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Affective reactions to pictures of ingroup and outgroup members

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Affective reactions to pictures of ingroup and outgroup members

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Abstract

A pervasive form of social categorization among humans is between us and them. In this study, we assessed emotional reactions when people viewed pictures depicting members of the same or different ethnic group. African American and European American participants viewed a series of pleasant and unpleasant pictures portraying either ingroup or outgroup members, while physiological, behavioral, and evaluative judgments were measured. Two hypotheses were assessed. The outgroup antipathy hypothesis predicts that people will respond to outgroup pictures with more negative affect than to ingroup pictures. In contrast, the ingroup empathy hypothesis predicts that people will show exaggerated (pleasant and unpleasant) affective responses to pictures of ingroup members, due to group identification or personal relevance. The data provided no support for the antipathy hypothesis, whereas facial EMG, skin conductance, rating, and viewing time data lent support to the ingroup empathy hypothesis, in which greater pleasure and displeasure were apparent when viewing ingroup pictures.

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... A première vue, cette absence de modulation de l'EDA par la hiérarchie laissait penser que, chez l'humain, un rang hiérarchique n'était pas associé à une valence motivationnelle particulière. Certains travaux rapportent pourtant que la réponse électrodermale varie en fonction de certains paramètres de catégorisation sociale, comme le genre ou le groupe ethnique des personnes observées (Vrana & Rollock, 1998;Brown, Bradley, & Lang, 2006). ...
... Comme dans notre expérience, Brown et al. (2006) J'ai donc proposé une nouvelle expérience, en collaboration avec Laurent Cordonnier, pour étudier l'influence de la hiérarchie sur les réponses physiologiques chez l'humain. Cette expérience présentait deux modifications majeures par rapport à la précédente. ...
... Moreover, electrodermal activity has already been shown to be modulated by social dimensions conveyed by the person one interacted with, such as his gender or race (Vrana & Rollock, 1998;Brown, Bradley, & Lang, 2006). In these studies, the confederate had either the same or a different gender/ethnicity than the participant. ...
Article
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Hierarchy is a key organizational feature of social groups. In order to successfully navigate their social environment, humans must precisely read the hierarchical position of other during social interaction. This present thesis intends to characterize the neural correlates as well as the early physiological and behavioral mechanisms involved in the processing of social rank. The influence of hierarchy was mainly investigated in the context of face perception. To begin, my focus was on the time course of neuronal processing of faces embedded in a hierarchical context. Using eletroencephalography in two studies, it has been possible to identify evoked neuronal potentials and oscillatory components in response to faces varying in hierarchical rank, established through competition or social status induced by profession. The next study used eye-tracking methodology to explore the influence of hierarchy on the subtle mechanisms of visual attention control. I aimed at characterizing the visual scanning pattern of hierarchical rankings (during a competition) and of faces associated with different hierarchical ranks. Finally, I tried to determine if a hierarchical signal or a social asymmetrical situation conveyed an emotional/motivational valence. During face perception and a minimal social interaction, I examined if this particular dimension of hierarchy generated variations of physiological activity, such as heart rate and skin conductance response.
... A première vue, cette absence de modulation de l'EDA par la hiérarchie laissait penser que, chez l'humain, un rang hiérarchique n'était pas associé à une valence motivationnelle particulière. Certains travaux rapportent pourtant que la réponse électrodermale varie en fonction de certains paramètres de catégorisation sociale, comme le genre ou le groupe ethnique des personnes observées (Vrana & Rollock, 1998;Brown, Bradley, & Lang, 2006). ...
... Comme dans notre expérience, Brown et al. (2006) J'ai donc proposé une nouvelle expérience, en collaboration avec Laurent Cordonnier, pour étudier l'influence de la hiérarchie sur les réponses physiologiques chez l'humain. Cette expérience présentait deux modifications majeures par rapport à la précédente. ...
... Moreover, electrodermal activity has already been shown to be modulated by social dimensions conveyed by the person one interacted with, such as his gender or race (Vrana & Rollock, 1998;Brown, Bradley, & Lang, 2006). In these studies, the confederate had either the same or a different gender/ethnicity than the participant. ...
Thesis
Ma thèse porte sur une dimension fondamentale de la structure des groupes sociaux : lahiérarchie. Chez l’être humain, les hiérarchies sociales régissent en profondeur lesinteractions. Pour naviguer avec succès dans son environnement, il doit être en mesure derepérer précisément les positions hiérarchiques des autres membres de son groupe. Cetravail de thèse vise à caractériser certains mécanismes neuronaux, comportementaux etphysiologiques impliqués dans l’analyse d’un indice hiérarchique. Pour préciser la nature dutraitement de la hiérarchie, j’ai exploré son influence sur différentes étapes de la perceptiondes visages. Je me suis tout d’abord intéressée au décours temporel du traitement neuronaldes visages dans un contexte hiérarchique. Deux études menées en électroencéphalographiem’ont permis d’identifier les potentiels neuronaux et les composants oscillatoires évoquéspar la perception de visages associés soit, à un rang hiérarchique établi à l’issue d’unecompétition, soit à un statut social induit par la profession. Une étude réalisée ensuite enoculométrie avait pour but de capturer l’influence de la hiérarchie sur des mécanismes fins ducontrôle de l’attention visuelle. J’ai étudié à la fois l’exploration visuelle de classementshiérarchiques incluant le participant, et celle de visages associés à des rangs hiérarchiquesdifférents. Enfin, j’ai tenté de déterminer si un signal ou une situation d’asymétriehiérarchique véhicule une valence émotionnelle et motivationnelle non neutre susceptibled’induire des variations de certains paramètres physiologiques, comme le rythme cardiaqueou la réponse électrodermale.
... This is because every culture differentially encourages and reinforces emotional responding, leading to differences in the circumstances under which emotional responses are regulated (Butler et al., 2007;Kwon et al., 2013). Regarding the cultural effects on emotional reaction, numerous studies have shown that individuals have a stronger reaction or better recognition of same-race emotional stimuli emotions expressed by characters of the same race, i.e., the "own-race bias" (Brown et al., 2006;Lee et al., 2008;Roberts and Levenson, 2006). However, fewer studies have investigated how culture influences emotional response to social exclusion. ...
... In addition, White participants, compared with East Asian participants, reacted more negatively to social exclusion posed by White characters. These results fit with the known "own-race bias" in face or emotion processing (Brown et al., 2006;Krill and Platek, 2009;Lee et al., 2008;Roberts and Levenson, 2006). It has been argued that same-race characters may represent in-group members from the same social group, who might share common growth and cultural environments with the participant, while social exclusion posed by other-race characters is not as distressing because these characters may represent out-group membership (Krill and Platek, 2009). ...
Article
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Social exclusion is harmful to basic human needs. Emotion regulation represents a potential coping strategy. As culture can influence how people react and regulate their emotions, this study examined whether emotional reaction and regulation in response to social exclusion differ between individualistic and collectivistic cultures. A total of 80 college students, half White (n = 40, recruited in Manchester, UK) and half East Asian (n = 40, recruited in Shenzhen, China) viewed social exclusion pictures expressed by same-race or other-race characters. Both groups of participants viewed these pictures under no-reappraisal (passive viewing) and reappraisal (reinterpretation) conditions. Participants rated their vicarious negative emotional experience after each picture presentation. Results showed that both White and East Asian participants expressed greater negative emotion and showed stronger emotion regulation effects when facing own-race social exclusion, i.e., the “own-race bias”. In addition, White participants were more capable of regulating the negative emotions elicited by social exclusion compared to East Asian participants. Findings highlight the importance of considering the role of culture in emotional reaction to and emotion regulation of social exclusion, which may help the development of appropriate interventions across diverse populations.
... The model suggests that others' emotional states triggers automatic peripheral (and neural) responses of congruent states in the observer. Also, according to what they called the "similarity factor", we experience the tendency to tune stronger with those perceived as more similar based on some features such as personality characteristics (Gruen & Mendelsohn, 1986), appearance (Brown, Bradley, & Lang, 2006), cultural similarity, or social circumstances (Westbury & Neumann, 2008). Starting from this evidence, some studies explored the presence of ingroup/outgroup identification bias (see for example Brown et al., 2006or Forgiarini, Gallucci, & Maravita, 2011. ...
... Also, according to what they called the "similarity factor", we experience the tendency to tune stronger with those perceived as more similar based on some features such as personality characteristics (Gruen & Mendelsohn, 1986), appearance (Brown, Bradley, & Lang, 2006), cultural similarity, or social circumstances (Westbury & Neumann, 2008). Starting from this evidence, some studies explored the presence of ingroup/outgroup identification bias (see for example Brown et al., 2006or Forgiarini, Gallucci, & Maravita, 2011. ...
Article
Previous research investigated the presence of differential autonomic responses towards the emotions expressed by individuals from ingroup or outgroup contexts. Results found increased affective reactions and typical identification bias that can be explained, according to "the similarity factor", as the tendency to tune stronger with those perceived as more similar. Then, few previous studies explored the presence of such mechanisms in intra and interspecies contexts. However, further investigation is needed to better explore these issues in developmental samples and to different emotionally valenced stimuli. Thus, we asked 30 children to watch emotional pictures involving child-child (CC) and child-animal (CA) interactions with negative, positive, or neutral valence. Autonomic responses were recorded and compared across species and gender. Results showed a higher sensitivity to intraspecies emotional valence (increased heart rate for negative compared to neutral stimuli) which was visible only in the female group, thus confirming the presence of a gender effect.
... Guglielmi (1999) states that in the assessment of racial prejudice, EDA, HR and facial electromyography (EMG) are promising techniques of affective-evaluative responses. However, a more recent study by Brown, Bradley, & Lang (2005), where several physiological measures are used for the assessment of in-group and out-group preference, finds that the parameters which are not under conscious control (EDA and startle eyeblink) do not have satisfying validity in the prediction of in-group empathy and out-group antipathy. ...
... Vanman, Saltz, Nathan, & Warren (2004) find that facial EMG is efficient in detecting racial discrimination. Finally, in the assessment of ingroup empathy/outgroup antipathy facial EMG is a valid predictor (Brown et al., 2005;Vanman, Paul, Ito, & Miller, 1997). ...
Book
Full-text available
The book offers a systematic review of implicit techniques used in the assessment of individual differences in personality and related dispositional constructs.
... Specifically, we found that observing racial in-group members displaying dynamic body language indicating positive intentions (i.e., "approach behavior") was associated with increased activity in the medial pFC, which in turn was associated with the more positive evaluations of in-group approach behavior (Katsumi & Dolcos, 2018). Moreover, compared with out-group approach behavior, evaluating in-group approach behavior was also associated with longer RTs, possibly suggesting increased attention and interest devoted to processing such information (Im et al., 2017;Brown, Bradley, & Lang, 2006). However, because of the sluggish temporal resolution of hemodynamic responses, it remains unclear how fast the neural responses associated with such in-group bias might be detectable during the observation of social encounters and how they might influence subsequent evaluations of such encounters. ...
... Longer RTs for in-group than outgroup approach behaviors may reflect greater interest in in-group members seemingly conveying positive intentions. This is consistent with previous evidence showing that participants spent more time viewing pictures of racial ingroup than out-group members displaying pleasant intentions, whereas they did not show such difference by group membership in viewing unpleasant pictures (Brown et al., 2006). The same behavioral analysis based on categorizing in-group versus out-group members by sex did not reveal significant effects. ...
