Article

A-type proanthocyanidins and uropathogenic bacterial anti-adhesion activity

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Abstract

Clinical, epidemiological and mechanistic studies support the role of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) in maintaining urinary tract health. Cranberry proanthocyanidins contain A-type linkages and have been associated with preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells. It is not known if the presence of the A-type linkage is a prerequisite for anti-adhesion activity. Other commercial sources of proanthocyanidins with all B-type linkages have not previously been screened for this activity. The goals of this study were to compare the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry juice cocktail with the anti-adhesion activities of B-linked proanthocyanidins from commercial grape and apple juices, green tea and dark chocolate, and determine if anti-adhesion activity is detectable in human urine following consumption of single servings of each commercial food product. Structural heterogeneity and presence of the A-type linkage in cranberry proanthocyanidins was confirmed utilizing MALDI-TOF/MS and DI/ESI MS, as was the presence of all B-type linkages in the proanthocyanidins from the other commercial products. The isolated A-type proanthocyanidins from cranberry juice cocktail elicited in vitro anti-adhesion activity at 60 microg/ml, the B-type proanthocyanidins from grape exhibited minor activity at 1200 microg/ml, while other B-type proanthocyanidins were not active. Anti-adhesion activity in human urine was detected following cranberry juice cocktail consumption, but not after consumption of the non-cranberry food products. Results suggest that presence of the A-type linkage in cranberry proanthocyanidins may enhance both in vitro and urinary bacterial anti-adhesion activities and aid in maintaining urinary tract health.

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... Nonetheless, a handful of in vitro studies have documented the anti-adhesive effects of cranberry juice, its extract, and/or its constituents on the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. 29 Numerous studies have pointed out the explicit interactions between S. pyogenes and different niches of the host; however, to date, GAS adhesion mediated by specific molecules has not been completely understood. 3,4 This perhaps is due to the diversity of the adhesins expressed on the surface of GAS. 3 In a comparative study, the anti-adhesive activity of A-linked proanthocyanidins (PAC) from cranberry juice cocktail and B-linked PAC from commercial grape and apple juices, green tea, and dark chocolate were examined against the attachment of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells. ...
... 3,4 This perhaps is due to the diversity of the adhesins expressed on the surface of GAS. 3 In a comparative study, the anti-adhesive activity of A-linked proanthocyanidins (PAC) from cranberry juice cocktail and B-linked PAC from commercial grape and apple juices, green tea, and dark chocolate were examined against the attachment of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells. 29 Howell et al. showed the significant anti-adhesive effects of A-type PAC of cranberry at 60 lg/mL yet, at a higher concentration of 1200 lg/mL B-type PAC of grape juice could not produce any significant activity. 29 In agreement, there are a handful of reports on the higher anti-adhesive potency of cranberry A-linked dimers than its B-linked dimers. ...
... 29 Howell et al. showed the significant anti-adhesive effects of A-type PAC of cranberry at 60 lg/mL yet, at a higher concentration of 1200 lg/mL B-type PAC of grape juice could not produce any significant activity. 29 In agreement, there are a handful of reports on the higher anti-adhesive potency of cranberry A-linked dimers than its B-linked dimers. ...
Article
Group A Streptococci (GAS) or Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for acute bacterial pharyngitis in children as well as adults. Streptococcal pharyngitis is initiated by successful attachment and colonization of the bacteria, followed by the establishment of the biofilm in various environments. In this study, we examined the antibacterial activities of in-house prepared aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 10 Atlantic Canada fruits in the context of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill kinetics, and adhesion inhibition properties against S. pyogenes. Per our findings, MIC and MBC for all the tested extracts ranged from 0.25 to 8 mg/mL and from 4 to 64 mg/mL, respectively. Accordingly, at 1⁄2 × MBC, cranberry and sumac extracts also lowered the attachment of GAS to the uncoated and fibronectin-coated substratum. Particularly, cranberry and sumac aqueous extracts were more effective against the adhesion of S. pyogenes ATCC 19615 to the fibronectin-coated surface than a clinical strain. In conclusion, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of cranberry and sumac could potentially be incorporated into natural health products designed for the amelioration of strep throat, yet a detailed understanding of its mode of action (e.g., biofilm inhibition and eradication) could pave its path to the field of antibacterial natural health product discovery, design, and development.
... GTE is also lighter in color than GSE, and because GSE stains demineralized dentin with a reddish-brown color [16], GTE has the potential to stain demineralized dentin with a more clinically acceptable color. Other alternatives to GSE are cranberry proanthocyanidins, which contain a unique Alinkage structure [21,22]. In a previous study, the interaction between cranberry juice extract (CJE) and demineralized dentin collagen was explained as "very weak" [23]; however, the PA concentrations of cranberry extract and the final prepared treatment solution used in the study were less than 1% and 0.001%, respectively, which may be a possible reason for the unexceptional results. ...
... Although CJE and GSE were not significantly different from each other in terms of the WL/HYP measurements, the MMP activity (15%) of demineralized dentin films treated with CJE was much less than that of those treated with GSE (43%), which was the lowest of all of the groups. The difference in MMP activity may be due to the structural difference between the A-linkage PA in CJE [21,22] and B-linkage PA in GSE [22]. Previously, the interaction between CJE and demineralized dentin collagen was explained as "very weak" due to the very low PA content [23]. ...
... Although CJE and GSE were not significantly different from each other in terms of the WL/HYP measurements, the MMP activity (15%) of demineralized dentin films treated with CJE was much less than that of those treated with GSE (43%), which was the lowest of all of the groups. The difference in MMP activity may be due to the structural difference between the A-linkage PA in CJE [21,22] and B-linkage PA in GSE [22]. Previously, the interaction between CJE and demineralized dentin collagen was explained as "very weak" due to the very low PA content [23]. ...
Article
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Improving the longevity of composite restorations has proven to be difficult when they are bonded to dentin. Dentin demineralization leaves collagen fibrils susceptible to enzymatic digestion, which causes breakdown of the resin–dentin interface. Therefore, measures for counteracting the enzymatic environment by enhancing dentin collagen’s resistance to degradation have the potential to improve the durability of dental composite restorations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of polyphenol-rich extracts and a chemical cross-linker on the cross-linking interaction, resistance to digestion, and endogenous matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities of dentin collagen under clinically relevant conditions. Ten-µm-thick films were cut from dentin slabs of non-carious extracted human third molars. Following demineralization, polyphenol-rich extracts—including grape seed (GSE), green tea (GTE), and cranberry juice (CJE)—or chemical cross-linker carbodiimide with n-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) were applied to the demineralized dentin surfaces for 30 s. The collagen cross-linking, bio-stabilization, and gelatinolytic activities of MMPs 2 and 9 were studied by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, weight loss, hydroxyproline release, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, and in situ zymography. All treatments significantly increased resistance to collagenase degradation and reduced the gelatinolytic MMP activity of dentin collagen compared to the untreated control. The CJE- and GSE-treated groups were more resistant to digestion than the GTE- or EDC/NHS-treated ones (p < 0.05), which was consistent with the cross-linking interaction found with FTIR and the in situ performance on the acid-etched dentin surface found with SEM/TEM. The collagen films treated with CJE showed the lowest MMP activity, followed by GSE, GTE, and, finally, EDC/NHS. The CJE-treated dentin collagen rapidly increased its resistance to digestion and MMP inhibition. An application of CJE as short as 30 s may be a clinically feasible approach to improving the longevity of dentin bonding in composite restorations.
... Cranberry activity in counteracting UTIs is commonly related to its high content in A-type proanthocyanidins (PAC-A), which interact with the P-fimbriae of uropathogenic bacteria and inhibit their adhesion efficacy to the urinary epithelium (Howell et al., 2005). In a review published in 2015, Feliciano et al. summarised the chemistry and structural heterogeneity of cranberry PACs, focusing on the structure-function correlation related to the number of A-type linkage and the less-investigated PACs polymerization degree of the flavan-3-ol units (Feliciano et al., 2015). ...
... These features have been reported as the most determinant for antiadhesive activity of cranberry extracts against uropathogenic bacteria. In fact, the antiadhesive properties of cranberry are selectively related to oligomers and A-type PACs, whereas monomers and B-type PACs have little or no effect (Foo et al., 2000;Howell et al., 2005;Howell, 2007). The broad range of different oligomers is required in order to exert beneficial effects in both intestinal and urinary tracts (Choy et al., 2014). ...
... The broad range of different oligomers is required in order to exert beneficial effects in both intestinal and urinary tracts (Choy et al., 2014). Lower MW PACs can reach intact the lower urinary tract, although previously published results show that the concentration of these oligomers in urine are in the range of ng/mL, that are too low to be considered responsible of any anti-adhesive activity (Gupta et al., 2012;Howell et al., 2005). However, the same compounds are rapidly metabolized by the gut microbiota to form lower MW (poly) phenols, that are excreted with urine and could be co-responsible of the anti-adhesive activity of cranberry (González de Llano et al., 2020;Peron et al., 2017a;Peron et al., 2017b). ...
Article
In this paper, an A-type procyanidin (PACs)-rich cranberry extract (CB-B) was obtained mixing different extracts and was formulated with D-mannose and ascorbic acid to obtain a novel nutraceutical (URO-F) aimed at preventing non-complicated bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs). To assess the bioactivity of CB-B and URO-F, urine samples collected from six healthy volunteers undergoing a 2-days oral consumption of 0.41 g/day of CB-B or 10 g/day of URO-F (corresponding to 72 mg/day of PACs) were tested against uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) incubated on urinary bladder epithelial cells (T24). Urinary markers of CB-B and URO-F consumption were assessed in the same urine output by UPLC-QTOF-based untargeted metabolomics approach. CB-B and URO-F were evaluated for their ability to promote the intestinal barrier function by restoring the trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines in intestinal epithelial Caco2 cells. CB-B was characterized by a high PAC-A content (70% of total PACs) and a broad distribution of different PACs polymers (dimers-hexamers). Urine from subjects consuming CB-B and URO-F showed a significant effect in reducing the adhesion of UPEC to urothelium in vitro, supporting their efficacy as anti-adhesive agents after oral intake. CB-B inhibited the release of cytokine IL-8, and both products were effective in restoring the TEER. Overall, our results show that the beneficial effects of CB-B and URO-F on UTIs are not only due to the antiadhesive activity of cranberry on UPEC in the urothelium, but also to a multi-target activity involving anti-inflammatory and permeability-enhancing effects on intestinal epithelium.
... Cranberry has also been found to affect bacterial attachment in the urinary tract [46,47]. While initially thought to limit bacterial viability through urine acidification [48,49], it is now known that cranberry products actually work through a variety of other means, including direct impedance of FimH or P pilus mediated bacterial binding or through increased Tamm-Horsfall expression which itself limits bacterial adherence to the uroepithelium, as well as by altering bacterial virulence factors such as flagella and P pilus expression [30,46,47,[50][51][52]. There are likely multiple components within cranberries responsible for its antibacterial/antiadhesive properties, but those identified thus far include proanthocyanidin (PAC) and B-ring substituted flavones and flavonols [30,47]. ...
