The history of neuro-ophthalmology in Edinburgh. Part II
Z Zakładu Historii Nauk Medycznych Akademii Medycznej im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu.Klinika oczna 02/2005; 107(1-3):170-2.
The Edinburgh Medical School occupies a unique position in the history of medicine. It gave the three famous clinicians and scientists who significantly developed the fundamentals of neuro-ophthalmology: Sir Charles Bell, Douglas Argyll Robertson and Harry Moss Traquair. Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) was a Scottish anatomist, physiologist, neurologist and surgeon who enjoyed a distinguished career in London and Edinburgh during the first half of the nineteenth century. He was a prolific medical writer, a brilliant researcher and a skilled artist. Argyll Robertson (AR) (1837-1909) was the first surgeon in Scotland to practise entirely in the field of ophthalmology. In 1869 Robertson published the records of cases, which showed that disease of the spinal cord is sometimes associated with loss of the light reflex of the pupil but retention of its movement in accommodation. Harry Moss Traquair (1875-1954) was one of the founders of neuro-ophthalmology, being concentrated on bitemporal hemianopia, the course of the geniculo-calcarine visual pathway, pituitary tumours, optic nerve diseases (including acute retrobulbar neuritis), tobacco amblyopia and traumatic lesions of the optic tract. In his many publications, his most outstanding contribution to medical knowledge was the work which culminated in the publication, in 1927, of "An Introduction to Clinical Perimetry".
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ABSTRACT: Edme Mariotte, a Roman Catholic priest and a founding member of l'Académie des sciences de Paris in 1666, is mainly remembered as the first scientist to discover the blind spot, known as Mariotte's Spot, in visual fields. His extensive work on optics and color perception is less well remembered. In addition, he made other important discoveries in different areas of science such as physics, mechanics, hydraulics, optics, plant physiology, meteorology, surveying, and research methodology. Mariotte was an active experimenter whose experimental principles separated science from metaphysics. His work was known to many of his fellow great scientists of his day, including Newton and Descartes, and his lengthy correspondence was a pioneering form of scientific international cooperation. Mariotte's observations, experiments, and demonstration of the blind spot led to a lively debate in the scientific community as to its explanation. Although he falsely assumed that it was the choroid, not the retina, that was the site of perception in the eye, he may be considered as a forerunner of neuro-ophthalmology due to his experiments and interest in the fundus.
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ABSTRACT: Eponyms are used almost daily in the clinical practice of dermatology. And yet, information about the person behind the eponyms is difficult to find. Indeed, who is? What is this person’s nationality? Is this person alive or dead? How can one find the paper in which this person first described the disease? Eponyms are used to describe not only disease, but also clinical signs, surgical procedures, staining techniques, pharmacological formulations, and even pieces of equipment. In this article we present supplement to eponyms (the letter A to F). The symptoms and their synonyms, and those who have described this symptom or phenomenon.