Article
Despite evidence identifying the role of group membership in social cognition, the neural mechanisms associated with the perception and evaluation of nonverbal behaviors displayed by in-group versus out-group members remain unclear. Here, 42 White participants underwent electroencephalographic recording while observing social encounters involving dynamic displays of nonverbal behaviors by racial in-group and out-group avatar characters. Dynamic behaviors included approach and avoidance poses and expressions, followed by the participants' ratings of the avatars displaying them. Behaviorally, participants showed longer RTs when evaluating in-group approach behavior compared with other behaviors, possibly suggesting increased interest and attention devoted to processing positive social encounters with their in-group members. Analyses of ERPs revealed differential sensitivity of the N450 and late positivity components to social cues, with the former showing initial sensitivity to the presence of a humanoid avatar character at the beginning of social encounters and the latter showing sensitivity to dynamic nonverbal behaviors displayed by the avatars. Moreover, time–frequency analysis of electroencephalography data also identified suppression of beta-range power linked to the observation of dynamic nonverbal behaviors. Notably, the magnitude of these responses was modulated by the degree of behavioral racial in-group bias. This suggests that differential neural sensitivity to nonverbal cues while observing social encounters is associated with subsequent in-group bias manifested in the evaluation of such encounters. Collectively, these findings shed light on the mechanisms of racial in-group bias in social cognition and have implications for understanding factors related to successful interactions with individuals from diverse racial backgrounds.
... On the one hand, own-race faces are perceived and recognized more accurately and faster than other-race faces because of familiarity with some physical facial features (Elfenbein and Ambady, 2002;Walker and Hewstone, 2006). Also, emotional expressions displayed by own-race faces tend to cause a more coherent reaction and to induce greater affective physiological responses, such as facial mimicry and skin conductance (Brown et al., 2006;van der Schalk et al., 2011). On the other hand, visual perception of, and attention to, racial stimuli seem to be facilitated by stereotypical associations, e.g. between anger and Black men (Dickter et al., 2015;Trawalter et al., 2008), danger and Black people (Correll et al., 2007Eberhardt et al., 2004), or contextual elements such as face-body compounds and low-vs. ...
... These findings suggest that group membership has important motivational consequence (Hugenberg and Bodenhausen, 2004;Rhodes et al., 1989). Indeed, same-group members tend to evoke greater feelings of empathy than other-group members, thus fostering cooperation with socially and biologically similar others (Brown et al., 2006;Cosmides et al., 2003). Classification of other-group members tends to recruit more attention demands, because the stimuli are less familiar and potentially threatening, thereby leading also to greater involvement of affective areas (Dickter et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
We effortlessly sort people into different racial groups from their visual appearance and implicitly generate racial bias affecting cognition and behaviour. As these mental activities provide the proximate mechanisms for social behaviours, it becomes essential to understand the neural activity underlying differences between own-race and other-race visual categorization. Yet intrinsic limitations of individual neuroimaging studies, owing to reduced sample size, inclusion of multiple races, and interactions between races in the participants and in the displayed visual stimuli, dampens generalizability of results. In the present meta-analytic study, we applied multimodal techniques to partly overcome these hurdles, and we investigated the entire functional neuroimaging literature on race categorization, therefore including more than 2000 Black, White and Asian participants. Our data-driven approach shows that own- and other-race visual categorization involves partly segregated neural networks, with distinct connectivity and functional profiles, and defined hierarchical organization. Categorization of own-race mainly engages areas related to cognitive components of empathy and mentalizing, such as the medial prefrontal cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus. These areas are functionally co-activated with cortical structures involved in auto-biographical memories and social knowledge. Conversely, other-race categorization recruits areas implicated in, and functionally connected with, visuo-attentive processing, like the fusiform gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule, and areas engaged in affective functions, like the amygdala. These results contribute to a better definition of the neural networks involved in the visual parcelling of social categories based on race, and help to situate these processes within a common neural space.
... These mirror neurons predominantly reside in the inferior parietal lobule, the inferior frontal gyrus, the primary motor cortex, and in pre-and supplementary motor areas, together known as the classical Mirror Neuron System (MNS) (Cattaneo and Rizzolatti, 2009;Molenberghs et al., 2012;Pineda, 2008;Rizzolatti and Craighero, 2004;Tramacere and Ferrari, 2016). However, more recent investigations on facial mimicry demonstrate that, although facial mimicry is considered to be an automatic process, it appears to be context specific and can be modulated by several factors, including group membership (Bourgeois and Hess, 2008;Brown et al., 2006;van der Schalk et al., 2011;van Schaik and Hunnius, 2016;Yabar et al., 2006), group dynamics such as cooperation and competition (Lanzetta and Englis, 1989;Likowski et al., 2011;Seibt et al., 2013;Weyers et al., 2009), fairness (Hofman et al., 2012), and empathic concern (Bos et al., 2016b). There even is evidence that facial mimicry can occur in the absence of emotion-specific visual cues, showing that emotion-specific facial expressions can even be elicited when combining neutral facial displays with verbal information about the emotional state of another or when presenting one with emotion-specific auditory stimuli (Fischer et al., 2012;Hietanen et al., 1998). ...
... The importance of social networks facilitated the evolvement of the communicative role of facial mimicry into a highly dynamic process (Chartrand et al., 2005). This is illustrated by the tendency to show more (facial) mimicry towards an ingroup member than towards an outgroup member, called ingroup preference (Bourgeois and Hess, 2008;Brown et al., 2006;van der Schalk et al., 2011;Yabar et al., 2006). Ingroup membership refers to a shared social identity based upon ethnicity, gender, or fundamental values such as political affiliation or religion (Bourgeois and Hess, 2008). ...
Article
Facial expressions are considered central in conveying information about one’s emotional state. During social encounters, facial expressions of another individual is often automatically imitated by the observer, a process referred to as ‘facial mimicry’. This process is assumed to facilitate prosocial behaviour and is thought to rely on the mirror neuron system, known for its involvement in both observation and execution of motor actions. However, recent studies have revealed mimicry to be a more dynamic process than previously conceptualized, leaving mere perception-action coupling insufficient to explain its behavioural flexibility. In the current review, we describe the consequences of these findings for the theoretical conceptualization of facial mimicry, and present a novel neuroendocrine model for the dynamic modulation of facial mimicry. Our model can guide research on the communicative function of facial expressions and can provide insight into the position of facial mimicry in theoretical models of empathy and social interaction.
... Dieses Phänomen geht häufig mit einer positiveren und differenzierten Wahrnehmung der Ingroup einher und ist empirisch umfassend belegt (z. B. Brown et al. 2006;Taylor et al. 1978). ...
Book
Im Alltag haben viele Menschen fast ausschließlich über Medieninhalte Kontakt zu Angehörigen verschiedener anderer gesellschaftlicher Gruppen (Outgroups). Gleichzeitig nutzen und verarbeiten sie Medieninhalte häufig gemeinsam in ihrer eigenen Gruppe (Ingroup). Johanna Schindler und Anne Bartsch beleuchten den Einfluss der Medienrezeption in Kleingruppen auf Vorurteile gegenüber Outgroups. Dazu systematisieren sie wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse zu Vorurteilen und zur Medienrezeption in Gruppen und verbinden diese miteinander. Außerdem stellen die Autorinnen die Ergebnisse einer explorativen Feldstudie vor. Auf diese Weise wird eine integrative Perspektive auf Gruppenphänomene in der modernen Mediengesellschaft ermöglicht.
... Social group membership plays an important role in interpreting the emotions of others. Experimental findings have shown that we are more evolutionarily prepared to empathize [35] and to respond to the emotions of those we identify as being in our group (ingroup) than those we do not (outgroup) [36]. Interestingly, facial markers of emotional reactions like Schadenfreude (i.e. the pleasure derived from others' misfortune) are particularly strong towards outgroups [37]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Members of highly social species decode, interpret, and react to the emotion of a conspecific depending on whether the other belongs to the same (ingroup) or different (outgroup) social group. While studies indicate that consciously perceived emotional stimuli drive social categorization, information about how implicit emotional stimuli and specific physiological signatures affect social categorization is lacking. We addressed this issue by exploring whether subliminal and supraliminal affective priming can influence the categorization of neutral faces as ingroup vs. outgroup. Functional Infrared Thermal Imaging was used to investigate whether the effect of affective priming on the categorization decision was moderated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). During the subliminal condition, we found that stronger SNS activation after positive or negative affective primes induced ingroup and outgroup face categorization, respectively. The exact opposite pattern (i.e. outgroup after positive, ingroup after negative primes) was observed in the supraliminal condition. We also found that misattribution effects were stronger in people with low emotional awareness, suggesting that this trait moderates how one recognizes SNS signals and employs them for unrelated decisions. Our results carry out the remarkable implication that low-level affective reactions coupled with sympathetic activation may bias social categorization.
... Finally, based on studies of people's reactions to others as depicted through images, it is evident that empathic responses toward those suffering were stronger within ingroup members and weaker for out-group members' suffering [8,19]. As a result, individuals' responses when viewing images of in-group members were more empathic than when they viewed images of those from an out-group [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many advocate for artificial agents to be empathic. Crowdsourcing could help, by facilitating human-in-the-loop approaches and data set creation for visual emotion recognition algorithms. Although crowdsourcing has been employed successfully for a range of tasks, it is not clear how effective crowdsourcing is when the task involves subjective rating of emotions. We examined relationships between demographics, empathy, and ethnic identity in pain emotion recognition tasks. Amazon MTurkers viewed images of strangers in painful settings, and tagged subjects’ emotions. They rated their level of pain arousal and confidence in their responses, and completed tests to gauge trait empathy and ethnic identity. We found that Caucasian participants were less confident than others, even when viewing other Caucasians in pain. Gender correlated to word choices for describing images, though not to pain arousal or confidence. The results underscore the need for verified information on crowdworkers, to harness diversity effectively for metadata generation tasks.
... The categorization of another person as an outgroup member activates a pro-ingroup bias among ingroup members and, consequently, structures group members' interpretations of that person's experience. For example, Brown et al. (2006) found that African American and European American participants' reactions to both pleasure and displeasure arousing pictures were significantly stronger when the protagonist was an ingroup member (of the same race as the participants) than when the protagonist was an outgroup member (of another race). Similarly, Serino et al. (2009) found that participants who were exposed to barely detectable tactile stimulation on their faces, detected the stimulation more easily when they watched faces being touched which belonged to members of their own ethnic group or political party, than when they watched faces being touched which belonged to members of a different ethnicity or political affiliation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the automaticity of affective sharing, many studies have documented the role of top-down effects and such as social categorization on people's empathic responses. An important question, largely ignored in previous research, concerns empathy to ingroup and outgroup members' pain in the contexts of ongoing intergroup conflict. In the present study we examined how implicit and explicit ethnic social categorization of others affects empathy to pain in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. To meet this aim, we assessed the evaluation of pain by Jewish and Arab participants who viewed a series of visual stimuli depicting painful and non-painful familiar situations. The stimuli were associated with explicitly or implicitly primed typical names depicting ingroup, neutral outgroup, and adversary outgroup members. Results demonstrate that pain ratings in the explicit priming condition provide support for the ingroup empathy hypothesis, positing that empathy is higher for ingroup than for outgroup members for both Jews and Palestinian Arabs. Conversely, when the targets' categories are primed implicitly, results revealed difference in empathy by the two ethnic groups where an ingroup bias was detected only for Palestinian Arabs. This suggests that the activation of ingroup bias on the subliminal implicit level among Palestinian Arab participants might be mediated by the amount of conflict permeating in their daily lives and by deeply rooted cultural values and behavioural patterns.
... In fact, the closeness in a social relationship that is perceived by the onlooker with the observed individual might modulate the distress intensity felt by the observer: the witnesses empathize with the observed person depending on how much he/she perceives the observed person similar to him/her . Moreover, the feeling to belong to a group (like the same racial group) may influence the observer empathic response (Brown et al., 2006;. For instance, Xu et al. (2009) have found a significantly greater activation of the anterior cingulate cortex when participants observed faces of the same ethnic group of the subject (in-group member) being pricked by a needle as compared to the observation of racial out-group members. ...