... While in vitro studies have demonstrated a role for cranberry products in preventing bacterial attachment [51,53], clinical data has been more conflicting in demonstrating its usefulness in UTI prevention. Results in adult literature have been varied. ...
... As previously noted, cranberry dosing has not been standardized. In vitro studies have suggested a bioactivity threshold of 60 ug PAC/ml [51]. Clinical studies in adults suggest dosing between 36 and 72 mg of PAC containing cranberry product per day [48,64], with up to 300 ml of 5 ml/kg cranberry juice per day suggested in children. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review While antibiotics have been a staple in the management and even prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs), it is not without significant consequences due to intolerance and development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. These concerns necessitate alternatives to antibiotic use in the management of pediatric UTIs. This review seeks to evaluate non-antibiotic means of preventing UTI in the pediatric population. Recent Findings The search for preventative alternatives to antibiotics has included D-mannose, cranberry, and probiotics. These products similarly work through competitive inhibition of uropathogens in the urinary tract. Summary Pediatric studies exist highlighting the use of cranberry extract/juice and probiotics in UTI prevention, although significant heterogeneity amongst studies have limited overarching recommendations for their use. Data of D-mannose use is extrapolated from adult literature. More studies are required in the utility of each treatment, with some emphasis on larger sample sizes and clarifications regarding dosing and formulation.
... Current research shows that cranberry proanthocyanidins (C-PAC) have a role in maintaining urinary tract health [8][9][10], and recently a number of in vitro investigations have reported that cranberry extracts impact multiple cancer-associated processes in 52 cancer cell lines including those derived from breast, colon, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and prostate [11][12][13][14][15]. To date, there have been twelve in vivo reports assessing the efficacy of cranberry products as cancer inhibitors; of these, six were xenograft studies, five were chemical carcinogen-induced bioassays and one was in a genetically modified mouse colon cancer model [11,[16][17][18]. ...
... Briefly, cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) of the "Early Black" cultivar were collected at the Marucci Center for Blueberry and Cranberry Research in Chatsworth, NJ, USA. C-PAC and AFG were isolated from cranberries utilizing solid-phase chromatography according to well established previously published methodology [8,23,24]. Following homogenization of cranberries in 70% aqueous acetone, the resulting mixture was filtered and the pulp discarded. ...
... A recent 8-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of C-PAC juice found that 44 mg PAC equivalents twice daily inhibited Helicobacter pylori infection [46]. C-PACs have also been reported to possess anti-adhesion effects toward Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans which are implicated in oral biofilms [8,[95][96][97][98][99]. However, to our knowledge clinical trials delivering cranberry-based products or extracts have not been conducted in patients at increased risk for esophageal cancer. ...
Article
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Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a cancer characterized by rapidly rising incidence and poor survival, resulting in the need for new prevention and treatment options. We utilized two cranberry polyphenol extracts, one pro-anthocyanidin enriched (C-PAC) and a combination of anthocyanins, flavonoids, and glycosides (AFG) to assess inhibitory mechanisms utilizing premalignant Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and EAC derived cell lines. We employed reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) and Western blots to examine cancer-associated pathways and specific signaling cascades modulated by C-PAC or AFG. Viability results show that C-PAC is more potent than AFG at inducing cell death in BE and EAC cell lines. Based on the RPPA results, C-PAC significantly modulated 37 and 69 proteins in JH-EsoAd1 (JHAD1) and OE19 EAC cells, respectively. AFG treatment significantly altered 49 proteins in both JHAD1 and OE19 cells. Bioinformatic analysis of RPPA results revealed many previously unidentified pathways as modulated by cranberry polyphenols including NOTCH signaling, immune response, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Collectively, these results provide new insight regarding mechanisms by which cranberry polyphenols exert cancer inhibitory effects targeting EAC, with implications for potential use of cranberry constituents as cancer preventive agents.
... Some of the mechanisms by which cranberry protects the urinary tract from bacterial infection have been elucidated, but others remain to be demonstrated [15]. A specific group of cranberry components corresponding to a particular type of tannin called proanthocyanidin-type polyphenols (PAC) type A are involved in the bacterial adherence inhibition activity [16]. Type A PAC act on type P pili of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains by significantly reducing their ability to attach to the surface of cells lining the urinary system [16]. ...
... A specific group of cranberry components corresponding to a particular type of tannin called proanthocyanidin-type polyphenols (PAC) type A are involved in the bacterial adherence inhibition activity [16]. Type A PAC act on type P pili of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains by significantly reducing their ability to attach to the surface of cells lining the urinary system [16]. Soluble PACs are needed to obtain an anti-adherence effect against UPECs in vitro and ex vivo [17]. ...
Article
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Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) dietary supplementation can help prevention of urinary tract infections through the supply of proanthocyanidin-type polyphenols (PAC). The main uropathogenic bacteria are members of the intestinal microbiota. A randomized cross-over experiment was done to investigate whether cranberry dietary supplementation affects concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in rat faeces. Thirteen rats, housed in individual cages, received successively two diets as pellets during 7 days each: a standard diet without polyphenols and the standard diet supplemented with cranberry powder containing 10.9 mg/100 g of PAC. There was a 7 days wash-out period in between with standard diet without polyphenols. Body weight and feed intake were recorded. Faeces were collected on the last day of treatment, and crushed to count the different bacterial populations using the most probable number method. Thermotolerant coliforms were grown in BGBLB tubes and on MacConkey agar. Enterococcus spp. were grown in Rothe and Litsky broths and on KF Streptococcus agar. Lactobacillus spp. were grown in Man Rogosa Sharpe broth. Body mass gains were not affected by cranberry supplementation. This is consistent with equal food intake, cranberry powder not providing significant energy supplement. Cranberry dietary supplementation was associated with changes in fecal concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms, and Enterococcus spp. in some rats, but did not induce significant changes in bacterial fecal concentrations in a global population of 13 rats. In conclusion, we did not observe any significant effect of dietary cranberry supplementation on the fecal microbiota of Wistars rats for a 7-day diet.
... A study noted that the consumption of cranberry juice reduced the number of UTIs by 39% in women [34]. This is mainly due to the PACs content in cranberry [35], especially proanthocyanidin A [36]. Several studies have confirmed the positive effect of cranberry on urinary tract inflammation, not only for adults [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] but also for children [48][49][50]. ...
... This is mainly due to the PACs content in cranberry [35], especially proanthocyanidin A [36]. Several studies have confirmed the positive effect of cranberry on urinary tract inflammation, not only for adults [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] but also for children [48][49][50]. It was found that PACs contained in cranberries prevent adherence of E. coli to uroepithelial cells in the urinary tract [44,45,56]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cranberries are a rich source of bioactive compounds that comprise a healthy diet. Cranberry is abundant in nutritional components and many bioactive compounds that have antioxidant properties. Both American (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and European (Vaccinium oxycoccus) cranberry species are rich in polyphenols such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins and flavonoids, and is one of the few fruits that is high in proanthocyanidins, which is linked to many health benefits. The review systematizes information on the chemical composition of cranberry, its antioxidant effect, and the beneficial impact on human health and disease prevention after cranberry consumption, and in particular, its effect against urinary tract inflammation with both adults and children, cardiovascular, oncology diseases, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, tooth decay and periodontitis, Helicobacter pylori bacteria in the stomach and other diseases. Additional research needs to study cranberry proteomics profiling, polyphenols interaction and synergism with other biologically active compounds from natural ingredients and what is important in formulation of new functional foods and supplements.
... One proposed approach to combating rUTI is prophylactic consumption of cranberry products; however, the efficacy of cranberry products in preventing UTI is not clear [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. No specific in vivo mechanism has been determined to explain cranberry's potential preventative effects, and possible mechanisms have only been described in vitro [25][26][27][28][29][30]. Several studies have proposed that components of cranberry may influence the microenvironment in the bladder directly [23,24,31,32]. ...
... In this trial, women who drank a cranberry beverage daily had a 41% reduction in UTI symptoms as compared to women drinking a placebo beverage [18]. Previous works have proposed that cranberry: i) has an inhibitory effect on E. coli [25][26][27][28][29][30]69], the leading cause of UTI; ii) can potentially reduce inflammation [35,36]; and iii) may have anti-E. coli or anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effects in the bladder [23,24,31,32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect 15 million women each year in the United States, with > 20% experiencing frequent recurrent UTIs. A recent placebo-controlled clinical trial found a 39% reduction in UTI symptoms among recurrent UTI sufferers who consumed a daily cranberry beverage for 24 weeks. Using metagenomic sequencing of stool from a subset of these trial participants, we assessed the impact of cranberry consumption on the gut microbiota, a reservoir for UTI-causing pathogens such as Escherichia coli , which causes > 80% of UTIs. Results The overall taxonomic composition, community diversity, carriage of functional pathways and gene families, and relative abundances of the vast majority of observed bacterial taxa, including E. coli , were not changed significantly by cranberry consumption. However, one unnamed Flavonifractor species (OTU41), which represented ≤1% of the overall metagenome, was significantly less abundant in cranberry consumers compared to placebo at trial completion. Given Flavonifractor’s association with negative human health effects, we sought to determine OTU41 characteristic genes that may explain its differential abundance and/or relationship to key host functions. Using comparative genomic and metagenomic techniques, we identified genes in OTU41 related to transport and metabolism of various compounds, including tryptophan and cobalamin, which have been shown to play roles in host-microbe interactions. Conclusion While our results indicated that cranberry juice consumption had little impact on global measures of the microbiome, we found one unnamed Flavonifractor species differed significantly between study arms. This suggests further studies are needed to assess the role of cranberry consumption and Flavonifractor in health and wellbeing in the context of recurrent UTI. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01776021 .
... Validated microscopy-based hemagglutination assays able to detect subtle differences in bacterial lectin binding specificity to cellular surfaces (Vagarali et al. 2008;Mr azkov a et al. 2019) have been used to determine inhibition of specific agglutination by foods and isolated compound fractions (Toivanen et al. 2010;Eltigani et al. 2019). The MR hemagglutination (MRHA) bioassay is routinely used to measure the P-fimbriated E. coli bacterial anti-adhesion activity (AAA) of either whole cranberry products (Zafriri et al. 1989;Ofek et al. 1991;Howell et al. 1998;Foo et al. 2000aFoo et al. , 2000bGupta et al. 2007, Chughtai et al. 2016 or urine collected following consumption of the products (Howell et al. 2005;Valentova et al. 2007;Howell et al. 2010;Howell et al. 2015;Kaspar et al. 2015;Liu et al. 2019;Singh et al. 2016). Measuring the in vitro AAA of whole products is used to determine potency prior to ingestion (Gupta et al. 2007;Chughtai et al. 2016) and for monitoring shelf-life. ...
... A solid-phase chromatography method (Howell et al. 2005) was used to target and isolate crude fractions of PACs, sugars, acids, total polyphenolics, anthocyanins and flavonol glycosides from frozen cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. cv. ...
