroid nodules displayed a higher incidence of this malignancy than females. Aging subjects with thyroid nodules suffered a higher rate of malignancy and were poorly differentiated. In conclusion, this retrospective large-series study demonstrated that 3.9% (858/21,748 cases) of patients with thyroid nodules showed histopathologically proven malignancy. Thyroid cancer detected by ultrasonography with FNAC occurred an average of 10 years younger than in prior studies.

13 Reads
  • Source
    • "Patients who were not followedup for at least 1 year, as well as those who underwent an initial thyroid surgery at a different hospital, were excluded from the study. Preoperative thyroid ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) examinations were performed International Journal of Endocrinology for 1,908 of 2,418 patients with thyroid nodules [7]. Patients with cytologically proven malignancy or suspected malignancy were advised to undergo thyroidectomy. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was to investigate the clinical features and therapeutic outcomes of multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). A total of 2,418 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients had undergone thyroidectomy in one medical center between 1977 and 2010. There were 483 (20.0%) diagnosed with multifocal PTC. The percentage of multifocal PTC was higher in PTMC patients (22.0%) than in non-PTMC patients (19.5%). Demographic and clinical characteristics of PTMC and multifocal PTC in PTC patients were traced. Multifocal PTC patients presented with smaller tumors at an older age, and a higher percentage underwent total or complete thyroidectomy. These patients also showed a higher incidence of postoperative disease progression than did unifocal PTC patients. Comparison of 483 patients with multifocal PTMC and non-PTMC tumors showed a higher incidence of postoperative disease progression in patients with non-PTMC; otherwise, there was no statistical difference in disease-specific and total mortality between these two groups. In conclusion, the incidence of multifocal PTMC was not lower than that of non-PTMC, and postoperative therapies were necessary for both multifocal PTMC and non-PTMC patients.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · International Journal of Endocrinology
  • Source
    • "To improve the diagnosis accuracy, new diagnostic approaches combined FNA cytology and molecular biomarkers were proposed in recent years [10]–[12]. In additional, CT and MRI have a limited role in the initial evaluation of solitary nodule and their indications include suspected tracheal involvement, either by invasion or compression, extension into the mediastinum, or recurrent disease[5], [13]–[15]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to construct a model for using in differentiating benign and malignant nodules with the artificial neural network and to increase the objective diagnostic accuracy of US. 618 consecutive patients (528 women, 161 men) with 689 thyroid nodules (425 malignant and 264 benign nodules) were enrolled in the present study. The presence and absence of each sonographic feature was assessed for each nodule - shape, margin, echogenicity, internal composition, presence of calcifications, peripheral halo and vascularity on color Doppler. The variables meet the following criteria: important sonographic features and statistically significant difference were selected as the input layer to build the ANN for predicting the malignancy of nodules. Six sonographic features including shape (Taller than wide, p<0.001), margin (Not Well-circumscribed, p<0.001), echogenicity (Hypoechogenicity, p<0.001), internal composition (Solid, p<0.001), presence of calcifications (Microcalcification, p<0.001) and peripheral halo (Absent, p<0.001) were significantly associated with malignant nodules. A three-layer 6-8-1 feed-forward ANN model was built. In the training cohort, the accuracy of the ANN in predicting malignancy of thyroid nodules was 82.3% (AUROC = 0.818), the sensitivity and specificity was 84.5% and 79.1%, respectively. In the validation cohort, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity was 83.1%, 83.8% and 81.8%, respectively. The AUROC was 0.828. ANN constructed by sonographic features can discriminate benign and malignant thyroid nodules with high diagnostic accuracy.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "of the thyroid nodule evaluation is primarily related the need to exclude throid cancer, which is present in 4.0 to 6.5 percent of throid nodules. Nonpalpable nodules have the same risk of malignancy as palpable nodules (Hagag et al., 1998; Lin et al., 2005; Pang and Chen, 2007). The incidence of thyroid carcinoma, which is diagnosed via the surgery for benign thyroid disease or postoperative pathology, also have showed a clear upward trend in recent years (Pang and Chen, 2007; Alevizaki et al., 2009; Pisanu et al., 2009; Lombardi et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate the clinical features and prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with a background of benign disease. Method: A total of 709 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma undergoing surgical resection were analyzed retrospectively. In 147 patients who underwent surgery for benign thyroid disease, incidental PTC (IPC group) were identified by intraoperative or postoperative pathological examination of surgical specimens but were not detected by preoperative imaging studies. In the other group, according to the pathological examination with or without co-existing benign thyroid disease, 253 cases were clarified as concomitant PTC and 309 cases were clarified as dominant PTC. Results: Incidental PTC was more common in women, about 85.7%, the mean age was 47.6±11.3 years old. Average tumor diameter was 4.4±2.2 mm, multiple lesions accounted for 12.9% (19/147), and the cervical lymph node metastasis rate was 6.1% (9/147). After radical resection 8 cases recurred, the median time of recurrence was about 12 months (0.5 to 162), there was no tumor-related death. The tumor-free survival rates were 97.3%, 95.9%, 91.5%, and 79.3% in 1, 5, 10 and 14 year respectively. Conclusion: Incidental PTC with a background of benign lesions is common, and the generally good prognosis can be attributed to tumor early detection and early treatment. On the intraoperative finding of incidental PTC, lobectomy (unilateral) or total thyroidectomy (bilateral) should be the first choice, but with a postoperative pathologic finding of incidental PTC, further treatment, such as completion thyroidectomy or immediate lymph dissection is not necessary. Central lymph node dissection is also not needed unless lymphadenectasis is present.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
Show more