Thesis
Empathy allows us to understand and react to other people feelings. Regarding empathy for pain, a witness looking at a painful situation may react to other-oriented and prosocial-altruistic behaviors or self-oriented withdrawal responses. The main aim of this thesis was to study approach/avoidance and freezing behavioral manifestations that co-occurring along with both others’ pain observation and during the anticipation of pain. In two perspective-taking tasks, we investigated the influence of the type of relationship between the witness and the target in pain. Results showed that higher pain ratings, lower reactions times (experiment 1) and greater withdrawal avoidance postural responses (experiment 2) were attributed when participants adopted their most loved person perspective. In experiment 3, we analyzed the freezing behavior in the observer’s corticospinal system while subject was observing painful stimuli in first-and third-person perspectives. Results showed the pain-specific freezing effect only pertained to the first-person perspective condition. An empathy for pain interpretation suggests empathy might represent the anticipation of painful stimulation in oneself. In experiment 4 results, we found that the freezing effect present during a painful electrical stimulation was also present in the anticipation of pain. In conclusion, our studies suggest that cognitive perspective-taking mechanisms mainly modulate the empathic response and the most loved person perspective seems to be prevalent. In addition, more basic pain-specific corticospinal modulations are mainly present in the first-person perspective and it seems to not be referred to the empathy components
... More specifically, slower RTs for ingroup than outgroup approach behaviors may reflect greater interest in ingroup members conveying positive emotions. This is consistent with previous evidence showing that participants spent more time viewing pictures of racial ingroup than outgroup members displaying pleasant emotions, while they did not show such difference by group membership in viewing unpleasant pictures (Brown et al., 2006). In contrast, faster RTs for ingroup FIGURE 6 | Greater pSTS sensitivity to observing handshakes with ingroup members. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite evidence for the role of group membership in the neural correlates of social cognition, the mechanisms associated with processing non-verbal behaviors displayed by racially ingroup vs. outgroup members remain unclear. Here, 20 Caucasian participants underwent fMRI recording while observing social encounters with ingroup and outgroup characters displaying dynamic and static non-verbal behaviors. Dynamic behaviors included approach and avoidance behaviors, preceded or not by a handshake; both dynamic and static behaviors were followed by participants’ ratings. Behaviorally, participants showed bias toward their ingroup members, demonstrated by faster/slower reaction times for evaluating ingroup static/approach behaviors, respectively. At the neural level, despite overall similar responses in the action observation network to ingroup and outgroup encounters, the medial prefrontal cortex showed dissociable activation, possibly reflecting spontaneous processing of ingroup static behaviors and positive evaluations of ingroup approach behaviors. The anterior cingulate and superior frontal cortices also showed sensitivity to race, reflected in coordinated and reduced activation for observing ingroup static behaviors. Finally, the posterior superior temporal sulcus showed uniquely increased activity to observing ingroup handshakes. These findings shed light on the mechanisms of racial ingroup bias in observing social encounters, and have implications for understanding factors related to successful interactions with individuals from diverse backgrounds.
... The categorization of another person as an outgroup member activates a pro-ingroup bias among ingroup members and, consequently, structures group members' interpretations of that person's experience. For example, Brown et al. (2006) found that African American and European American participants' reactions to both pleasure and displeasure arousing pictures were significantly stronger when the protagonist was an ingroup member (of the same race as the participants) than when the protagonist was an outgroup member (of another race). Similarly, Serino et al. (2009) found that participants who were exposed to barely detectable tactile stimulation on their faces, detected the stimulation more easily when they watched faces being touched which belonged to members of their own ethnic group or political party, than when they watched faces being touched which belonged to members of a different ethnicity or political affiliation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the automaticity of affective sharing, many studies have documented the role of top-down effects, such as social categorization, on people’s empathic responses. An important question, largely ignored in previous research, concerns empathy to ingroup and outgroup members’ pain in the contexts of ongoing intergroup conflict. In the present study we examined how implicit and explicit ethnic social categorization of others affects empathy to pain in the context of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. To meet this aim, we assessed the evaluation of pain by Jewish and Arab participants who viewed a series of visual stimuli depicting painful and non-painful familiar situations. The stimuli were associated with explicitly or implicitly primed typical names depicting ingroup, neutral outgroup, and adversary outgroup members. Results demonstrate that pain ratings in the explicit priming condition provide support for the ingroup empathy hypothesis, positing that empathy is higher for ingroup than for outgroup members for both Jews and Palestinian Arabs. Conversely, when the targets’ categories are primed implicitly, results revealed difference in empathy by the two ethnic groups where an ingroup bias was detected only for Palestinian Arabs. This suggests that the activation of ingroup bias on the subliminal implicit level among Palestinian Arab participants might be mediated by the amount of conflict permeating in their daily lives and by deeply rooted cultural values and behavioural patterns.
... The minority status of a group is a cause of prejudice and discrimination, as the stereotype of a minority is an image, in which the characteristics are unfavorable to the whole group. In other words, it is a learned behavior and an institutionalized model [33]. Prejudice by a dominant group against a minority group leads to discrimination. ...
Article
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This article provides a textual and visual analysis of Hirsi Ali and van Gogh’s controversial short film Submission (2004) and Marc Forster’s The Kite Runner (2007). Emphasis is placed on rhetorical and plot strategies, aimed at reinforcing unproductive Orientalist stereotypes of Islam and Muslims. The aim of this analysis is to find out how Muslims and Islam are presented in Submission and The Kite Runner, based on E. Said's (1978) work “Orientalism” and to identify Theo van Gogh's assassination, influenced public attitudes towards Muslims. The following means are used to reach the aim: to analyze the concept of Orientalism and stereotypes, connections with the media and the influence of popular culture on their expression; to find out the role of the Muslim minority in the process of constructing social reality (stereotypes); to analyze how Muslims and Islam are presented in the films Submission and The Kite Runner. Summarizing the analysis of the film Submission, it should be noted, that the main character is supposedly portrayed as being oppressed by Islamic culture, who lived in complete isolation, thus reinforcing the negative attitudes and stereotypes in society towards Muslims, especially women. However, the subject of Submission, feminism or the oppression of women was never the main subject of discussion, on the contrary, it was Islamic radicalism, extremism and terrorism. Meanwhile, after analyzing the film The Kite Runner, it should be noted, that the plot reveals stereotypes about Islam and Muslims that exist in both Western and Eastern societies. Oriental characters are portrayed in the film as much lower in morality and values than, for example, Westerners. The film’s episodes emphasize the fanatical consequences of both terrorism and Islamism, and the relationship between the main characters reflects the orientalist culture of Afghanistan.
... Dieses Phänomen geht häufig mit einer positiveren und differenzierten Wahrnehmung der Ingroup einher und ist empirisch umfassend belegt (z. B. Brown et al. 2006;Taylor et al. 1978). ...
Chapter
Zunächst soll ein kurzer Überblick über den Vorurteils-Begriff und seine inhaltlichen Dimensionen gegeben werden.
... to be partial in treating others (Hoffman 2000;Stürmer et al. 2005;Prinz 2011a). Several experiments have demonstrated that we tend to be more empathic and caring with those who are in our same ethnic group (Brown et al. 2006), and that we are predisposed to give biased treatment to those who have moved us to empathize with them at the expense of others far more in need (Batson et al. 1995). All this is corroborated physiologically by experiments made on the function and potential of oxytocin. ...
Article
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This paper considers, firstly, to what extent the administration of oxytocin can augment the capacity of empathy in human beings; and secondly, whether or not such practice ought to be allowed. In relation to the latter, the author develops an argument in favour of this intervention by virtue of its consistency with the belief that, if a therapeutic treatment is to be considered acceptable, it is essential that it maximizes the well-being of those affected and that it does not compromise the autonomy of the patient. Having rejected several objections related to the nature of this intervention, the author finally questions its morality on the basis of a concern with its universalizability.
... Dieses Phänomen geht häufig mit einer positiveren und differenzierten Wahrnehmung der Ingroup einher und ist empirisch umfassend belegt (z. B. Brown et al. 2006;Taylor et al. 1978). ...
Chapter
Als Nächstes steht die Medienrezeption in Gruppen im Mittelpunkt. Dabei wird zunächst ihre Bedeutung eingeordnet und ein kurzer Überblick über bisherige Untersuchungen zum Zusammenspiel von Medienrezeption in Gruppen und Vorurteilen gegeben.
... Nevertheless, despite all the advantages, empathetic apology has disadvantages on forgiveness, so that it can cause some negative behaviors. Previous research has reported a negative effect of empathy in interpersonal interactions (Balconi and Vanutelli, 2017) and exposed negative empathy-related responses to unpleasant situations (Brown et al., 2006;Tullett et al., 2012). For example, in some social conflicts, empathy may not be a good incentive to achieve a positive response from the offended person (Breithaupt, 2018). ...
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The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the different psychological impacts of two initial verbal recovery strategies (gratitude vs empathetic apology) on the consumers' loyalty after a service failure. The proposed theoretical model also appraises the mediating role of two emotional responses (consumer forgiveness, consumer anger) and consumer self-esteem and the moderating role of self-oriented perfectionism. Two studies (i.e. an experimental design and a field study) are considered for this investigation to assess the effectiveness of gratitude expression versus empathetic apology on post-recovery loyalty and test the effects of mediators and the moderator applied between the verbal recovery strategies and post-recovery loyalty. The results of Study 1 revealed the supremacy of gratitude to empathetic apology in maintaining consumers' loyalty after service failure recovery. The better impact of gratitude expressed in increasing post-recovery loyalty is mediated through the elevation of consumers' forgiveness, the reduction of consumers' anger and consumers' self-esteem. The findings of Study 2 indicated that gratitude increases more post-recovery loyalty in individuals with a high level of self-oriented perfectionism. Future research could examine other service failure situations, different types of service recovery, mediators or moderators, which contribute to the service marketing literature. After a service failure, using gratitude expressions to consumers often makes them feel better and more valuable. This work increases service providers' knowledge in using proper expressions after a service failure to help elevate consumers' positive reactions resulting in maintaining their loyalty.
... Grupės mažumos statusas yra išankstinio nusistatymo ir diskriminacijos priežastis, kadangi mažumos stereotipas yra įvaizdis, kuriame išsidėsčiusios charakteristikos nepalankios visai grupei. Kitaip tariant, tai išmoktas elgesys ir institucionalizuotas modelis (Brown, Bradley, Lang, 2006). Dominuojančios grupės išankstinis nusistatymas prieš mažumos grupę sąlygoja diskriminaciją. ...