Article
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A number of clinical trials support the use of standardized cranberry supplement products for prevention of urinary tract infections; however, products that are not well-characterized for sufficient levels of bioactive components may contribute to negative clinical outcomes. Cranberry supplements for consumer use are not regulated and can be formulated different ways using cranberry juice, pomace or various combinations. This can lead to consumer confusion regarding effectiveness of individual products. The current study compared two commercial supplement products, one made from cranberry juice extract and the other from a blend of whole cranberry. The influence of formulation and proanthocyanidin (PAC) solubility on in vitro and ex vivo P-fimbriated Escherichia coli bacterial anti-adhesion activity (AAA) was determined. Both supplement products as well as whole, frozen cranberries were chromatographically separated into crude polyphenolic, sugar and acid fractions. In vitro AAA testing of all fractions confirmed that only those containing soluble PACs elicited activity. The cranberry juice extract product had higher soluble PAC content than the whole cranberry blended product, which contained mainly insoluble PACs. The influence of soluble and insoluble PAC levels in each product on the urinary (ex vivo) AAA was determined following ingestion. The juice extract product was associated with significantly higher urinary AAA than that of the whole berry blended product when consumed once daily over the 1-week intervention period.
... The several types of PACs derived by different types of linkage and degree of polymerization, in particular the presence of A-type or B-type, influences the efficacy of the extract against urinary tract infections (UTI). Indeed, the A-type is significantly more effective than the B-type in inhibiting Escherichia coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells [12]. Moreover, while PACs are contained in high amounts in several plant foods such as apples or grapes, A-type PACs are contained in high amounts only in cranberries and lingonberry (Vaccinum vitisidaea L.) [11]. ...
... An interesting ability of cran-berry, due to its antioxidant capacity, is the reduction of biomarkers of oxidative stress. Cranberry juice supplemented in people with metabolic syndrome [12] as well as in healthy subjects [128] demonstrated to reduce oxidized LDL (which contributes to the progression of atherosclerosis), inflammatory markers (hs-CRP, endhotelin-1) [119], and increase the nitric oxide (NO) release suggesting a temporal benefit to vasodilation [129,130]. ...
Article
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Cranberry is a fruit originally from New England and currently growing throughout the east and northeast parts of the USA and Canada. The supplementation of cranberry extracts as nutraceuticals showed to contribute to the prevention of urinary tract infections, and most likely it may help to prevent cardiovascular and gastroenteric diseases, as highlighted by several clinical trials. However, aiming to validate the efficacy and safety of clinical applications as long-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs), further investigations of the mechanisms of action are required. In addition, a real challenge for next years is the standardization of cranberry’s polyphenolic fractions. In this context, the optimization of the extraction process and downstream processing represent a key point for a reliable active principle for the formulation of a food supplement. For this reason, new non-conventional extraction methods have been developed to improve the quality of the extracts and reduce the overall costs. The aim of this survey is to describe both technologies and processes for highly active cranberry extracts as well as the effects observed in clinical studies and the respective tolerability notes.
... Biosensors 2021, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 13 Several studies have shown that, after treatment with cranberry products, the PAC may act by blocking ExPEC strains from adhering to epithelial cells. The mechanism for this interaction has not been precisely identified, but research has revealed that the binding capacity of PAC to ExPEC is presumed to be driven by PAC's attachment to fimbrial tips on the bacterial cell wall, which are involved in bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells [15,[22][23][24][25]. SEM images of ExPEC, both untreated ( Figure 3b) and treated ( Figure 3c) with cranberry PAC (200 μg/mL), allow for identifying selective interactions between PAC-ExPEC. ...
... The efficacy of functionalization of the SPE sensor by PANI and PAC-PANI nanocomposites was characterized by SEM, as shown in Figure 4. SEM micrographs showed a change in the surface morphology of PANI nanofibers when interacting Several studies have shown that, after treatment with cranberry products, the PAC may act by blocking ExPEC strains from adhering to epithelial cells. The mechanism for this interaction has not been precisely identified, but research has revealed that the binding capacity of PAC to ExPEC is presumed to be driven by PAC's attachment to fimbrial tips on the bacterial cell wall, which are involved in bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells [15,[22][23][24][25]. SEM images of ExPEC, both untreated ( Figure 3b) and treated (Figure 3c) with cranberry PAC (200 µg/mL), allow for identifying selective interactions between PAC-ExPEC. ...
Article
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Consumption of cranberries is associated with the putative effects of preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) contain unusual double A-type linkages, which are associated with strong interactions with surface virulence factors found on UTI-causing bacteria such as extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), depicting in bacterial agglutination processes. In this work, we demonstrated the efficacy of cranberry PAC (200 μg/mL) to agglutinate ExPEC (5.0×108 CFU/mL) in vitro as a selective interaction for the design of functionalized biosensors for potential detection of UTIs. We fabricated functionalized screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) by modifying with PAC-polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites and tested the effectiveness of the PAC-PANI/SPE biosensor for detecting the presence of ExPEC in aqueous suspensions. Results indicated that the PAC-PANI/SPE was highly sensitive (limit of quantification of 1 CFU/mL of ExPEC), and its response was linear over the concentration range of 1–70,000CFU/mL, suggesting cranberry PAC-functionalized biosensors are an innovative alternative for the detection and diagnosis of ExPEC-associated UTIs. The biosensor was also highly selective, reproducible, and stable.
... This series of masses might represent polymer CT, in which the A-type interflavan ether linkage occurs (4-8, 2-O-7) between adjacent flavan-3-ol subunits, because two hydrogen atoms (⊿2 amu) are lost in the formation of this interflavan bond (Table 1). It has been reported that cranberries, a fruit that contains A-type linkages of polymer CT, also have a similar mass distribution [35]. For the first time, a compositional analysis of CT polymers from plum pericarp sources using MALDI-TOF/MS has been successfully demonstrated. ...
... This is in agreement with the result of the previous study that proanthocynidin, with the 2 amu) are lost in the formation of this interflavan bond (Table 1). It has been reported that cranberries, a fruit that contains A-type linkages of polymer CT, also have a similar mass distribution [35]. For the first time, a compositional analysis of CT polymers from plum pericarp sources using MALDI-TOF/MS has been successfully demonstrated. ...
Article
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The type of polymeric condensed tannins from plum fruit (Prunus salicina) (PCT), the degree of polymerization and the distribution of polymers were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS and NMR spectroscopy. The metal-binding capacity of PCT with five metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Al3+, Fe2+, and Fe3+) was characterized by a fluorescence quenching method. The results demonstrated the following: epicatechin was the basic unit occurring in PCT, and A-type and B-type linkages were the most common between the structural units of the polymers. The PCT have a strong antioxidant activity, which is comparable with that of the synthetic antioxidant BHA. The quenching mechanism of the PCT’s fluorescence intensity by Zn2+, Cu2+, and Al3+ was different from that of Fe3+ and Fe2+. Fe3+, Al3+ and Fe2+ had much higher affinities for the PCT than Zn2+ and Cu2+. A simple UV-Vis spectra method was developed to determine the protein-precipitating capacity of tannins. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was effectively precipitated by tannins isolated from plum fruits, Chinese gallnut, sorghum grain, and Platycarya strobilacea at pH values between 4.5 and 5.0. A statistically significant linear relationship (p < 0.0001 or p < 0.0003) existed between the amount of tannin–protein complex formed and the amount of tannins added to the reaction mixture. The slopes of these lines indicated the protein-precipitating capacity of tannins.
... For instance, Rosero et al. [47] studied the procyanidins in the seeds and peels of 'Nariño' avocado, providing the identification of types A (1 dimer and 1 trimer) and 7 of types B (four dimers and three trimers). Kosińska et al. [48] found in the Hass variety two type B procyanidin dimers and another type A. Various studies have reported that procyanidins present interesting bioactivities, such as modulate antioxidant enzymatic activities [52], exhibit chemoprotective properties against cancer [53,54], and prevent urinary tract infections [54], among other bioactivities. ...
... For instance, Rosero et al. [47] studied the procyanidins in the seeds and peels of 'Nariño' avocado, providing the identification of types A (1 dimer and 1 trimer) and 7 of types B (four dimers and three trimers). Kosińska et al. [48] found in the Hass variety two type B procyanidin dimers and another type A. Various studies have reported that procyanidins present interesting bioactivities, such as modulate antioxidant enzymatic activities [52], exhibit chemoprotective properties against cancer [53,54], and prevent urinary tract infections [54], among other bioactivities. ...
Article
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Natural bioactive compounds from food waste have fomented interest in food and pharmaceutical industries for the past decade. In this work, it purposed the recovery of bioactive avocado peel extract using an environmentally friendly technique: the ultrasound assisted extraction. The response surface methodology was applied in order to optimize the conditions of the extraction, ethanol-water mixtures and time. The optimized extracts (ethanol 38.46%, 44.06 min, and 50◦C) were chemically characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS and FTIR. Its antioxidant ability, as well as, its effect on cell metabolic activity of normal (L929) and cancer (Caco-2, A549 and HeLa) cell lines were assessed. Aqueous ethanol extracts presented a high content in bioactive compounds with high antioxidant potential. The most representative class of the phenolic compounds found in the avocado peel extract were phenolic acids, such as hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids. Another important chemical group detected were the flavonoids, such as flavanols, flavanonols, flavones, flavanones and chalcone, phenylethanoids and lignans. In terms of its influence on the metabolic activity of normal and cancer cell lines, the extract does not significantly affect normal cells. On the other hand, it can negatively affect cancer cells, particularly HeLa cells. These results clearly demonstrated that ultrasound is a sustainable extraction technique, resulting in extracts with low toxicity in normal cells and with potential application in food, pharmaceutical or nutraceutical sectors.
... Interestingly, Hui et al. demonstrated that the proanthocyanidins are able to prevent the adhesion of S. aureus on biomaterials [52]. According to these findings, we analyzed our extract by UHPLC-HRMS to detect both flavonoids and related proanthocyanidins [53]. As expected, several flavonoid compounds and type-A and -B proanthocyanidins were detected. ...
Article
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents a serious threat to public health, due to its large variety of pathogenetic mechanisms. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the anti-MRSA activities of Krameria lappacea, a medicinal plant native to South America. Through Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High-Resolution Mass spectrometry, we analyzed the chemical composition of Krameria lappacea root extract (KLRE). The antibacterial activity of KLRE was determined by the broth microdilution method, also including the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration and minimum biofilm eradication concentration. Besides, we evaluated the effect on adhesion and invasion of human lung carcinoma A549 cell line by MRSA strains. The obtained results revealed an interesting antimicrobial action of this extract, which efficiently inhibit the growth, biofilm formation, adhesion and invasion of MRSA strains. Furthermore, the chemical analysis revealed the presence in the extract of several flavonoid compounds and type-A and type-B proanthocyanidins, which are known for their anti-adhesive effects. Taken together, our findings showed an interesting antimicrobial activity of KLRE, giving an important contribution to the current knowledge on the biological activities of this plant.
... Cranberry leaves and fruits are suggested for treating all forms of renal infections and consumption of cranberry juice (CBJ) is reputed to be effective against urinary tract infections (UTI) (Foo et al., 2000). This phenomenon is attributed to the ability of cranberry phenolics, A-type proanthocyanidin (PAC) oligomers to inhibit adhesion of Escherichia coli which is usually responsible for UTI cases (Howell et al., 2005). Moreover, in vitro study shows that propolis and cranberry powders sufficiently extended the anti-adherent activity of the proanthocyanidins by reducing the adherence of E. coli towards epithelial cells (Lavigne et al., 2011). ...
Article
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In the last years several wild fruits were considered as valuable sources of bioactive molecules as vitamin C, benzoic acid, anthocyanins etc. These compounds have a series of health benefits. For better pharmaceutical use of the plants, it is important to study them from the chemical and compositional point of view. Cranberry species are largely represented in the European, Asia and North America flora and various parts of the fruits are used in traditional medicine. The fruits are rich in anthocyanin, flavonoids, polyphenol, vitamin C and acids such as ascorbic acid. In the last year, FT-IR spectroscopy has been introduced as a very efficient and non-destructive analytical tool for the reliable way to determine the functional groups of three compenents
... It was reported that an A-type procyanidin was present in the flower of Japanese apricot (Zhang et al., 2015), and is also known to be common in other stone fruits, such as peaches (Koprivica et al., 2018), plums (Liaudanskas et al., 2020), and almond skin (Monagas et al., 2010), in addition to other foods, such as cinnamon (Gu et al., 2003), cranberries (Foo et al., 2000), argun nut (Hamed et al., 2014), and peanut skin (Sarnoski et al., 2012;Ma et al., 2014). Indeed, the importance of A-type PAs has been highlighted in the context of specific biological activities, such as preventing bacterial adhesion (Feng et al., 2013), virus replication (Terlizz et al., 2016), and urinary tract infections (Krueger, et al., 2013;Howell et al., 2005), in addition to antihyperglycemic activities (Lin et al., 2018) It was also found that the PAs present in the flesh were more diverse than those in the endocarp. Only monomers and dimers were detected in endocarp, while trimers and tetramers were also detected in the flesh. ...
Article
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) contribute to the quality factors and health benefits of several Rosaceae fruits. Ume, also known as Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. Et. Zucc), is one of the most popular fruit trees grown in Japan, and its processed products are employed as a folk remedy in eastern Asian countries. However, the information available regarding the PAs present in the fruit remains limited. In this study, we analyzed the PAs and phenolic acid derivatives present in the fruit of ‘Nnanko,’ the most common cultivar, and found that the flesh tissue of the mature fruit contained levels of PAs similar to those of the hydroxycinnamic acids. The concentration of PAs in the endocarp tissue of the mature fruit was approximately 14 times higher than that of the flesh tissue. We also estimated the chemical structures of the PAs from the flesh and the endocarp by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Although 13 kinds of PAs, including 2 monomers, 4 B-type dimers, 3 A-type dimers, 2 B-type trimers, 1 A-type trimer, and 1 B-type tetramer were detected in the flesh, only 2 monomers, 1 B-type dimer, and 2 A-type dimers were detected in the endocarp. All PAs detected in the endocarp were also present in the flesh.
... Major classes of constituents that may contribute to the health benefits of cranberry are phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and triterpenoids (Pappas and Schaich, 2009). A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) seem to be responsible for inhibiting the adhesion of E. coli and other uropathogens to uroepithelial cells in vitro (Foo et al., 2000;Howell et al., 2005) and ex vivo Lavigne et al., 2011). On the other hand, an ex vivo urine antiadhesive effect has been ascribed to high concentrations of hippuric and salicyluric acids in the urine of healthy women consuming a daily dose of 1200 mg of dried cranberry juice (Valentova et al., 2007). ...
... Antimicrobial activities have been mainly studied for cranberry proanthocyanidins, the basis of widely used medicines that exploit their anti-adherent capacity and inhibit uropathogenic bacteria [6][7][8][9][10][11]. On the other hand, blueberry polyphenols have been less studied [12][13][14]. ...
Article
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An extraction method was designed and scaled up to produce multicomponent polyphenolic extracts from blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) of three different varieties. The process was specifically drawn up to comply with green chemistry principles. Extracts were obtained for the direct assessment of their antimicrobial and antiadhesive activities, and their direct use in the control of infections caused by concerning multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens. Analytical characterization was performed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Similar qualitative profiles were obtained in the three studied varieties with some significant quantitative differences. Up to 22 different polyphenols were identified with a clear predominance of anthocyani(di)ns followed by flavanols, non-flavonoids, and far behind by flavan-3-ols and procyanidins. The individual content of the main polyphenols was also discussed. A pilot scale extract has been also produced as a proof-of-concept, showing that scaling-up triples the content of bioactive phytochemicals. The effect of the polyphenolic extracts was analyzed against seven multidrug-resistance bacterial species by performing biofilm formation and growth and killing curves assays. All the studied varieties showed antibacterial and antiadhesive activities, being the extract containing the highest concentration of bioactive polyphenols, the most active with a high bactericidal effect.
... of total phenols, determined spectrophotometrically according to the procedure described by Folin-Ciocalteu (8) and presented as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), was 5461 GAE/L. The amount of proanthocyanidins was 3122.5 mg/L and it was evaluated using the gravimetric method described by Howell et al. (9). The content of cyanidin glycosides and phenolic acids was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and their contents were: cyanidin 3-galactoside 143.7 mg/L, cyanidin 3-arabinoside 61.7 mg/L, cyanidin 3-glucoside: 4.4 mg/L, cyanidin 3-xyloside: 11.6 mg/L; chlorogenic acid 585 mg/L, and neochlorogenic acid: 830 mg/L. ...
Article
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INTRODUCTION: Chronic, low-grade inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Aronia melanocarpa fruits are rich in biologically active compounds-polyphenols, which possess a variety of health benefits including an anti-inflammatory effect.
... For example, proanthocyanidins (PAC), the active ingredients of cranberry juice, have long been explored to fight UTIs. By blocking P fimbriae, an important adhesins of UPEC, PAC inhibit bacterial adhesion to bladder epithelial cells in vitro (Howell et al., 2005;Gupta et al., 2007;Howell, 2007). Although recommended for rUTI prevention by the American Urological Association, the clinical impact of cranberry-derived products on UTI remains controversial as concluded in a recent Cochrane study (Jepson et al., 2012;Anger et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the main etiological agent of urinary tract infection (UTI), a widespread infectious disease of great impact on human health. This is further emphasized by the rapidly increase in antimicrobial resistance in UPEC, which compromises UTI treatment. UPEC biology is highly complex since uropathogens must adopt extracellular and intracellular lifestyles and adapt to different niches in the host. In this context, the implementation of forefront 'omics' technologies has provided substantial insight into the understanding of UPEC pathogenesis, which has opened the doors for new therapeutics and prophylactics discovery programs. Thus, 'omics' technologies applied to studies of UPEC during UTI, or in models of UTI, have revealed extensive lists of factors that are important for the ability of UPEC to cause disease. The multitude of large 'omics' datasets that have been generated calls for scrutinized analysis of specific factors that may be of interest for further development of novel treatment strategies. In this review, we describe main UPEC determinants involved in UTI as estimated by 'omics' studies, and we compare prediction of factors across the different 'omics' technologies, with a focus on those that have been confirmed to be relevant under UTI-related conditions. We also discuss current challenges and future perspectives regarding analysis of data to provide an overview and better understanding of UPEC mechanisms involved in pathogenesis which should assist in the selection of target sites for future prophylaxis and treatment.
... Procyanidins and their monomers have been identified in several agro-industrial wastes from the food processing industries such as cocoa, berries, grapes, apples, litchi, blueberries, plums, avocado, nuts, tea leaves, coffee, cinnamon, peanut, leguminous plants, and several other wastes, as illustrated in Table 1 [38,44,[64][65][66][67][68][69][70]. Among the main parts of the plant that are considered agro-industrial wastes and do not conflict with human food include leaves, flowers, stems, roots, bark, skin, pomace, pulp, and seed. ...
Article
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Procyanidins are an important group of bioactive molecules known for their benefits to human health. These compounds are promising in the treatment of chronic metabolic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, as they prevent cell damage related to oxidative stress. It is necessary to study effective extraction methods for the recovery of these components. In this review, advances in the recovery of procyanidins from agro-industrial wastes are presented, which are obtained through ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction. Current trends focus on the extraction of procyanidins from seeds, peels, pomaces, leaves and bark in agro-industrial wastes, which are extracted by ultrasound. Some techniques have been coupled with environmentally friendly techniques. There are few studies focused on the extraction and evaluation of biological activities of procyanidins. The identification and quantification of these compounds are the result of the study of the polyphenolic profile of plant sources. Antioxidant, antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory activity are presented as the biological properties of greatest interest. Agro-industrial wastes can be an economical and easily accessible source for the extraction of procyanidins.
... Open access with type A linkages, or the breakdown products after digestion in the gut, is believed to be the active ingredient in cranberry. 10 The primary objective of this feasibility trial was therefore to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of cranberry extract in reducing antibiotic use by women with symptoms of acute, uncomplicated UTI in general practice. ...
Article
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Objectives To determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised trial of the effectiveness of cranberry extract in reducing antibiotic use by women with symptoms of acute, uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Design Open-label feasibility randomised parallel group trial. Setting Four general practices in Oxfordshire. Participants Women aged 18 years and above presenting to general practice with symptoms of acute, uncomplicated UTI. Interventions Women were randomly assigned using Research Electronic Data Capture in a 1:1:1 ratio to: (1) immediate antibiotics alone (n=15); (2) immediate antibiotics and immediate cranberry capsules for up to 7 days (n=15); or (3) immediate cranberry capsules and delayed antibiotics for self-initiation in case of non-improvement or worsening of symptoms (n=16). Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were: rate of recruitment of participants; numbers lost to follow-up; proportion of electronic diaries completed by participants; and acceptability of the intervention and study procedures to participants and recruiters. Secondary outcomes included an exploration of differences in symptom burden and antibiotic use between groups. Results Four general practitioner practices (100%) were opened and recruited participants between 1 July and 2 December 2019, with nine study participants recruited per month on average. 68.7% (46/67) of eligible participants were randomised (target 45) with a mean age of 48.4 years (SD 19.9, range 18–81). 89.1% (41/46) of diaries contained some participant entered data and 69.6% (32/46) were fully complete. Three participants (6.5%) were lost to follow-up and two (4.4%) withdrew. Of women randomly assigned to take antibiotics alone (controls), one-third of respondents reported consuming cranberry products (33.3%, 4/12). There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions It appears feasible to conduct a randomised trial of the use of cranberry extract in the treatment of acute, uncomplicated UTI in general practice. Trial registration number ISRCTN Registry (ID: 10399299).