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Straipsnyje pateikiama Hirsi Ali ir Van Gogho prieštaringai vertinamo trumpametražio filmo „Nuolankumas“ (2004) ir Marco Forsterio filmo „Bėgantis paskui aitvarą“ (2007) tekstinė ir vaizdinė analizė. Akcentuojamos retorinės ir siužetinės strategijos, kuriomis siekiama sustiprinti neproduktyvius orientalistinius islamo ir musulmonų stereotipus. Šios analizės tikslas – išsiaiškinti, kaip pristatomi musulmonai ir islamas filmuose „Bėgantis paskui aitvarą“ (angl. The Kite Runner) ir „Nuolankumas“ (angl. Submission) remiantis E. Said (1978) „Orientalizmu“, ir nustatyti kinematografijos vaidmenį kuriant stereotipus skirtingose kultūrinėse terpėse. Tikslui atskleisti pasitelkiami uždaviniai: išanalizuoti orientalizmo ir stereotipų koncepciją, sąsajas su žiniasklaida ir populiariosios kultūros daromą įtaką jų raiškai; išsiaiškinti musulmonų mažumos vaidmenį socialinės realybės (stereotipų) konstravimo procese; išanalizuoti, kaip pristatomi musulmonai ir islamas filmuose „Nuolankumas“ ir „Bėgantis paskui aitvarą“.Apibendrinant filmo „Nuolankumas“ analizę atkreiptinas dėmesys, kad pagrindinė veikėja (pasakojanti 4 moterų istorijas) vaizduojama kaip slegiama islamo kultūros, kur gyvenama visiškoje izoliacijoje, taip sustiprinant visuomenėje egzistuojantį neigiamą požiūrį musulmonų, ypač moterų, atžvilgiu. Vis dėlto pagrindiniu diskusijų objektu niekada netapo filmas „Nuolankumas“, feminizmas ar moterų priespauda, priešingai, tai buvo islamiškasis radikalizmas, ekstremizmas ir terorizmas. O išanalizavus filmą „Bėgantis paskui aitvarą“ pažymėtina, kad vaizduojamas „civilizacijų susidūrimas“ atskleidžia stereotipus islamo ir musulmonų atžvilgiu, egzistuojančius tiek Vakarų, tiek Rytų visuomenėse. Didžioji dalis Oriento veikėjų filme vaizduojami kaip priešiški Vakarams, pavyzdžiui, žemesnės moralės ar vertybių nei Vakarų atstovai. Filmo epizoduose akcentuojamas fanatizmo aspektas, susijęs tiek su terorizmu, tiek su islamizmu, o santykiai tarp pagrindinių veikėjų atspindi orientalistinę Afganistano kultūrą.
... The categorization of another person as an outgroup member activates a pro-ingroup bias among ingroup members and, consequently, structures group members' interpretations of that person's experience (Miron & Branscombe 2008). For example, Brown et al. (2006) found that African American and European American participants' reactions to both pleasure and displeasure arousing pictures were significantly stronger when the protagonist was an ingroup member (of the same race as the participants) than when the protagonist was an outgroup member (of another race). Similarly, Serino et al. (2009) found that participants who were exposed to barely detectable tactile stimulation on their faces, detected the stimulation more easily when they watched faces being touched which belonged to members of their own ethnic group or political party, than when they watched faces being touched which belonged to members of a different ethnicity or political affiliation. ...
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Despite the automaticity of affective sharing, many studies have documented the role of top-down effects and such as social categorization on people's empathic responses. An important question, largely ignored in previous research, concerns empathy to ingroup and outgroup members' pain in the contexts of ongoing intergroup conflict. In the present study we examined how implicit and explicit ethnic social categorization of others affects empathy to pain in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. To meet this aim, we assessed the evaluation of pain by Jewish and Arab participants who viewed a series of visual stimuli depicting painful and non-painful familiar situations. The stimuli were associated with explicitly or implicitly primed typical names depicting ingroup, neutral outgroup, and adversary outgroup members. Results demonstrate that pain ratings in the explicit priming condition provide support for the ingroup empathy hypothesis, positing that empathy is higher for ingroup than for outgroup members for both Jews and Palestinian Arabs. Conversely, when the targets' categories are primed implicitly, results revealed difference in empathy by the two ethnic groups where an ingroup bias was detected only for Palestinian Arabs. This suggests that the activation of ingroup bias on the subliminal implicit level among Palestinian Arab participants might be mediated by the amount of conflict permeating in their daily lives and by deeply rooted cultural values and behavioural patterns.
... As well as contributing to the literature on moral elevation, our work highlights the potential of moral elevation as an emotion-based intervention for increasing support for humanitarian action. In the context of intergroup conflict, people's conflict related attitudes are often extremely rigid (Halperin & Bar Tal, 2011) and individuals are often resistant to caring about, and feeling empathy towards, outgroup members (Brown, Bradley, & Lang, 2006;Č ehajić-Clancy, 2011;Cikara, Bruneau, Van Bavel, & Saxe, 2014). Even though empathy is associated with support for humanitarian aid towards outgroup members, attempts to elicit empathy towards outgroup members are often unsuccessful and have even been found to backfire under certain circumstances M and SD are used to represent mean and standard deviation, respectively. ...
Article
Moral elevation is an emotional experience elicited after witnessing acts of exceptional moral goodness and involves feeling moved and inspired. Previous research has demonstrated that experiences of moral elevation can lead to increased altruism. We examined whether the benefits of moral elevation on prosocial intentions extend to the context of intractable intergroup conflict, by testing whether moral elevation increases support for outgroup-favorable policies. We hypothesized that moral elevation would increase support for humanitarian policies, but not political concessions, as only the former are considered to be within the moral domain. To test this, we ran three studies in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, including a preregistered replication, and found overall support for our hypothesis. This research is the first to demonstrate that moral elevation can play an important role in the context of intractable conflict by increasing support for alleviating outgroup suffering, but it also suggests that the effect of elevation is limited in that it does not extend to increasing support for political compromises.
... As Kant's comments about compassion being weak and blind suggest, compassion is an emotion that we are much more likely to feel towards those who are "near"-where this nearness could be (say) physical, temporal, psychological, or social. Moreover, not only is compassion's bias toward the near empirically wellestablished (e.g., Brown et al., 2006;Stürmer et al., 2005;Xu et al., 2009), but it is also something that appears to have a biological foundation. More specifically, research on compassion's evolutionary origins (e.g., Goetz et al. 2010;Gilbert, 2015) suggests that compassion may be the upshot of a parent-child bonding mechanism that was coopted to serve as a more general tool for building and maintaining in-group cooperation. ...
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Compassion is generally thought to be a morally valuable emotion both because it is concerned with the suffering of others and because it prompts us to take action on their behalf. But skeptics are unconvinced. Not only does a viable account of compassion’s evaluative content—its characteristic concern—appear elusive, but the emotional response itself seems deeply parochial: a concern we tend to feel toward the suffering of friends and loved ones, rather than for individuals who are outside of our circle of intimates. In response, I defend a sophisticated, non-cognitivist account of compassion and explain how it avoids the difficulties that undermine existing, typically cognitivist, proposals.
... The present results are also consistent with previously reported negative, empathy-related responses to unpleasant situations (Brown, Bradley, & Lang, 2006). Conflictual (negative) and cooperative (positive) situations were shown to be more powerful in eliciting empathic responses, presumably emotionally involving and significant, compared with neutral interpersonal conditions. ...
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Emotional empathy is crucial to understand how we respond to interpersonal positive or negative situations. In the present research, we aim at identifying the neural networks and the autonomic responsiveness underlying the human ability to perceive and empathize with others’ emotions when positive (cooperative) or negative (uncooperative) interactions are observed. A multimethodological approach was adopted to elucidate the reciprocal interplay of autonomic (peripheral) and central (cortical) activities in empathic behavior. Electroencephalography (EEG, frequency band analysis) and hemodynamic (functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS) activity were all recorded simultaneously with systemic skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate (HR) measurements as potential biological markers of emotional empathy. Subjects were required to empathize in interpersonal interactions. As shown by fNIRS/EEG measures, negative situations elicited increased brain responses within the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas positive situations elicited greater responses within the left PFC. Therefore, a relevant lateralization effect was induced by the specific valence (mainly for negative conditions) of the emotional interactions. Also, SCR was modulated by positive/negative conditions. Finally, EEG activity (mainly low-frequency theta and delta bands) intrinsically correlated with the cortical hemodynamic responsiveness, and they both predicted autonomic activity. The integrated central and autonomic measures better elucidated the significance of empathic behavior in interpersonal interactions.
... For example, it was found that Turkish and Indian participants (collectivist background) showed different responses to social exclusion compared to German and American participants (individualist background) (Pfundmair et al., 2015), possibly because people from collectivist backgrounds perceive social exclusion as less threatening so they are less affected by it than people from individualistic backgrounds (Pfundmair et al., 2018). The influence of culture is also reflected in the presence of "in-group advantage," i.e., individuals have stronger reactions to or better recognition of emotional information conveyed by individuals from the same race (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002;Brown et al., 2006). This in-group advantage has also been found in the emotional processing of social events such as social exclusion Krill & Platek, 2009). ...
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Human beings have a fundamental need to belong. Evaluating and dealing with social exclusion and social inclusion events, which represent negative and positive social interactions, respectively, are closely linked to our physical and mental health. In addition to traditional paradigms that simulate scenarios of social interaction, images are utilized as effective visual stimuli for research on socio-emotional processing and regulation. Since the current mainstream emotional image database lacks social stimuli based on a specific social context, we introduced an open-access image database of social inclusion/exclusion in young Asian adults (ISIEA). This database contains a set of 164 images depicting social interaction scenarios under three categories of social contexts (social exclusion, social neutral, and social inclusion). All images were normatively rated on valence, arousal, inclusion score, and vicarious feeling by 150 participants in Study 1. We additionally examined the relationships between image ratings and the potential factors influencing ratings. The importance of facial expression and social context in the image rating of ISIEA was examined in Study 2. We believe that this database allows researchers to select appropriate materials for socially related studies and to flexibly conduct experimental control.
... Általában nagyobb fiziológiai érzékenységet mutatnak az emberek a saját csoport tagjainak érzelmi arckifejezésére (Brown-Bradley-Lang, 2006). Még mások fájdalmának elvben automatikus átérzését is moderálja a csoporttagság. ...
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A pszichológiát régóta foglalkoztatja az egyén és az őt körülvevő társas közeg viszonya. A társas környezet viselkedésre, érzelmekre, kognícióra való hatásának vizsgálata hagyományosan a szociálpszichológia tárgya. Két fontos terület, a csoport és hálózatelméletek egyaránt az egyént annak társas környezetében vizsgálja, és a társas környezet segítségével próbálja megérteni. A csoport-és hálózatelméletek azonban számos módszertanában, az elemzés szintjében és céljaiban különböző megközelítést takarnak, sokszor különböző tudományterületen, saját szakirodalmakkal. A hálózatkutatás legújabb népszerűsége lehetőséget kínál a csoport-és hálózatelméletek összevetésére és a pszichológiához való hozzájárulásuk számbavételére. 12.1. Csoportok A pszichológián belül elsősorban a szociálpszichológia kutatja a társas környezet hatását az egyénre, és a csoportok tanulmányozása a kezdetektől fogva a szociálpszichológia része (Floyd Allport, 1924; Gordon Allport 1954/1999; McDougall, 1921). Legáltalánosabb értelemben a csoport olyan egyének halmaza, akik közt van valamilyen interakció, akiknek vannak közös céljaik, hasonlóak valamilyen szempontból, és akik számára a csoport jelentéssel bír. Maga a csoport fogalma is a szociálpszichológia vizsgálatának tárgya (Lickel és mtsai, 2000; Lickel-Hamilton-Sherman, 2001). Az egyének különböző halmazait nevezzük tehát csoportnak, ami lehet néhány tagból álló munkateam, iskolai osztály vagy vallási felekezet. Jól látható, hogy a fenti feltételek, mint például az interakció vagy a közös célok, már ezekre a csoportokra sem szükségszerűen teljesülnek. Interakción alapuló csoportok tanulmányozásából ismerjük például a csoporton belüli szerepek és normák jelentőségét, a csoportkultúra és csoportkohézió hatását. Egyéni teljesítményben és döntéshozatalban érvényesülő csoportfolyamatok kutatása révén ismertük meg a társas lógás és társas
... There are also many other variables of interest, such as sound or animation, that could be used in isolation or in combination with the variables examined here to determine their effectiveness and impact on relevancy and stay intentions. The images used in Study 3 did not include people, which could impact in-group feelings (Brown et al., 2006). ...
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Purpose Much research regarding social media posts and relevancy has resulted in mixed findings. Furthermore, the mediating role of relevancy has not previously been examined. This paper aims to examine the correlating relationship between types of posts made by hotels and the resulting occupancy rates. Then, the mediating role of relevancy is examined and ways that posts can increase/decrease relevancy of the post to potential hotel users. Design/methodology/approach Within the context of the hotel industry, three studies were conducted – one including hotel occupancy data from a corporate chain – to examine the impact of social media posts on relevancy and intentions to stay at the hotel. Experimental studies were conducted to explain the results of the real-world hotel data. Findings The findings show that relevancy is an important mediator in linking social media posts to service performance. A locally (vs nationally) themed post can decrease both the relevancy of a post and the viewer’s intentions to stay at a hotel. This relationship, however, can be weakened if a picture is included with the post, as a visual may increase self-identification with a post. Originality/value These results have important theoretical and practical implications as social media managers attempt to find the best ways to communicate to their customers and followers. Specifically, there are lower and upper limits to how many times a hotel should be posting to social media. The data also show many hotels post about local events, such as school fundraisers or a job fair, that can be harmful to stay intentions, likely due to the irrelevant nature of local posts to customers who are likely to stay in a hotel. National posts are seen as more relevant and likely to increase stay intentions, and the inclusion of a picture can help local posts seem more relevant.
... One answer is that both vicarious police violence and vicarious distress involve an element of empathy and empathic distress as noted earlier. Research indicates that relative to other racial groups, Black individuals show greater empathy towards ingroup members (Brown et al., 2006). One study found that Black participants with low racial identification demonstrated less empathy toward a stereotypical Black man (e.g., listens to rap music) compared to a counter-stereotypical Black man (e.g., listens to classical music) who was an unarmed victim of a police shooting (J. ...
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Little is known about how vicarious police violence, or instances of police violence observed but not directly experienced, impacts health among Black individuals. Using a lab-based paradigm in a sample of young adults (N = 101), this study examined: a) psychophysiological reactivity to instances of vicarious police violence, particularly the assault and shooting of Black individuals; b) affective reactivity to instances of vicarious police violence; and c) how racial identity, one important moderator, influences psychophysiological and affective responses to vicarious police violence. Using electrocardiography and impedance cardiography, participants' cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic physiological responses were continuously monitored. Three sets of high-quality color photographs (neutral, non-violent distress, violence) were viewed on a computer. Participants rated their affect after each set using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Following this task, racial identity was assessed using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity-Short Form. Findings indicated that vicarious police violence was associated with greater sympathetic reactivity and negative affect relative to the neutral and non-violent distress conditions. Additionally, higher levels of racial centrality exacerbated the association between vicarious police violence and negative affect. Findings suggest that Black individuals may wish to limit their consumption of media depicting the assault and shooting of other Black individuals, with the caveat that the best solution is ultimately the cessation of police violence.
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In Deadly Vices, Gabriele Taylor provides a secular analysis of vices which in Christian theology were thought to bring death to the soul: sloth, envy, avarice, pride, anger, lust, and gluttony. She argues that these vices are appropriately singled out and grouped together in that ‘they are destructive of the self and prevent its flourishing’. Using a related approach, I offer a secular analysis of gluttony and cowardice, examining their roles in common failures to empathise with animals. I argue that these vices constitute serious moral failings, for they enable continuing complicity in animal abuse and undermine integrity. While Taylor aims to show that ‘deadly vices’ are destructive of the self, I argue that they are ultimately deadly to other animals. I offer practical suggestions for overcoming them by cultivating agentic courage and better empathy with animals.
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Past research dedicated to the impact of hierarchy on the autonomic nervous system has focused mainly on dominance. The current study extends this investigation by assessing the effect of social prestige, operationalized through occupational status, and examines whether people react differently when interacting with individuals of high or low occupational status. Participants’ heart rate and electrodermal activity were recorded while they interacted with a confederate who was introduced either as a neurosurgeon (high-status condition) or as a nurse aide (low-status condition). The results show that, contrary to the participants’ skin conductance level, their heart rate was modulated by the confederate’s status. In the high-status condition, participants’ heart rate increased when the “neurosurgeon” approached them, reaching a higher level than when interacting with the person in the low-status condition. We discuss our results in terms of the threats or opportunities that prestige may elicit.
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Cet article théorique argumente l’idée novatrice d’utiliser la méditation pour une éducation et une formation éthiques relevant les défis de l’équité. Malgré des valeurs officielles incluant l’égalité, l’école en France est plus discriminante socialement que celles de tous les autres pays de l’OCDE. Une contradiction similaire entre valeurs explicites d’une part, et valeurs implicites et effectives d’autre part, se retrouve dans le fonctionnement cognitif des individus. Notamment, des attitudes implicites expriment inconsciemment des stéréotypes culturels à travers des comportements discriminatoires, par des biais attentionnels. Ainsi, nous émettons l’hypothèse qu’une source des discriminations opérant à l’école consiste en l’identification inconsciente des enseignants et des enseignantes aux élèves considérés comme « bons » et en l’étiquetage inconscient des élèves en difficulté scolaire comme étrangers. Nous proposons ici que le support cognitif de l’équité, pendant moral de l’égalité, corresponde à l’équanimité, fonctionnement sans biais implicite de préférence ni d’aversion. Une éducation éthique visant l’équité devrait dès lors permettre aux sujets de devenir conscients de leurs biais de fonctionnement et de développer l’équanimité. Un outil de choix pour s’y entraîner correspond à la famille d’entraînements attentionnels qu’est la méditation, ce que nous argumentons dans une brève description de différents types de méditation et dans une rapide revue de littérature de leurs effets. En perspective, nous envisageons dans les grandes lignes les bases qui nous paraissent essentielles au curriculum d’une éducation éthique visant l’équité.
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This theoretical article argues the innovative idea of using meditation for ethical edu- cation addressing the challenges of equity. Despite official values that include equa- lity, French schools are more socially discriminatory than schools in all of the other OECD countries. A similar contradiction between explicit values and implicit and effective values is found in the cognitive functioning of individuals. In particular, implicit attitudes unconsciously express cultural stereotypes by means of discrimi- natory behaviours through attentional biases. We therefore hypothesize that a source of the discrimination operating in schools is teachers’ unconscious identification with students considered “good”, and the unconscious labelling of students with aca- demic challenges as foreigners. Here, we propose that cognitive support for equity, the moral counterpart of equality, corresponds to equanimity, functioning without the implicit bias of preference or aversion. An ethical education aimed at equity should therefore allow the subjects to become aware of their functioning bias and to develop equanimity. A tool of choice for this type of training corresponds to the attentional training family, meditation, which we argue in a brief description of various types of meditation and a quick literature review on their effects. In perspec- tive, we outline the foundations that we believe essential to the curriculum of an ethi- cal education on equity.
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El presente estudio exploró las potencialidades de la escala Feel & Think (F&T) modificada por Garton & Gringart (2005) para medir la empatía en niños bolivianos entre 8 y 12 años. El instrumento adaptado incluyó dos factores y 12 ítems (6 para empatía afectiva y 6 para cognitiva). Los datos pasaron por valoraciones de fiabilidad, validez divergente, concurrente y constructo a través del Análisis de componentes Principales y del Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio. Los resultados mostraron una fiabilidad algo disminuida, aunque con relaciones significativas entre ítems; validez divergente adecuada comparando niños y niñas, validez concurrente significativa y validez de constructo que confirmó dos componentes (‘Sentir Preocupación’ y ‘Pensar en Ayudar’). Asimismo, el Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio arrojó valores aceptables en casi todos sus indicadores de ajuste del modelo. Finalmente, se discutió sobre la relevancia de sistemas convencionales y la conveniencia de innovar en la medición de la empatía infantil.
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Despite the public outrage in response to police violence against unarmed Black men, work on the psychological dynamics of reactions to these incidents is relatively rare. The present research examined whether empathy for a Black male victim of White police interracial violence would vary as a function of victim stereotypicality (stereotypic/counterstereotypic) and Black participant racial identity. In Study 1, 140 Black participants were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). As hypothesized, Black participants low in racial identification reported less empathy for the stereotypical relative to the counterstereotypical victim. Those high in racial identification showed relatively high levels of empathy regardless of the characteristics of the Black victim. Study 2 replicated these effects with 263 Black MTurk participants. This research highlights the value of considering individual differences in the Black observers (racial identification) and the characteristics of Black victims to better understand the psychological processes involved in intragroup responses to police violence.
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Many scholars have studied how guanxi plays a key role in China’s cultural, social, and political environment. Guanxi is widely accepted in academia as an indigenous construct from China: deeply rooted in Chinese culture and reflected in the behaviour of Chinese people. Less is known, however, about how the employees of Chinese multinational Companies (MNCs) employ guanxi in the West. In contrast to the common assumptions that all Chinese tend to exercise guanxi to handle social relations, this study reveals that while Chinese expatriates (CEs) actively practice guanxi with their homeland counterparts, they do not do so with host-country nationals (HCNs) and host-country Chinese (HCC). No such activities were also observed between the last two groups. The emergent model describes that guanxi practice affects intra-firm multicultural group dynamics in both institutional and social domains that shape the shared belief and behavioural patterns of organization members.
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ABSTRACT The aim of this theoretical article that is supported by an illustrative research case of an ongoing project, is the investigation of the experience of awe in relation to the empathic “feeling into” and the ‘‘being moved” phenomenological quality of aesthetic experience, as instantiated in the specific case of religious icons-paintings. This approach focuses on an extensive exploration of the perceivers’ experience of religious icons in relation to any emergent aesthetic, cultural, spiritual and religious issues. The case of awe was considered of specific importance, substantiating possible aspects of the above confluences, while both the empathic “feeling into” and the “being moved” aspects seem overriding attributes Complimentary Contributor Copy Despina Stamatopoulou, Jacob Lang and Gerald Cupchik 198of “awe”. Awe being one of the most complex (collective?) emotions, including polarities of opposite emotions (e.g., fear, delight) is highlighted in this project. There are two reasons for this: first, awe is among the very few emotions that could support both aesthetic and religious experiences, while possibly bearing a convergent basis in both, as reflected in the subject-object relationship during the perceptual experience of icons. Secondly, awe is assumed as the prototypical reaction to sublime, with the attributes of the latter (sublime object stimulus) either independently or interdependently defined from the perceiving subject, depending also on specific cultural contexts. An effort, thus, will be made to resolve the “subject-object” problem as posed in the sublime stimuli for empirical purposes. It could be challenging to investigate how psychological data of today might reflect aspects of the above aesthetic sensibilities. Variations could also be a matter of cultural construction, proving insights in the “visuality” of a culture in relation to the cultural identity of people participating in it and sharing its ‘material’ products. Our findings suggest that awe is anchored in a compact dynamic interaction (not a mix) of a moving, engaging, embodied experience in front of powerful, evocative stimuli (not critically beautiful especially when the implicated affective tone/valance of the icons is negative), where the moving and the engaging (affective connectedness—closeness) activate reflective engagement that can bring moral insights of the imaginative empathic “feeling into” to the fore, attuning perceivers to what could be morally salient at the point. It is suggested that, awe embraces a ‘primordial’ relational structure keeping vivid the intersubjective ties between the self and the other/object/world. That is, that none of these poles can be defined independently—neither the spectator nor the powerful object/sublime, so “tertiary” moving, awe-taking experiential qualities are spread through, activating a back and forth between the experiential ‘I’ and the reflective ‘Me’ (embodied engaged positions of the perceiving subject) that initiate a sort of an imaginative, recursive, distancing within our embodiment. This ‘engaged’ distancing that results in reflective engagement is set within our perspectival embodiment, as we define ourselves in relation to the other-sublime-sacred, in the case of the icons. As such, awe-sublime cannot be activated when we become detached, when cutting the “moving” embodied and resonating ties and attending in a disembodied opposing manner, at least within this specific cultural frame that keeps some affinities with the primordially ‘old’ ritual experiences.