... A study by Kylli et al. (2011) confirmed lingonberry proanthocyanidins' strong uroprotective role and bacteriocidic efficacy against S. aureus and noted an inhibitory effect on hemagglutination of E. coli and antiadhesive potential. A-type proanthocyanidins have been implicated as important agents inhibiting p-fimbriated E. coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells as a result of specific receptor-ligand association, favored by hydrophobic interactions (Howell et al., 2005). Plant proanthocyanidins have also been presented as active antibacterial agents towards our non-tested bacteria: Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pneumococcus sp., Enterococcus casilliflavus (Mayer et al., 2008). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (lingonberry) leaves and fruits have traditionally been used in Asian and European countries as a natural solution for urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal distress, neurodegenerative diseases, and related inflammatory disorders, which are overall associated with free radical damage and presence of triggering pathogenic strains in the human body. Considering growing attention to natural products, there are not enough scientific data to confirm predominant specialized metabolites, responsible for the traditional therapeutic use of lingonberries. Aim of the study: The present study aimed at an in-depth study of specialized metabolite profiling and biological activity evaluation of lingonberry crude extracts and isolated fractions. Materials and methods Crude dry extracts and fractions from lingonberry leaves and fruits were analyzed by the UPLC-MS method. Potential inhibiting properties against different bacterial strains and hyaluronidase, ability to scavenge hydrogen peroxide, and effect on its production in a macrophage culture J774 were examined. Results Findings suggested the tentative presence of 59 compounds, mainly phenolics, displayed higher bioactivities of particular fractions than that of crude extracts and elucidated particular compounds as candidates in pharmaceuticals. Trimeric and dimeric proanthocyanidins from lingonberry leaves and fruits were shown to have the strongest antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential. Conclusions This study revealed specialized metabolites responsible for the traditional medicinal properties of lingonberries and pointed out demand for further purification and new research directions of proanthocyanidins in the frame of their multipharmacological perspectives.
... This may be important as some reports exist on different bioactivities between A and B type PACs. [5][6][7] Few randomized control trials have investigated the effects of cranberry juice on biomarkers of cardiovascular (CVD) risk, mainly in individuals at high risk or with CVD, with mixed results. [8][9][10][11][12][13] More recent studies in healthy populations conducted by our group have demonstrated acute improvements in vascular function after single consumption of cranberry juice. ...
Article
Background: Previous studies indicate cardiovascular health benefits of cranberry juice consumption. However, whether daily consumption of whole cranberries will have sustained vascular benefits in healthy individuals is currently unknown. Objective:...
... They have concentration-dependent antibacterial properties against oral polymicrobial biofilms [74]. The consumption of cranberries, which is a fruit rich in procyanidins (type A and B), is shown to reduce urinary tract infections, such as UPEC and Candida albicans infections, by reducing the adhesion of bacteria and the formation of biofilms [75][76][77][78]. One of the advanced mechanisms of action in the reduction of UPEC infections would be the binding of type A procyanidins to the pili of these pathogens, thus inhibiting their adhesion to epithelial cells in the bladder [79]. ...
Article
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Fruit is an essential part of the human diet and is of great interest because of its richness in phytochemicals. Various fruit extracts from citrus, berries and pomegranates have been shown to possess a broad spectrum of medicinal properties. Fruit phytochemicals are of considerable interest because of their antioxidant properties involving different mechanisms of action, which can act against different pathogenic bacteria. The antioxidant capacity of fruit phytochemicals involves different kinds of reactions, such as radical scavenging and chelation or complexation of metal ions. The interaction between fruit phytochemicals and bacteria has different repercussions: it disrupts the cell envelope, disturbs cell-cell communication and gene regulation, and suppresses metabolic and enzymatic activities. Consequently, fruit phytochemicals can directly inhibit bacterial growth or act indirectly by modulating the expression of virulence factors, both of which reduce microbial pathogenicity. The aim of this review was to report our current knowledge on various fruit extracts and their major bioactive compounds, and determine the effectiveness of organic acids, terpenes, polyphenols, and other types of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties as a source of antimicrobial agents.
... Flavonoids are divided into six groups of molecules, differing in the degree of hydrogenation and hydroxylation of the three-ring system. Nowadays, there is high interest in the group belonging to flavanols, specifically regarding the polymeric structures known as proanthocyanins (PACs) or condensed tannins, which are useful in the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) [3]. PACs are formed principally from the condensation of catechin and epicatechin through the interflavan linkages of the B-type and A-type [1,2,4]. ...
Article
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Flavanols are a class of polyphenols that have been the focus of many researchers because of their medicinal properties. In this paper, a new method to determine polyphenols in nutraceuti-cal samples based on solid-liquid extraction and further analysis by liquid chromatography was developed. Analytes were recovered by ultrasound-assisted extraction using a mixture of meth-anol/water/hydrochloric acid (70:29:1, v:v:v) as the solvent. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV/Vis (HPLC-UV/Vis) and fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) were developed to determine the content of the principal flavanols. The HPLC-FLD method showed better selectivity and sensitivity so it was selected for further studies. Analytical param-eters stablished with FLD were satisfactory in terms of linearity (R2 ≥ 0.993), repeatability (RSD% ≥ 2.2), and limits of detection of 0.1 mg L-1 or below. The nutraceutical samples were analyzed by HPLC-FLD to determine the compositional profiles of flavanols to be subsequently treated us-ing chemometric methods such as principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the study of compositional profiles from selected flavanols was suitable for description and dis-crimination purposes. Cranberry samples were the richest on flavanols, being the procyanidin A2 the principal flavanol, and artichoke samples the poorest.
... Proanthocyanidins, specifically A-type procyanidins, highly influence the biological activity of cranberry against UTIs. This component has been shown to aid in the inhibition of adhesion of E. coli and other gram-negative bacteria to uroepithelial cells, which predominately serve as the initial step of a UTI (Schmidt and Sobota 1988;Lynch 2004;Howell et al., 2005;Blumberg et al., 2013). Specifically, cranberry has been shown to inhibit hemagglutination of E. coli by preventing the adhesion of type 1 and P-fimbriated pathogens to the uroepithelium (Zafriri et al., 1989;Howell et al., 1998;Lynch 2004;Guay 2009). ...
Article
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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant clinical problem that pregnant women and children commonly experience. Escherichia coli is the primary causative organism, along with several other gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Antimicrobial drugs are commonly prescribed to treat UTIs in these patients. Conventional treatment can range from using broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs for empirical or prophylactic therapy or patient-tailored therapy based on urinary cultures and sensitivity to prospective antibiotics. The ongoing emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens has raised concerns related to commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs such as those used routinely to treat UTIs. Consequently, several natural medicines have been explored as potential complementary therapies to improve health outcomes in patients with UTIs. This review discusses the effectiveness of commonly used natural products such as cranberry juice/extracts, ascorbic acid, hyaluronic acid, probiotics, and multi-component formulations intended to treat and prevent UTIs. The combination of natural products with prescribed antimicrobial treatments and use of formulations that contained high amounts of cranberry extracts appear to be most effective in preventing recurrent UTIs (RUTIs). The incorporation of natural products like cranberry, hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid, probiotics, Canephron® N, and Cystenium II to conventional treatments of acute UTIs or as a prophylactic regimen for treatment RUTIs can benefit both pregnant women and children. Limited information is available on the safety of natural products in these patients’ populations. However, based on limited historical information, these remedies appear to be safe and well-tolerated by patients.
... Despite this, cranberry and other berry pomaces have been primarily studied for the recovery of their polyphenolic and anthocyanin compounds as value-added products (Cantu-Jungles et al. 2017;Cserjési et al. 2011;Gil-Sánchez et al. 2018;Marlett and Vollendorf 1994). In particular, cranberry polyphenols attracted a high interest due to their abilities to prevent urinary tract infections and to promote cardiovascular and colon health (González de Llano et al. 2019;Howell et al. 2005;Kaspar and Khoo 2013). Limited studies have been conducted on the isolation of cell wall polysaccharides and their corresponding oligosaccharides, despite their abundance in cranberry pomace and their potential applications as functional food ingredients (Fan et al. 2010;Park and Zhao 2006). ...
Article
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Using cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) pomace as a starting material, the microwave-assisted production of extracts and their structural characterization were investigated. Three methods (acidic, alkaline, and sequential acid/alkaline) and two microwave power settings (36 and 72 W/g) were compared in terms of total yield and recovery of oligo/polysaccharides and phenolic compounds. Acid extraction led to the lowest yields of 3.4–4.9% (w/w), while alkaline extraction at 32 W/g resulted in a yield of 12.6% (w/w). Higher microwave power favored the release of high molecular weight polysaccharides (200–700 kDa). As compared to acidic and alkaline extractions, sequential one yielded pectic polysaccharides with the highest arabinan (Ara:Rha, 6.6:1) and galactan branching chains (Gal:Rha, 5.2:1) and the lowest proportion of monosaccharides (Glu, Xyl/Man) from hemicellulosic polysaccharides. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the microwave-assisted sequential extraction as it was identified as the most appropriate method for the production of highly branched pectic polysaccharides. Variables included pomace concentration (3.33–50.00 mg/ml solvent), sodium hydroxide concentration (0–2 M), time (1–6 min), and microwave power (35–80 W/g cell wall material). The sequential extraction conditions for the optimal extract yield (28.65%) were determined to be 0.1 M HCl/1.51 M NaOH, 65 W/g, 16.33 mg pomace/ml, and 4.73 min, at which polyphenols and oligo/polysaccharides recovery of 57.0% and 10.56%, respectively, were obtained. The composition and the molecular weight distribution confirmed the isolation of arabinan-rich RGI (GalA:Rha of 15.8:1; Ara:Rha of 5.7:1) type pectic polysaccharide extracts enriched with polyphenolic compounds.
... papG is closely associated with pyelonephritis, which was downregulated by TAP. This encodes for PapG protein which can adhere to erythrocytes and it was shown previously that the cranberry proanthocyanidin binds to P-fimbriae to exert anti-adherence property (Foo et al., 2000;Howell et al., 2005). The type I fimbriae system, fimA and fimH, is also downregulated. ...
Article
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Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) accounts for the majority of complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The use of phytomolecules in the treatment of UTI is fast gaining attention. The current report identifies a multidrug-resistant strain (QSLUPEC7), which is a strong biofilm producer, among the considered clinical isolates. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity was evaluated for the phytomolecule, Type A procyanidin (TAP) from Cinnamomum zeylanicum against QSLUPEC7. TAP treatment did not affect the growth of the MDR strain but affected the biofilm formation (~70% inhibition). The confocal microscopic examination reveals the biofilm inhibition and the live cells in the biofilm corroborates the antimicrobial results. Further, the synergy studies of TAP and nitrofurantoin (NIT) were carried out at different pH. TAP acts synergistically with nitrofurantoin at different pH considered. A closer look in the results reveals that at pH 5.8, maximum growth inhibition is recorded. The gene expression analysis shows that TAP alone and in combination with NIT downregulates the major fimbriae adhesins of UPEC. The results conclude that the TAP has an antibiofilm activity against the multidrug-resistant strain of UPEC, without affecting the growth. Also, TAP reciprocally cooperates with nitrofurantoin at different pH by downregulating the adhesins of UPEC.