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Cyberbullying often happens in the presence of bystanders whose behaviors play a key role in changing dynamics of the situation. To examine the factors influencing cyberbystander likelihood of intervening in cyberbullying on social media, a 2 (degree of cyberbullying severity: high vs low) × 2 (level of interpersonal similarity: high vs low) between-subjects experiment was conducted ( N = 132). Results indicated that cyberbystanders’ empathic responses depended on the severity of cyberbullying. The more empathy bystanders felt, the more likely they were to publicly and privately intervene. Moreover, the indirect effect of cyberbullying severity on willingness to intervene through empathy was more pronounced when the interpersonal similarity between victim and cyberbystander was low, rather than it was high.
Article
Purpose Much research regarding social media posts and relevancy has resulted in mixed findings. Furthermore, the mediating role of relevancy has not previously been examined. This paper aims to examine the correlating relationship between types of posts made by hotels and the resulting occupancy rates. Then, the mediating role of relevancy is examined and ways that posts can increase/decrease relevancy of the post to potential hotel users. Design/methodology/approach Within the context of the hotel industry, three studies were conducted – one including hotel occupancy data from a corporate chain – to examine the impact of social media posts on relevancy and intentions to stay at the hotel. Experimental studies were conducted to explain the results of the real-world hotel data. Findings The findings show that relevancy is an important mediator in linking social media posts to service performance. A locally (vs nationally) themed post can decrease both the relevancy of a post and the viewer’s intentions to stay at a hotel. This relationship, however, can be weakened if a picture is included with the post, as a visual may increase self-identification with a post. Originality/value These results have important theoretical and practical implications as social media managers attempt to find the best ways to communicate to their customers and followers. Specifically, there are lower and upper limits to how many times a hotel should be posting to social media. The data also show many hotels post about local events, such as school fundraisers or a job fair, that can be harmful to stay intentions, likely due to the irrelevant nature of local posts to customers who are likely to stay in a hotel. National posts are seen as more relevant and likely to increase stay intentions, and the inclusion of a picture can help local posts seem more relevant.
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This work separately applies two psychology frameworks—the three dimensions along which people are evaluated (competence, morality, and warmth) and individual sociopolitical attitudes (modern sexism [MS], right‐wing authoritarianism [RWA], and social dominance orientation (SDO)—to explore voter evaluations of Donald Trump and Joseph Biden both prior to (Study 1), and in the month following (Study 2), the 2020 U.S. presidential election. At both time points, Democrats and Republicans rated their own party's candidate similarly on the three trait dimensions and overall favorability. They differed, however, in evaluations of the other party's candidate. Republicans viewed Biden more positively both overall and on the trait dimensions than Democrats viewed Trump. Favorability ratings and trait perceptions for one's own party candidate were comparable pre‐ and postelection but were more negative postelection for the opposite party's candidate. RWA predicted favorability toward Trump, above and beyond political affiliation and sociodemographic factors, at both time points in addition to MS preelection and SDO postelection; RWA negatively predicted favorability toward Biden pre‐ but not postelection. Moreover, RWA predicted a vote for Trump versus Biden above and beyond political affiliation, highlighting the importance of considering sociopolitical attitudes in political decision‐making.
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The social neuroscience approach to prejudice investigates the psychology of intergroup bias by integrating models and methods of neuroscience with the social psychology of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. Here, we review major contemporary lines of inquiry, including current accounts of group-based categorization; formation and updating of prejudice and stereotypes; effects of prejudice on perception, emotion, and decision making; and the self-regulation of prejudice. In each section, we discuss key social neuroscience findings, consider interpretational challenges and connections with the behavioral literature, and highlight how they advance psychological theories of prejudice. We conclude by discussing the next-generation questions that will continue to guide the social neuroscience approach toward addressing major societal issues of prejudice and discrimination. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 72 is January 4, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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While people are trying to keep up with the rapidly evolving technology in today’s zeitgeist, this situation leads to people isolation, and ultimately to a more-egocentric state of mind. However, humanity is also a social being and must stick together. This association necessitates certain requirements for us. For example, behaviors such as healthy communication, understanding the other, helping one and another are the essential aspects of human relations. From this point of view, the concept of empathy (encompassing all these behaviors) emerges. Empathy is a field of inquiry that has been frequently studied from past to present. Unfortunately, this is not the case in physical education and sports. It has always been observed that both physical education teachers and coaches do not attach as much importance as possible to empathy training. Moreover, competition in physical education and sport has widely reported to reduce empathy in a wide array of research studies up to date. On the contrary, competitive spirit may offer the most suitable environment for empathy to improve in physical education and sport, which has an impact on cognitive, affective and physical development of children. In addition, the need for empathy has become more and more necessary recently. In this regard, how can we help gain the empathy skills through physical education and sports? In the light of this question, this chapter explores the concept of empathy in physical education and sport from a diachronic perspective. Additionally, it offers empathy activities to provide empathy skills through physical education and sports for the future endeavor.
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Violent extremist groups regularly use pictures in their propaganda. This practice, however, remains insufficiently understood. Conceptualizing visual images as amplifiers of narratives and emotions, the present article offers an original theoretical framework and measurement method for examining the synchronic and diachronic study of the manipulative use of images by violent extremist groups. We illustrate this framework and method with a systematic analysis of the 2,058 pictures contained in the Islamic State's propaganda magazines targeting Western audiences, exposing the “visual style” of the group, and highlighting the trends and shifts in the evolution of this style following developments on the ground.
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A bstract In the political domain, disgust is primarily portrayed as an emotion that explains individual differences in pathogen avoidance. We hypothesized that political rhetoric accusing opponents of moral transgressions also elicits disgust responses. In this registered report, we present the results from a laboratory experiment. We find that participants self-report higher disgust and have stronger physiological (Levator labii) responses to pictures of out-party leaders compared with in-party leaders. Participants also report higher disgust in response to moral violations of in-party leaders. There is more suggestive evidence that in-party leaders evoke more labii activity when they commit moral violations than when out-party leaders do. The impact of individual differences in moral disgust and partisanship strength is very limited to absent. Intriguingly, on average, the physiological and self-reported disgust responses to the treatment are similar, but individuals differ in whether their response is physiological or cognitive. This motivates further theorizing regarding the concordance of emotional responses.
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Online feedback exchange platforms enable content creators to collect a diverse set of design feedback quickly. However, creators can experience low quality and harsh feedback when using such platforms. In this paper, we leverage the empathy of the feedback provider to address both these issues. Specifically, we tested two narrative-based empathy arousal interventions: a negative experience and a design process narrative. We also examined whether ingroup framing further enhances the effects of empathy arousal. In a 3x2 online experiment, participants (n=205) wrote feedback on a poster design after experiencing one of the intervention conditions or a control condition. Our results show both the design process narrative and ingroup framing conditions significantly increased the feedback quality and effort invested in the task. The negative experience narrative condition had similar effects and participants reported significantly increased disapproval towards harsh feedback. We discuss the implications of our results for the design of feedback exchange platforms.
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What causes some people to stand in solidarity with those from other races, religions, or nationalities, even when that solidarity does not seem to benefit the individual or their group? Seeing Us in Them examines outgroup empathy as a powerful predisposition in politics that pushes individuals to see past social divisions and work together in complex, multicultural societies. It also reveals racial/ethnic intergroup differences in this predisposition, rooted in early patterns of socialization and collective memory. Outgroup empathy explains why African Americans vehemently oppose the border wall and profiling of Arabs, why Latinos are welcoming of Syrian refugees and support humanitarian assistance, why some white Americans march in support of Black Lives Matter through a pandemic, and even why many British citizens oppose Brexit. Outgroup empathy is not naïve; rather it is a rational and necessary force that helps build trust and maintain stable democratic norms of compromise and reciprocity.
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Right-wing terrorism (RWT) poses an increasing threat to Western societies, with perpetrators targeting diverse members of society. We investigated the affective and attitudinal outcomes of exposure to news about RWT, depending on the victims’ religious affiliation (Christian vs. Muslim). Results of a quota-based experiment in [Austria; predominantly non-Muslim] (N = 315) revealed no direct effects of the victims’ religious affiliation on affective and attitudinal outcomes. However, mediation analyses suggest that, compared to Muslim victims, Christian victims elicit higher perceived similarity, which in turn, impacts compassion. Similarity and compassion then significantly predict affective and attitudinal outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Background Empathy failures lead to equity failures. Women and men physicians experience work differently. Men physicians, however, may be unaware how these differences impact their colleagues. This constitutes an empathy gap; empathy gaps are associated with harm to outgroups. In our previous published work, we found that men had divergent views from women about the experiences of women relating to gender equity; senior men differed most from junior women. Since men physicians hold disproportionately more leadership roles than women, this empathy gap warrants exploration and remediation. Analysis Gender, age, motivation and power each seems to influence our empathic tendencies. Empathy, however, is not a static trait. Empathy can be developed and displayed by individuals through their thoughts, words and actions. Leaders can also influence culture by enshrining an empathic disposition in our social and organisation structures. Conclusions We outline methods to increase our empathic capacities as individuals and organisations through perspective-taking, perspective-giving and verbal commitments to institutional empathy. In doing so, we challenge all medical leaders to herald an empathic transformation of our medical culture in pursuit of a more equitable and pluralistic workplace for all groups of people.
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The present study presents preliminary evidence regarding the reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI). The MIBI consists of 7 subscales representing 3 stable dimensions of African American racial identity (Centrality, Ideology, and Regard). Responses to the MIBI were collected from 474 African American college students from a predominantly African American university ( n = 185) and a predominantly White university ( n = 289). As the result of factor analysis, a revised 5 I-item scale was developed. Evidence was found for 6 subscales. The Public Regard subscale was dropped because of poor internal consistency. Interscale correlations suggest that the MIBI is internally valid. Relationships among the MIBI subscales and race-related behavior suggest that the instrument has external validity. Descriptive statistics for the revised MIBI are provided for the entire sample as well as by school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Cardiovascular responses, skin conductance, corrugator ("frown"), and zygomaticus ("smile") electromyographic activity, and self-reported emotional responses were examined in response to scenarios that varied in emotional content and whether they involved interacting with a Black or White person. Black (33 women, 25 men) and White (28 women, 26 men) students imagined joy, neutral, fear, and anger situations. Emotional contents replicated patterns of physiological and self-reported emotion found in other studies, although gender differences in emotion found in other studies were evident only in White participants. Blacks exhibited more positive facial expressions, while Whites were more negatively expressive. Blacks, and particularly Black men, exhibited greater blood pressure reactivity to the emotional contexts. For both White and Black participants, imagined interactions with Blacks increased both positive and negative facial expression. Results suggest that, compared to Whites, Blacks are both more autonomically reactive to emotional interactions and may be responded to more emotionally. The results are discussed in terms of the need to study specific contextual factors rather than broad cross-cultural characterisations.
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The present study presents preliminary evidence regarding the reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI). The MIBI consists of 7 subscales representing 3 stable dimensions of African American racial identity (Centrality, Ideology, and Regard). Responses to the MIBI were collected from 474 African American college students from a predominantly African American university ( n = 185) and a predominantly White university ( n = 289). As the result of factor analysis, a revised 5 I-item scale was developed. Evidence was found for 6 subscales. The Public Regard subscale was dropped because of poor internal consistency. Interscale correlations suggest that the MIBI is internally valid. Relationships among the MIBI subscales and race-related behavior suggest that the instrument has external validity. Descriptive statistics for the revised MIBI are provided for the entire sample as well as by school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A model is presented that traces the origins of the anxiety people experience when interacting with outgroup members to fear of negative psychological or behavioral consequences for the self and fear of negative evaluations by ingroup or outgroup members. Prior relations between the groups, intergroup cognitions, the structure of the situation, and personal experience are hypothesized to determine the amount of anxiety that participants in intergroup interactions experience. It is proposed that high levels of intergroup anxiety amplify normative behavior patterns, cause cognitive and motivational information-processing biases, intensify self-awareness, lead to augmented emotional reactions, and polarize evaluations of outgroup members. Regression analyses of data from Hispanic students indicate that high levels of intergroup anxiety are associated with low levels of contact with outgroup members, stereotyping of outgroup members, and assumed dissimilarity to outgroup members.