... Cranberry has emerged as one of the super food due to its broad nutrient content and high levels of bioactive phenolic compounds. Specifically, these constituent bioactive phenolics, such as anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins (PACs), have gained considerable interest among the food and pharmaceutical industry as they have been shown to exhibit a wide range of potential biological health benefits including antioxidation, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory implications (Caillet et al., 2012;Côté et al., 2011;Howell et al., 2005;Manach et al., 2004;McKay and Blumberg, 2007;Nile and Park, 2014;Puupponen-Pimia et al., 2001). The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds of cranberry origin have been widely studied, as there is growing consumer demand for healthier, natural, and minimally-processed food products free from chemical preservatives. ...
Article
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The effect of cranberry pomace (CP) incorporation on S. enterica serovars inactivation, starter culture population, and physicochemical properties of sausages during the manufacture of dry fermented sausages (DFS) was studied. Sausages containing a five-strain cocktail of S. enterica serovars at 7-log CFU/g, with different levels of CP (control, 0%; low, 0.55%; medium, 1.70%; high, 2.25% wt/wt), or liquid lactic acid (0.33% vol/wt, LA) were subjected to typical fermentation and drying conditions. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in initial pH was observed in all CP treatments on day 0 as a result of CP native acidity. All treatments except low CP showed a significantly lower pH than the control throughout the study. Water activity (aw) was not significantly affected by CP level during fermentation. However, sausages containing medium and high CP levels showed a significantly lower final product aw than the control. DFS with CP exhibited a significantly (P < 0.05) faster and greater Salmonella inactivation during the first 5 days; reduction rate and level directly correlated to CP level. In the presence of medium and high levels of CP, Staphylococcus spp. growth was suppressed, while Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. exhibited a stimulatory response. All treatments except low CP had no significant effect on product chemical composition, and Moisture Protein ratio (MPr). Low CP level yielded DFS with a slightly higher (P < 0.05) moisture content and MPr. Medium and high CP levels resulted in darker, duller and redder DFS with a softer texture. Findings suggest that low CP levels can be utilized by DFS manufacturers as a natural functional ingredient to further minimize the risk associated with Salmonella during DFS production without altering final product characteristics.
Article
Biofilm formation, especially on indwelling medical devices such as catheters, can result in infections and substantially affect patients' quality of life. Biofilm-associated infections have led to increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of treatment, and length of hospital stay. However, all of the identified consequences of the biofilm-associated infections had been attributed to the reduced susceptibility of biofilm to conventional antimicrobial agents which has necessitated the development of a new strategy for biofilm infections control, thereby making a search for more effective antimicrobial agents from plant source inevitable. So far, some antimicrobial agents (crude or isolated compounds) from plant sources affect a specific stage of biofilm development while a few of them have been developed into a suitable dosage form for biofilm control. In this review, an attempt is made to look into some definitions of biofilm by "biofilmologists", stages in biofilm formation, mechanisms of resistance in biofilm, biofilm control strategies, the use of some natural products in biofilm control and concepts of probiotics as agents of biofilm control.
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Cranberry is a popular ingredient in dietary supplements in the U. S. and is commonly used for preventing urinary tract infections. Because of its popularity in dietary supplements, the U. S. Pharmacopeial Convention has developed quality standards for cranberry ingredients. The purpose of this review was to determine if there are safety issues that should preclude the admission of cranberry ingredients from the development of U. S. Pharmacopeial Convention quality standards. Based on the totality of the data, the U. S. Pharmacopeial Convention concluded that cranberry ingredients are not known to be associated with serious risks to human health when consumed properly in dietary supplements and therefore were admitted for standard development. Although published clinical and animal data indicated that cranberry is not associated with serious adverse effects, interactions with warfarin and kidney stone formation were identified as potential risks. Studies have reported contradictory data regarding the role of cranberry in kidney stone formation, with some reports suggesting cranberry is associated with a reduced risk of kidney stones. Interactions with warfarin were not associated with moderate intakes of cranberry juice (240 – 480 mL). Some reports suggested that the potential for warfarin interactions requires excessive intakes of cranberry juice (1 – 2 L/day) or cranberry extracts (3000 mg/day). Cases of warfarin interactions with cranberry have mostly involved patients with serious illnesses and/or individuals taking concomitant medications. Based on these findings, the U. S. Pharmacopeial Convention concluded that the use of cautionary labeling statements regarding interactions with warfarin or kidney stone formation is not necessary in the development of quality standards for cranberry ingredients.
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Cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon L., Ericaceae) is a valuable material for the production of juices and other fruit products, quite popular among consumers in Serbia. Different types of cranberry juice are produced in Serbia and other countries, but the chemical composition, as well as the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of juices depend on both the used technology and the region in which cranberries are grown. Within this study, the screening of bioactive components found in cranberry juice from Serbia was performed by the UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS method, as well as the determination of its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The juice was obtained by cold-pressing of ripe cranberry fruit grown in Serbia and enriched with sugar. Among the seventeen identified compounds, the most common were phenolic compounds and hexoses, followed by organic acids. The antibacterial activity of the juice was assessed by the disc diffusion method against Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The DPPH test was used to determine the antioxidant effect. The cold-pressed cranberry juice showed higher antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The obtained results will be useful in promoting further progress and development of cranberry cultivation and processing in Serbia.
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Avocado peel is a by-product obtained in high amounts in the food industry with no further applications despite its richness in bioactive compounds. In this context, an efficient “green” microwave assisted extraction (MAE) was optimized to maximize the extraction of bioactive polyphenols. Moreover, the phenolic composition of the developed green avocado extract was characterized by HPLC coupled to MS analysers and the potential applications for the food industry were studied assaying different bioactivities. Thus, the matrix metalloproteinases inhibition, the antioxidant capacity and the antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeast and mold were tested. The results pointed out both, high matrix metalloproteinases inhibitory capacity and antioxidant activity of avocado peel MAE extract. These findings suggest the potential food industry applications of this extract as natural food preservative, functional food ingredient or nutraceuticals with antioxidant and anti-aging activities.
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The emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), or variant low-affinity penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) pose a major threat to our ability to treat bacterial infection using β-lactam antibiotics. Although combinations of β-lactamase inhibitors with β-lactam agents have been clinically successful, there are no MBL inhibitors in current therapeutic use. Furthermore, recent clinical use of new-generation cephalosporins targeting PBP2a, an altered PBP, has led to the emergence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents. Previous work shows that natural polyphenols such as cranberry-extracted proanthocyanidins (cPAC) can potentiate non-β-lactam antibiotics against Gramnegative bacteria. This study extends beyond previous work by investigating the in vitro effect of cPAC in overcoming ESBL-, MBL-, and PBP2a-mediated β-lactam resistance. The results show that cPAC exhibit variable potentiation of different β-lactams against β-lactam-resistant Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates as well as ESBL- and MBLproducing E. coli. We also discovered that cPAC have broad-spectrum inhibitory properties in vitro on the activity of different classes of β-lactamases, including CTX-M3 ESBL and IMP-1 MBL. Furthermore, we observe that cPAC selectively potentiate oxacillin and carbenicillin against methicillin-resistant but not methicillin-sensitive staphylococci, suggesting that cPAC also interfere with PBP2a-mediated resistance. This study motivates the need for future work to identify the most bioactive compounds in cPAC and to evaluate their antibiotic-potentiating efficacy in vivo.
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Proanthocyanidins (PACs) have various bioactivities, such as being anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidant. Consequently, they have been vigorously studied for the development of new natural bioactive compounds. Recently, AzPAC was isolated from the medicinal plant Alpinia zerumbet , and it was found to inhibit the infection of animal viruses, influenza A viruses (IAVs), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. The virucidal activity of AzPAC means that it can interact directly with viral particles. However, few studies have investigated the preventive mechanism utilized by AzPAC on influenza virus replication. In this study, the composition of AzPAC and the affinity between AzPAC and IAVs was investigated in detail. We found that AzPAC was composed of an epicatechin monomer, which was linked by inter-flavan bonds between the C4 and C8 positions (B2-type) and the C4 and C6 positions (B5-type) in the terminal units of the PAC. A quenching assay indicated that AzPAC interacted with IAV membrane proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Additionally, circular dichroism analysis indicated that AzPAC affected the change in the secondary structure rate of the viral membrane proteins. AzPAC was able to impair the infective process of IAVs via direct interaction with their viral membrane proteins. These results indicate that A . zerumbet is an invaluable bioresource for the development of preventive drugs against IAV infection.
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Although intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the metabolism of procyanidins, the microbial metabolic pathway of A-type procyanidins remains elusive. In this study, A-type dimer procyanidin A1 [EC-(2β-O-7,4β-8)-C] and trimer PPD [EC-(4β-6)-EC-(2β-O-7,4β-8)-C] were incubated with rat faecal microbiota in vitro, and their metabolomic profiles were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 24 and 30 discriminant metabolites for A1 and PPD, respectively. The C-ring opened catabolites of procyanidin A1 and PPD and the typical phenolic acid metabolites were identified, including phenylacetic acid, (4′-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, 3-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, 3-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, and 5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone. Notably, procyanidin A1 and (epi)catechin were identified from the metabolites of PPD; however, no (epi)catechin was found in the metabolites of procyanidin A1, indicating that the faecal microbiota can destroy B-type linkage (C4-C6 interflavan bond) but not A-type linkage (C4-C8 and additional C2-O-C7 interflavan bond) in the metabolism of A-type procyanidins.
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The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic is demanding rapid action of the authorities and scientific community in order to find new antimicrobial solutions that could inactivate the pathogen SARS-CoV-2 that causes this disease. Gram-positive bacteria contribute to severe pneumonia associated with COVID-19, and their resistance to antibiotics is increasing at an alarming rate. In this regard, non-woven fabrics are currently used for the fabrication of infection prevention clothing such as face masks, caps, scrubs, shirts, trousers, disposable gowns, overalls, hoods, aprons and shoe covers as protective tools against viral and bacterial infections. However, these non-woven fabrics are made of materials that do not possess antimicrobial activity. Thus, we have developed here non-woven fabrics with antimicrobial coatings of cranberry extracts capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and the phage phi 6, and two multidrug-resistant bacteria: the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The non-toxicity of these advanced technology was ensured using a Caenorhabditis elegans in vivo model. These results open up a new prevention path using natural and biodegradable compounds for the fabrication of infection prevention clothing in the current COVID-19 and future pandemics.
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Wild neotropical blueberries, endemic of Central and South American areas, are promising yet still undisclosed sources of bioactive compounds. Most research studies have addressed wild and cultivated blueberries from Europe and North America, despite the extremely wide variety of wild neotropical species. In the present paper, for the first time, the phenolic composition of Disterigma alaternoides was investigated through ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass-spectrometric analysis followed by accurate data analysis and compound validation with a dedicated structure-based workflow. D. alaternoides, which belongs to a closely related genus to that of the common blueberry, grows exclusively in the Andean regions over 2000 above sea level. Thanks to the dedicated analytical platform, 249 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, including several anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and proanthocyanidins. Thenature and heterogeneity of identified phenolic compounds demonstrate once more the need for a more profound knowledge of such still uncharted matrices.