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Much recent work on stereotyping has dealt with groups that are either artificially created or that do not have an extensive history of conflict. The authors attempted to overcome this limitation by examining issues of perceived variability and ethnocentrism among samples of White American and African American youth. The goals were both to examine theoretical issues in stereotyping and to describe the current state of ethnic interrelations among young people. Four studies are reported. Throughout, the samples of African Americans demonstrate interethnic judgments that are consistent with existing work on stereotyping and ethnocentrism. White American students, however, reported judgements that replicate neither the out-group homogeneity effect nor ethnocentrism. Alternative explanations for this difference are considered, and the discussion focuses on differing views concerning the role of ethnic identity and diversity in our society.
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Facial muscle activity and self-reports were examined for racial bias in 3 studies. In the first 2 experiments, While participants imagined cooperating with a Black or White partner. Experiment 1 manipulated reward structure in the context of cooperating with a deficient partner. Experiment 2 manipulated partner deficiency and willingness to expend compensatory effort. On both facial EMG and self-report measures, joint rewards produced more negative affect than independent rewards. However, all partners were liked more when they were willing to try to compensate for their deficits. In addition, more liking was reported for Black partners, but EMG activity indicated bias against Blacks. Experiment 3 investigated individual differences in prejudice. Again, a greater preference for Blacks than Whites occurred on self-report measures, but in their facial muscle activity, high-prejudiced participants exhibited bias against Blacks.
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The activation and control of affective race bias were measured using startle eyeblink responses (Study 1) and self-reports (Study 2) as White American participants viewed White and Black faces. Individual differences in levels of bias were predicted using E. A. Plant and P. G. Devine's (1998) Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice scales (IMS/EMS). Among high-IMS participants, those low in EMS exhibited less affective race bias in their blink responses than other participants. In contrast, both groups of high-IMS participants exhibited less affective race bias in self-reported responses compared with low-IMS participants. Results demonstrate individual differences in implicit affective race bias and suggest that controlled, belief-based processes are more effectively implemented in deliberative responses (e.g., self-reports).
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Ethnographic and clinical observations suggest that Asians are less expressive than European Americans. To examine whether this difference emerged in online emotional responding, 50 Hmong Americans (HAs) and 48 European Americans (EAs) were asked to relive past episodes of intense happiness, pride, love, anger, disgust, and sadness. Facial behavior and physiological reactivity were measured. For most emotions, more cultural similarities than differences were found. There were some exceptions: During happiness, fewer HAs than EAs showed non-Duchenne smiles (i.e., "social" smiles), despite similarities in reported emotional experience and physiological reactivity. Within-group differences between "less Hmong" and "more Hmong" HAs were also found. Implications of these findings for our understanding of culture-emotion relations are discussed.
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The degree to which perceivers automatically attend to and encode social category information was investigated. Event-related brain potentials were used to assess attentional and working-memory processes on-line as participants were presented with pictures of Black and White males and females. The authors found that attention was preferentially directed to Black targets very early in processing (by about 100 ms after stimulus onset) in both experiments. Attention to gender also emerged early but occurred about 50 ms later than attention to race. Later working-memory processes were sensitive to more complex relations between the group memberships of a target individual and the surrounding social context. These working-memory processes were sensitive to both the explicit categorization task participants were performing as well as more implicit, task-irrelevant categorization dimensions. Results are consistent with models suggesting that information about certain category dimensions is encoded relatively automatically.
Article
Three studies tested basic assumptions derived from a theoretical model based on the dissociation of automatic and controlled processes involved in prejudice. Study 1 supported the model's assumption that high- and low-prejudice persons are equally knowledgeable of the cultural stereotype. The model suggests that the stereotype is automatically activated in the presence of a member (or some symbolic equivalent) of the stereotyped group and that low-prejudice responses require controlled inhibition of the automatically activated stereotype. Study 2, which examined the effects of automatic stereotype activation on the evaluation of ambiguous stereotype-relevant behaviors performed by a race-unspecified person, suggested that when subjects' ability to consciously monitor stereotype activation is precluded, both high- and low-prejudice subjects produce stereotype-congruent evaluations of ambiguous behaviors. Study 3 examined high- and low-prejudice subjects' responses in a consciously directed thought-listing task. Consistent with the model, only low-prejudice subjects inhibited the automatically activated stereotype-congruent thoughts and replaced them with thoughts reflecting equality and negations of the stereotype. The relation between stereotypes and prejudice and implications for prejudice reduction are discussed.
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The cognitive significance of being in a close relationship is described in terms of including other in the self (in K. Lewin's [1948] sense of overlapping regions of the life space and in W. James [1890/1948] sense of the self as resources, perspectives, and characteristics). Exp 1 (with 24 college students), adapting W. B. Liebrand's (see record 1985-20117-001) decomposed-game procedures, found less self/other difference in allocations of money to a friend than to a stranger, regardless of whether Ss expected other to know their allocations. Exp 2 (with 20 female undergraduates), adapting C. G. Lord's (see record 1988-00331-001) procedures, found that Ss recalled fewer nouns previously imaged with self or mother than nouns imaged with a nonclose other, suggesting that mother was processed more like self than a stranger. Exp 3 (with 17 married graduate students), adapting self-schema, reaction-time (RT) procedures (e.g., H. Markus; see record 1977-27587-001) found longer latencies when making "me/not me" decisions for traits that were different between self and spouse versus traits that were similar for both, suggesting a self/other confusion with spouse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Used E. T. Higgins's (see record 1987-34444-001) self-discrepancy model to examine the relation of the self to empathy. In Study 1, Ss read about a target displaying either dejection or agitation because of a self-discrepancy. Ss who possessed the self-discrepancy associated with the target's distress showed greater empathic concern, made more situational attributions, and rated the target's reaction as more appropriate. In Study 2, Ss matched the target on affective and cognitive components of the self. Similarity between observer and target on emotional vulnerability was associated with both affective and cognitive empathic effects. Although similarity on attribute accessibility was associated with cognitive empathic effects, it was associated with affective effects only when the attribute produced a self-discrepancy for an observer. Then only feelings of personal distress showed differences. Results establish a link between the self and empathy and show that a number of effects grouped under empathy respond differently to different similarities between observers and targets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Empathic feelings arise when a person values another's welfare and perceives the other to be in need. As a result, level of empathic response can be used to infer how much one values the welfare of a person in need. Four experiments were conducted to test these ideas. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that a similarity manipulation led to increased valuing of a similar person's welfare and, in turn, to increased empathy when this person was in need. Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that direct manipulations of empathy (perspective-taking instructions, or false physiological arousal feedback) led to increased empathy and, in turn, to increased valuing of the welfare of the person in need. Once induced, this valuing was a relatively stable disposition; it remained even after empathy had declined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the role of anticipated-interaction instructions on memory for and organization of social information. In Study 1, Ss read and recalled information about a prospective partner (i.e., target) on a problem-solving task and about 4 other stimulus people. The results indicated that (a) Ss recalled more items about the target than the others, (b) the target was individuated from the others in memory, and (c) Ss were more accurate on a name–item matching task for the target than for the others. Study 2 compared anticipated interaction with several other processing goals (i.e., memory, impression formation, self-comparison, friend-comparison). Only anticipated-interaction and impression formation instructions led to higher levels of recall and more accurate matching performance for the target than for the others. However, the conditional probability data suggest that anticipated interaction led to higher levels of organization of target information than did any of the other conditions. Discussion considers information processing strategies that are possibly instigated by anticipated-interaction instructions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[examine] some of the consequences of category-based processing / [consider] the implications of [previous] work on impression formation and intergroup relations for understanding category-based responses / focuses on three questions: (1) is ingroup–outgroup categorization sufficient to activate category-based affect / (2) can cognitive and affective (i.e., evaluative) components in category-based impression formation be independent / (3) do deliberative considerations modify the spontaneous expressions of impressions / consider the implications of the answers to these questions and briefly suggest ways in which cognitive factors related to the processing of social categories can alter affective responses to outgroup members (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The subjects of this study ranged in age from 3 to 14 years. Included were 10 pairs of identical twins. The subjects were photographed against a special screen with the camera running at 64 frames per second. The stimulus was the firing of a .22 caliber blank cartridge. The pictures were projected in slow motion and were scored by a committee of three persons. The typical startle pattern, consisting of head movement, lid reflex, characteristic facial expression, hunching of the shoulders, abduction of the upper arms, bending at the elbows, pronation of the lower arms, clenching of the fists, forward movement of the trunk, and bending at the knees, was found in all the subjects. Both the primary pattern and the secondary movements following expression of the pattern were greater than in adults. The pattern was found equally clearly in the negro race. Members of a pair of identical twins differed in the amount of their responses. In every case where tests for handedness were given, the twin showing the larger startle response showed mixed dominance, with some tendency to be left-handed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
argue in this chapter that the common social-psychological conceptualization of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and attitude-driven behavior, though it offers many important insights, is inadequate in basic respects / [stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination] can best be understood as appraisals, emotions, and emotion action tendencies, based in the perceiver's social identity / explicate some of the problems in the traditional conceptualization and some of the theoretical strengths and novel hypotheses implicit in the new one / sketch some directions for research that could provide further empirical support for this new viewpoint on prejudice and related phenomena (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study was designed to ascertain whether racial differences exist in the several components of the skin resistance response and to assess the importance of the role of the experimenter's race in determining the subject's responsiveness. Basal measures, GSR magnitude, and spontaneous GSR activity of 12 Negro and 12 Caucasian Ss were recorded by 2 Negro and 2 Caucasian experimental assistants matched for age, physical stature, and dress. Following a 15 min resting phase, all Ss received 14 1-sec bursts of 75 dB white noise. Variable stimulus intervals were employed.Significant subject-race effects, but no experimenter-race effects, were found for base level measures. Negro Ss evidenced significantly higher basal resistance levels. Conversely, experimenter-race effects, but no subject-race effects, were apparent in the GSR magnitude data. White Ss showed a significantly slower rate of response magnitude decrease over trials when paired with black Es. A significant decrease in spontaneous activity over time was observed for all Ss.
Article
It is known that the intake of aluminum-containing antacids is related to increases in serum concentration and the urinary output of aluminum, and that silicon intake as orthosilicic acid may facilitate renal excretion of aluminum. However, how either the amount of antacid ingested or the therapy period affects these and the subsequent interrelationship of aluminum and silicon has not been fully investigated. In addition, factors that affect the solubility of aluminum hydroxide need further clarification. A study of 122 patients with dyspepsia who were receiving aluminum hydroxide therapy and 144 healthy controls confirmed that, in the patients, serum and urine aluminum (0.39 ± 0.21 and 2.02 ± 2.0 μmol/L, mean ± 1 SD, respectively) were slightly but significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with the controls (0.21 ± 0.13 and 1.55 ± 0.89). However, there was no evidence of any association between these changes and the amount ingested or the therapy period. Urine silicon although increased in the patients (716 ± 488 μmol/L) compared with the controls (472 ± 333 μmol/L) was not affected by the amount or time of therapy but was just significantly correlated with the urine (r = +0.19, P = 0.03) and serum aluminum (r = +0.13, P = 0.05) in the combined groups. Thus, the renal excretion of silicon and aluminum may in some part be interdependent. Studies into factors that affect the solubility of aluminum from aluminum hydroxide indicated that at a pH > 3.5 the solubility of aluminum reduced significantly. However, addition of 5 or 20 mmol/L phosphate had no significant effect. With a synthetic food, solubility of aluminum was markedly increased even at the elevated pH 5.5. Thus, the pH, as well as the chemical complexity of the mixture, is an important factor in affecting solubilization of aluminum. The potential of increased exposure to aluminum could be dependent on co-ingestion with food components and may explain the increased risk to renal failure patients on aluminum-containing phosphate binders. J. Trace Elem. Exp. Med. 15:9–19, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Basic skin conductance and pulse rate measurements were obtained from groups differing in race and ethnic origin in Israel. The results suggest higher skin conductance in Caucasians than in Negroes, and in Bedouins than in non-Bedouins. There is some suggestion of an interaction between race and ethnic origin in relation to skin conductance. Both Caucasian and Negroid Bedouin tend to have lower pulse rates than the Jewish sample.
Article
Guidelines are proposed for the collection, analysis, and description of electromyographic (EMG) data. The guidelines cover technological issues in EMG recording, social aspects of EMG experimentation, and limits to inferences that can be drawn in EMG research. An atlas is proposed for facial EMG electrode placements, and standard EMG terminology is suggested.
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Research of the past two decades has shown that cultures exert considerable influence over emotion. Most, if not all, of the cross-cultural research reported to date have been on samples obtained in different countries. Although it is important to address questions of cross-cultural similarities and differences via the testing of between-country differences, we need to be concerned with possible cultural differenceswithin countries as well. The assessment of cultural differences within countries would have implications for not only our conceptual understanding of cultural influences on emotion, but also our empirical methods and procedures. In this study, American subjects were self-classified into one of four ethnic groups, and provided us with data concerning affect intensity, display rule attitudes, self-reported emotional expression, emotion labeling, and intensity ratings. The results indicated considerable differences in emotion judgments, display rules, and self-reported emotional expressions as a function of ethnicity within an American sample. The differences are discussed in terms of the need to search for psychologically meaningful and relevant definitions of culture which would cut across ethnicity or country.
Article
The hypotheses of this investigation were based on conceiving of facial mimicry reactions in face-to-face interactions as an early automatic component in the process of emotional empathy. Differences between individuals high and low in emotional empathy were investigated. The parameters compared were facial mimicry reactions, as represented by electromyographic (EMG) activity, when individuals were exposed to pictures of angry or happy faces. The present study distinguished between spontaneous facial reactions and facial expressions associated with more controlled or modulated emotions at different information processing levels, first at a preattentive level and then consecutively at more consciously controlled levels: 61 participants were exposed to pictures at three different exposure times (17, 56, and 2350 ms). A significant difference in facial mimicry reactions between high- and low-empathy participants emerged at short exposure times (56 ms), representing automatic, spontaneous reactions, with high-empathy participants showing a significant mimicking reaction. The low-empathy participants did not display mimicking at any exposure time. On the contrary, the low-empathy participants showed, in response to angry faces, a tendency to an elevated activation in the cheek region, which often is associated with smiling.
Article
A study has been performed in 50 subjects, 25 white and 25 black, measuring skin color (PI), basal skin resistance (SR) and amplitude of the galvanic skin response (GSR), and resting heart rate (HR) and the heart rate response (HRR) induced by a startle tone. A multiple correlation matrix revealed a statistically significant relationship between PI and SR and also GSR; between HR and HRR, and between SR and GSR. Analysis of the group differences revealed that blacks had significantly lower (darker) PI values, higher SR, greater GSR, and a higher HR and HRR. It is unclear from this study whether race or the intensity of skin color influenced the measured physiological responses.
Article
In the total population of 75 subjects, the skin albedo correlated significantly with skin resistance, a relationship which was not maintained when the total population was separated into its component subgroups of whites, blacks and Indians. The Indians, "anthropologically Caucasians" but skin color more akin to the blacks, exhibited mean skin reflectance and skin resistance intermediate to that obtained in the black and white groups respectively. Other differences and significant correlations between the autonomic functions in the three groups indicated a higher level of sympathetic tone in the Indians, although this could be attributed to the older age of this group. It was suggested from the results that skin color rather than race has a greater influence on skin resistance.
Article
Use of the Pigmentometer, a new device for measuring skin albedo: Relating skin color with a series of physiological measures. An apparatus has been described for the indirect measurement of skin albedo in human subjects. This device operates on the principle of the reflectance of light as influenced by the lightness or darkness of the skin. This new equipment was used to examine the relationship between lightness or darkness of the skin and the basal level and responsivity of some autonomic nervous system physiological variables in a series of 46 black and 47 white male and female subjects. It was observed that blacks had significantly lower (darker) skin albedo (PI), a significantly higher skin resistance (SR) and amplitude of the galvanic skin response (GSR), and an insignificant higher basal heart rate (HR). Pearson Product-Movement correlations between all measures from the total population showed significant relationships between PI and SR, SR and GSR and HR and HRR (heart rate response). The further separation of the total population into subgroups of blacks, whites, males, females, and black and white male and female goups, respectively, altered some of these differences and relationships previously observed. These results appeared to support the premise that race is more responsible for influencing the measured physiological responses, particularly SR, than is the lightness or darkness of the skin.
Article
The psychophysiological responses of 60 subjects were measured as they observed a performer play a roulette game. Half of the subjects were led to believe that they were similar to the performer in personality and values, and half were led to believe that they were dissimilar. Half of the subjects in each condition believed that the performer won money and experienced pain as he played the game, and half believed that he performed a cognitive and motor skill task. Subjects who observed a performer who ostensibly experienced pleasure and pain exhibited greater psychophysiological reactions than subjects who did not. Subjects who believed they were similar to the performer tended to react more strongly than subjects who believed they were different from him. Similar subjects also reported identifying most with the performer and feeling the worst while he waited to receive shocks. It was concluded that the similar subjects empathized most with the performer who appeared to experience pleasure and pain. When required to make a choice between helping themselves at a cost to the performer or helping the performer at a cost to themselves, the subjects who reacted most empathically behaved most altruistically. The results were interpreted as casting some light on century-old questions about the human capacity for altruism.
Article
The relation between empathy (defined as the ability to perceive accurately how another person is feeling) and physiology was studied in 31 Ss. Ss viewed 15-min martial interactions and used a rating dial to indicate continuously how they thought a designated spouse was feeling. Rating accuracy was determined by comparing Ss' ratings with identical self-ratings obtained previously from the target spouse. Physiological linkage between S and target was determined using bivariate time-series analyses applied to 5 autonomic and somatic measures obtained from the S during the rating task and from the target spouse during the original conversation. Accuracy of rating negative emotion was greatest when S and target evidenced high levels of physiological linkage across time. Accuracy of detecting positive emotion was related to a state of low cardiovascular around in the S, but not to physiological linkage between S and target.
Article
An attempt was made to identity some of the factors that might contribute to the variance associated with skin conductance. Results confirmed earlier findings that Blacks have lower levels of skin conductance than Caucasians. The precise role of skin albedo is difficult to determine because within these groups there appears to be a negative relationship between skin reflectance and skin conductance. Possibly peripheral blood flow differences are responsible. There were no differences in heart rate or in self-report measures of arousal between the groups, and the contribution of personality variables to skin conductance variance was, in part, anomalous.
Article
Racial differences in physiological responses to a behavioral stressor were examined. Thirty-four Black and 42 White male normotensives 34 to 55 years old (mean age = 43.01 years) performed a mental arithmetic task while blood pressure, heart rate, and skin conductance were recorded. Compared to Whites, Blacks had significantly higher baseline diastolic blood pressure (77.93 mm Hg vs. 73.11 mm Hg) and lower skin conductance levels (11.08 microS vs. 12.25 microS). These effects persisted during performance of the mental arithmetic task. However, when baseline differences were covaried, there were no significant physiological effects associated with the task. Analysis of changes in response levels from baseline revealed a nonsignificant trend for Whites to show greater increases in systolic blood pressure than Blacks. There were no significant race or family history effects. Further, task performance did not influence the outcome. Failure to demonstrate greater cardiovascular reactivity in Blacks and all men with a positive family history of hypertension is discussed with regard to possible "survivor effects" and methodologic limitations.
Article
Racial differences in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity were studied at rest and during an aversive reaction-time task in established hypertensives, borderline hypertensives and normotensive controls. White and black subjects of each group were subjected to 16 signalled reaction time tasks where a 110 decibel (dB) white noise was delivered contingent upon poor performance. During 16 signalled foreperiods (35 s) the following measurements were taken: systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, respiration-rate and muscle and skin blood flow. Muscle and skin vascular resistances were calculated. Skin conductance activity was recorded as an index of non-cardiovascular SNS-activation. Resting cardiovascular activity was similar in black and white hypertensives and controls, whereas skin conductance activity was greater in white compared to black hypertensives and controls. During the reaction-time task both quantitative and qualitative differences between the races tended to emerge. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure increased less in black patients and controls than in whites. Muscle and skin vascular resistance increased in blacks but was unaffected by behavioural demands in whites. Skin conductance reactivity was attenuated in black patients and controls. Thus, blacks compared to whites show lesser cardiac sympathomimetic responses but enhanced vascular responses to mental stress.
Article
Guidelines are proposed for the collection, analysis, and description of electromyographic (EMG) data. The guidelines cover technological issues in EMG recording, social aspects of EMG experimentation, and limits to inferences that can be drawn in EMG research. An atlas is proposed for facial EMG electrode placements, and standard EMG terminology is suggested.
Article
Basic skin conductance and pulse rate measurements were obtained from groups differing in race and ethnic origin in Israel. The results suggest higher skin conductance in Caucasians than in Negroes, and in Bedouins than in non Bedouins. There is some suggestion of an interaction between race and ethnic origin in relation to skin conductance. Both Caucasian and Negroid Bedouin tend to have lower pulse rates than the Jewish sample.
Article
The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) is a non-verbal pictorial assessment technique that directly measures the pleasure, arousal, and dominance associated with a person's affective reaction to a wide variety of stimuli. In this experiment, we compare reports of affective experience obtained using SAM, which requires only three simple judgments, to the Semantic Differential scale devised by Mehrabian and Russell (An approach to environmental psychology, 1974) which requires 18 different ratings. Subjective reports were measured to a series of pictures that varied in both affective valence and intensity. Correlations across the two rating methods were high both for reports of experienced pleasure and felt arousal. Differences obtained in the dominance dimension of the two instruments suggest that SAM may better track the personal response to an affective stimulus. SAM is an inexpensive, easy method for quickly assessing reports of affective response in many contexts.
Article
Colored photographic pictures that varied widely across the affective dimensions of valence (pleasant-unpleasant) and arousal (excited-calm) were each viewed for a 6-s period while facial electromyographic (zygomatic and corrugator muscle activity) and visceral (heart rate and skin conductance) reactions were measured. Judgments relating to pleasure, arousal, interest, and emotional state were measured, as was choice viewing time. Significant covariation was obtained between (a) facial expression and affective valence judgments and (b) skin conductance magnitude and arousal ratings. Interest ratings and viewing time were also associated with arousal. Although differences due to the subject's gender and cognitive style were obtained, affective responses were largely independent of the personality factors investigated. Response specificity, particularly facial expressiveness, supported the view that specific affects have unique patterns of reactivity. The consistency of the dimensional relationships between evaluative judgments (i.e., pleasure and arousal) and physiological response, however, emphasizes that emotion is fundamentally organized by these motivational parameters.