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Adhesion of P-type and type-1 fimbriated uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) to uroepithelial cells initiates urinary tract infections (UTIs). This research aimed to evaluate the capacities of selected cranberry polyphenols and their microbial metabolites to inhibit such adhesion in vitro using a modified fluorometric method. Data showed that the inhibition capacity of myricetin increased with concentration and plateaued at 70%. It had IC50 values of 13.2 μM against P-type E. coli and 5.50 μM against type-1 E. coli. Quercetin showed similar anti-adhesion capacities to myricetin. Procyanidin A2 and B2 had weaker anti-adhesion activities than myricetin and quercetin, with maximal inhibition capacities of 20%–30% against UPEC. Hippuric acid, a major metabolite of cranberry polyphenols in human urine, showed a maximal inhibition of 20% at 558 μM against type-1 E. coli adhesion, whereas no anti-adhesion activity against P-type E. coli was detected. The fractions of cranberry fruit powder enriched with proanthocyanidin polymers showed the highest anti-adhesion activities compared to the fractions enriched with anthocyanins, flavonols, or proanthocyanidin oligomers. Overall, the anti-adhesion activities of cranberry polyphenols and metabolites depend on their structures and the types of fimbriae on E. coli.
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COVID-19 pandemic and associated supply-chain disruptions emphasise the requirement for antimicrobial materials for on-demand manufacturing. Besides aerosol transmission, SARS-CoV-2 is also propagated through contact with virus-contaminated surfaces. As such, the development of effective biofunctional materials that can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 is critical for pandemic preparedness. Such materials will enable the rational development of antiviral devices with prolonged serviceability, reducing the environmental burden of disposable alternatives. This research reveals the novel use of Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) to 3D print porous Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) superalloy with potent antiviral activity (100% viral inactivation in 30 min). The porous material was rationally conceived using a multi-objective surrogate model featuring track thickness () and pore diameter () as responses. The regression analysis found the most significant parameters for Co-Cr-Mo track formation to be the interaction effects of scanning rate () and laser power () in the order > >. Contrastively, the pore diameter was found to be primarily driven by the hatch spacing (). The study is the first to demonstrate the superior antiviral properties of 3D printed Co-Cr-Mo superalloy against an enveloped virus used as biosafe viral model of SARS-CoV-2. The material significantly outperforms the viral inactivation time of other broadly used antiviral metals such as copper and silver, as the material's viral inactivation time was from 5 h to 30 min. As such, the study goes beyond the current state-of-the-art in antiviral alloys to provide extra protection to combat the SARS-CoV-2 viral spread. The evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic brings new and unpredictable challenges where on-demand 3D printing of antiviral materials can achieve rapid solutions while reducing the environmental impact of disposable devices.
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The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic is demanding the rapid action of the authorities and scientific community in order to find new antimicrobial solutions that could inactivate the pathogen SARS-CoV-2 that causes this disease. Gram-positive bacteria contribute to severe pneumonia associated with COVID-19, and their resistance to antibiotics is exponentially increasing. In this regard, non-woven fabrics are currently used for the fabrication of infection prevention clothing such as face masks, caps, scrubs, shirts, trousers, disposable gowns, overalls, hoods, aprons and shoe covers as protective tools against viral and bacterial infections. However, these non-woven fabrics are made of materials that do not exhibit intrinsic antimicrobial activity. Thus, we have here developed non-woven fabrics with antimicrobial coatings of cranberry extracts capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and the bacteriophage phi 6 (about 99% of viral inactivation in 1 min of viral contact), and two multidrug-resistant bacteria: the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. The morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the produced filters were characterized by optical and electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. The non-toxicity of these advanced technologies was ensured using a Caenorhabditis elegans in vivo model. These results open up a new prevention path using natural and biodegradable compounds for the fabrication of infection prevention clothing in the current COVID-19 pandemic and microbial resistant era.
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Introduction: Blueberries are known for their very high content of biologically active phenolic compounds; nonetheless, differently from the North American and European species of blueberries, Neotropical blueberries have not been extensively studied yet. Objectives: In the present paper, the phenolic composition of Vaccinium floribundum Kunth, which is endemic to the Andean regions and grows 1,600 to 4,500 meters above sea level, was investigated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Native and fermented berries were compared in terms of phenolic composition as well as antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and total anthocyanin content. Materials and methods: V. floribundum native and fermented berries were extracted and analyzed by UHPLC-HRMS. The acquired datasets were processed by Compound Discoverer 3.1 using a dedicated data analysis workflow that was specifically set up for phenolic compound identification. Results: In total, 309 compounds were tentatively identified, including anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and proanthocyanidins. The molecular transformations of phenolic compounds during fermentation were comprehensively investigated for the first time, and by a customized data processing workflow, 13 quinones and quinone methides were tentatively identified in the fermented samples. Compared to other species of the genus Vaccinium, a peculiar phenolic profile is observed, with low abundance of highly methylated compounds. Conclusion: Andean berries are a rich source of a wide variety of phenolic compounds. Untargeted MS analyses coupled to a dedicated data processing workflow allowed expanding the current knowledge on these berries, improving our understanding of the fate of phenolic compounds after fermentation.
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health problem and requires urgent multisectoral action to achieve Sustainable Development Goals as mandated by United Nations by 2030. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), AMR is one of the top ten global public health threats to humanity, mostly due to misuse and overuse of antimicrobials. It is the main driver in the development of drug-resistant pathogens. The emergence of life-threatening drug-resistant pathogens particularly bacteria like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and some fungi have become the greatest threat to public health and have rendered the treatment of their infections ineffective. To counter the antimicrobial-resistant microbes, the discovery of novel effective antimicrobials with a new mechanism of action is the need of the hour and this has forced researchers to look upon alternative antimicrobial agents from natural sources like plants. Phenols and phenolic acids can provide a promising alternative to drug-resistant antibiotics. Polyphenols are considered as secondary metabolites generated by higher plant groups. They play diverse role, and they are very effective as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial agents. Polyphenols constitute several varieties of molecules with different polyphenol structures. They are generally divided into two groups, flavonoids and nonflavonoids. The antimicrobial activity of polyphenols has been widely examined against a broad range of pathogens including virus, bacteria, and fungi. Several plants extract rich in polyphenolic components have displayed effective anti-quorum sensing capacity and are quite effective in suppressing biofilm formation and inhibiting toxin production. The synergistic approach of combining polyphenols and conventional antimicrobial agents like antibiotics can provide hope against neutralizing multidrug-resistant microorganisms.
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Proanthocyanidins (PACs) have various bioactivities, such as being anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidant. Consequently, they have been vigorously studied for the development of new natural bioactive compounds. Recently, PAC was isolated from leaves and pseudostems of the medicinal plant Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt and R.M. Smith, and it had shown in vitro antiviral activity against influenza A H1N1 viruses (IAVs). The 50% endpoint dilution method indicated that 0.1 mg/mL A. zerumbet-derived PAC (AzPAC) reduced the titer of IAVs by >3 logs. The antiviral activity of AzPAC means that it can interact directly with viral particles since the antiviral activity test was done by coincubation of PAC with and IAVs before viral infection. However, few studies have investigated the preventive mechanism utilized by AzPAC on influenza virus replication. In this study, the composition of AzPAC and the affinity between AzPAC and IAVs was investigated in detail. We found that AzPAC was composed of an epicatechin, which was linked by inter-flavan bonds between the C4 and C8 positions (B2-type) and the C4 and C6 positions (B5-type) in the terminal units. A quenching assay indicated that AzPAC interacted with IAV membrane proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Additionally, circular dichroism analysis indicated that AzPAC affected the change in the secondary structure rate of the viral membrane proteins. AzPAC was able to impair the infective process of IAVs via direct interaction with their viral membrane proteins. These results indicate that A. zerumbet is a bioresource for the development of preventive drugs against IAV infection.
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Due to its low tolerance to external factors such as enzymes, dentin collagen often requires stabilization, which can be achieved through cross-linking. In this study, qualitative and quantitative Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were used to assess dentin collagen stabilization effects of three structurally-different flavonoids -A-type linkage proanthocyanidins (A-PA), B-type linkage proanthocyanidins (B-PA), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), all from natural extracts. Particularly, transmission FTIR spectroscopy was used for the first time to quantitatively assess the biodegradation of fresh ultra-thin (10 µm) dentin collagen films caused by collagenase digestion. Two traditional analytical methods, namely the hydroxyproline assay and weight loss analysis, were also used for comparison purposes. The results from all three methods showed consistently that A-PA and B-PA provide better collagen stabilization than EGCG at concentrations of 0.65% and 1.3% (p<0.01). FTIR is demonstrated to be a valuable and reliable analytical tool for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of ultra-thin collagen films.
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INTRODUCTION: The role of oxidative stress in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) has been well established. Aronia melanocarpa fruits are very rich in polyphenols, which possess an antioxidant effect. AIM: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on the antioxidant defense system in rats with diet-induced MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups: control, MS, MS+AMFJ2.5, MS+AMFJ5 and MS+AMFJ10. For 10 weeks, the control group received regular diet and the other groups—high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHF). During this period, the control group and MS group were treated daily orally with 10 mL/kg distilled water and the other groups—with increasing volume (2.5mL/kg, 5mL/kg, and 10mL/kg) of AMFJ. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured in the serum using commercial colorimetric kits. RESULTS: A significantly higher SOD level was observed in MS group (0.0069±0.0007 U/mL) compared to the control group (0.0051±0.0003 U/mL) (p<0.01). AMFJ treatment returned the level of SOD to the control values, with the effect being significant in MS+AMFJ2.5 (0.0053±0.0003 U/mL) and MS+AMFJ5 (0.0053±0.0003U/mL) groups (p<0.05 vs. MS). No significant difference was detected in the activity of GPx in all groups. CONCLUSION: HFHF diet-induced MS might be associated with superoxide production and compensatory activation of SOD. Due to its antioxidant properties, AMFJ counteracted these processes in the treated groups. Neither the HFHF diet, nor the AMFJ treatment affected the activity of GPx. Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa, metabolic syndrome, rats, antioxidant enzymes
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Bu makalede, vücudumuzda çeşitli hastalıklara yol açan serbest radikallerle mücadelede antioksidan içerikli sebze ve meyvelerin rolüne işaret edilmiştir. Bitkilerin güneşin zararlı etkilerinden korunması için pigmentleri artırılarak kendilerini koruması sağlanmaktadır. Bu nedenle bir sebze ve meyvenin rengi ne kadar koyu ise o kadar fazla antioksidan özellik gösteriyor demektir. Çünkü bitkilerin asıl antioksidan özellikleri pigment kısmında bulunmaktadır. Dolayısıyla yüksek antioksidan ihtiva eden koyu renkli yaban mersini, acai üzümü, kızılcık ve maqui berry gibi meyvelerin veya bunların özütlerinin tüketilmesi bağışıklık sistemimizi güçlendirir, çeşitli hastalıklara ve yaşlanma etkilerine karşı vücudumuza güç katar.
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Inhibition of bacterial adherence to bladder cells has been assumed to account for the beneficial action ascribed to cranberry juice and cranberry juice cocktail in the prevention of urinary tract infections (A. E. Sobota, J. Urol. 131:1013-1016, 1984). We have examined the effect of the cocktail and juice on the adherence of Escherichia coli expressing surface lectins of defined sugar specificity to yeasts, tissue culture cells, erythrocytes, and mouse peritoneal macrophages. Cranberry juice cocktail inhibited the adherence of urinary isolates expressing type 1 fimbriae (mannose specific) and P fimbriae [specific for alpha-D-Gal(1----4)-beta-D-Gal] but had no effect on a diarrheal isolate expressing a CFA/I adhesin. The cocktail also inhibited yeast agglutination by purified type 1 fimbriae. The inhibitory activity for type 1 fimbriated E. coli was dialyzable and could be ascribed to the fructose present in the cocktail; this sugar was about 1/10 as active as methyl alpha-D-mannoside in inhibiting the adherence of type 1 fimbriated bacteria. The inhibitory activity for the P fimbriated bacteria was nondialyzable and was detected only after preincubation of the bacteria with the cocktail. Cranberry juice, orange juice, and pineapple juice also inhibited adherence of type 1 fimbriated E. coli, most likely because of their fructose content. However, the two latter juices did not inhibit the P fimbriated bacteria. We conclude that cranberry juice contains at least two inhibitors of lectin-mediated adherence of uropathogens to eucaryotic cells. Further studies are required to establish whether these inhibitors play a role in vivo.
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Three proanthocyanidin trimers possessing A-type interflavanoid linkages, epicatechin-(4beta-->6)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta-->O-->7)-epicatechin (4), epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta-->O-->7)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin (5), and epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta-->O-->7)-epicatechin (6), were isolated from the ripe fruits of Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) and prevented adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli isolates from the urinary tract to cellular surfaces containing alpha-Gal(1-->4)beta-Gal receptor sequences similar to those on uroepithelial cells. The structure of 4 was elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods and acid-catalyzed degradation with phloroglucinol. Also isolated were the weakly active epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta-->O-->7)-epicatechin (procyanidin A2) (3) and the inactive monomer epicatechin (1) and the inactive dimer epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2) (2).
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To determine whether recurrences of urinary tract infection can be prevented with cranberry-lingonberry juice or with Lactobacillus GG drink. Design: Open, randomised controlled 12 month follow up trial. Health centres for university students and staff of university hospital. 150 women with urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli randomly allocated into three groups. Interventions: 50 ml of cranberry-lingonberry juice concentrate daily for six months or 100 ml of lactobacillus drink five days a week for one year, or no intervention. Main outcome measure: First recurrence of symptomatic urinary tract infection, defined as bacterial growth >/=10(5 )colony forming units/ml in a clean voided midstream urine specimen. The cumulative rate of first recurrence of urinary tract infection during the 12 month follow up differed significantly between the groups (P=0.048). At six months, eight (16%) women in the cranberry group, 19 (39%) in the lactobacillus group, and 18 (36%) in the control group had had at least one recurrence. This is a 20% reduction in absolute risk in the cranberry group compared with the control group (95% confidence interval 3% to 36%, P=0.023, number needed to treat=5, 95% confidence interval 3 to 34). Regular drinking of cranberry juice but not lactobacillus seems to reduce the recurrence of urinary tract infection.
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To determine, from a societal perspective, the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of concentrated cranberry tablets, versus cranberry juice, versus placebo used as prophylaxis against lower urinary tract infection (UTI) in adult women. One hundred fifty sexually active women aged 21 through 72 years were randomized for one year to one of three groups of prophylaxis: placebo juice + placebo tablets versus placebo juice + cranberry tablets, versus cranberry juice + placebo tablets. Tablets were taken twice daily, juice 250 ml three times daily. Outcome measures were: (1) a >50% decrease in symptomatic UTI's per year (symptoms + >or= 100 000 single organisms/ml) and (2) a >50% decrease in annual antibiotic consumption. Cost effectiveness was calculated as dollar cost per urinary tract infection prevented. Stochastic tree decision analytic modeling was used to identify specific clinical scenarios for cost savings. Both cranberry juice and cranberry tablets statistically significantly decreased the number of patients experiencing at least 1 symptomatic UTI/year (to 20% and 18% respectively) compared with placebo (to 32%) (p<0.05). The mean annual cost of prophylaxis was $624 and $1400 for cranberry tablets and juice respectively. Cost savings were greatest when patients experienced >2 symptomatic UTI's per year (assuming 3 days antibiotic coverage) and had >2 days of missed work or required protective undergarments for urgency incontinence. Total antibiotic consumption was less annually in both treatment groups compared with placebo. Cost effectiveness ratios demonstrated cranberry tablets were twice as cost effective as organic juice for prevention. Cranberry tablets provided the most cost-effective prevention for UTI.
Chapter
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to characterize the structural diversity of a series of anthocyanin-polyflavan-3-ol oligomers in cranberry fruit and spray dried juice. MALDI-TOF mass spectra provide evidence for a series of compounds corresponding to anthocyanins; cyanidin-hexose, cyanidin- pentose, peonidin-hexose and peonidin-pentose linked to polyflavan-3-ols through a CH3-CH bridge. Deionizing the isolated anthocyanin-polyflavan-3-ol oligomers with cation exchange resin prior to mass spectral analysis allowed the detection of exclusively [M]+ ions because the singly charged oxonium cation does not require cationization. MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the anthocyanin-polyflavan-3-ols that eluate from Sephadex LH-20 columns with water/ethanol (1:1) contained oligomers with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 1 to 2. MALDI-TOF MS of the Sephadex-ethanol eluate contained a series of masses corresponding to DPI to DP4 and the Sephadex-ethanol:methanol (1:1) eluate contained a series of masses corresponding to DP3 to DP5. The anthocyanin-polyflavan-3-ol oligomers also show structural variation in the nature of the interflavan bond (A-type vs. B-type). Anthocyanin-polyflavan-3-ol oligomers incorporating a CH3-CH bridge have been described in red wines and in model reactions as a condensation reaction between anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols via acetaldehyde. Our results indicate that oligomeric anthocyanins may also be present in cranberry fruit and unfermented spray dried cranberry juice.
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Antioxidant activity of six fractions of cranberry phenolic compounds was determined by inhibition of Cu2+-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The phenolic composition of each fraction was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The phenolic fractions were mixed with aliquots of modified human serum prior to LDL isolation. The serum was modified to remove very-low-density lipoprotein and chylomicrons that may bind phenolic compounds. Only fractions 5 and 6 that contained proanthocyanidins (PAs) significantly increased the lag time of LDL oxidation, and the lag time for fraction 6 was significantly higher than for fraction 5. The mass distribution of PAs in these fractions was obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a technique that allows rapid characterisation of the molecular weight distribution in mixtures of oligomeric compounds. Fraction 5 contained trimers through heptamers, whereas fraction 6 contained pentamers through nonamers. In addition, fraction 6 contained PA oligomers with more doubly linked, A-type interflavan bonds. Results indicate that PAs specifically associate with LDL in modified serum and increase the lag time of Cu2+-induced oxidation. Differences between fractions 5 and 6 in PA structure and effects on LDL oxidation suggest that the degree of polymerisation and the nature of the interflavan bond influence antioxidant properties.© 2001 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Bacterial adhesion to epithelial surfaces constitutes an important step in the establishment of infections involving mucosal surfaces. The virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli is related to their ability to adhere to the epithelium of the urinary tract. E. coli attached better to vaginal epithelial cells from women prone to urinary tract infections (UTI) than to cells from healthy controls. Furthermore, both in vivo and in vitro, higher numbers of bacteria were found to adhere to periurethral cells of UTI-prone girls than to control cells from healthy girls. With the realisation that cell surface carbohydrates play a central role in biological recognition, attention has been focused on the importance of these carbohydrate structures for bacterial adherence. Some E. coli adhere by binding specifically and reversibly to α-D-mannopyranosyl groups or residues exposed on the surface of epithelial cells. The adhesive property of these bacteria is also manifested by their ability to agglutinate erythrocytes from various species in the absence of D-mannose. It is now well established that this D-mannose sensitive (MS) haemagglutinating activity is associated with the presence on the bacterial surface of filamentous appendages, of protein nature, named type 1 pili or fimbriae. Other E. coli possess adhesins with specificity for intestinal epithelium, e.g. K88, K99 and the CFA/I (colonization factor antigen I) antigens. All these adhesins cause a D-mannose-resistant (MR) agglutination of erythrocytes from various species. The authors have previously observed that the adhesion to periurethral cells by several uropathogenic E. coli strains was paralleled with a capacity to specifically agglutinate human erythrocytes only. Neither haemagglutination nor the adhesion of these bacteria to the periurethral cells was inhibited by D-mannose. Hence, these findings indicated that the adhesins of these E. coli strains were different from type 1 pili, and that the receptor(s) recognized by these E. coli strains was other than D-mannopyranosyl groups. The detailed structures of the carbohydrate moieties of several human erythrocyte antigenic determinants are known. From this study it is proposed that the α-D-Galp(1-4)-β-D-Galp-(1-4)-D-Glc carbohydrate moiety of the P(k) glycosphingolipid (trihexosyl ceramide) is the receptor involved in MR haemagglutination caused by uropathogenic E. coli.
Article
For E. coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection the severity of infection produced in vivo is strongly related to the capacity to adhere to human urinary tract epithelial cells in vitro. Bacteria with capacity to attach to human urinary tract epithelial cells also agglutinate human erythrocytes. Pili or fimbriae on the bacterial surface probably mediate both attachment and hemagglutination. Little is, however, known about structures on erythrocytes and epithelial cells interacting with bacteria. The carbohydrate chains of glycosphingolipids are extremely variable, and are known to be involved in self-not self recognition as blood group antigens and receptors for bacterial toxins. Furthermore, the glycolipid pattern is species-specific and differs between epithelial and non-epithelial tissue. Carbohydrates at the cell surface have been implicated as possible receptors for attaching bacteria but no epithelial cell component interacting with bacteria has been identified. With recent observation that a fraction of glycolipids, isolated from human urinary tract epithelial cells, inhibited attachment of E. coli to cells from the same donor, a role for glycolipids as receptors for the attaching bacteria was suggested. In the present study these results are confirmed and glycosphingolipids of the globoseries are identified as receptors for an E. coli strain attaching to human urinary tract epithelial cells and agglutinating human erythrocytes.
Article
The elimination, metabolism and distribution of14C-Total Flavanolic Oligomers (OFT), vitamin P factors extracted from “Vitis vinifera”, has been described, in the rat, as a function of time. This study was carried out using [U-14C]-OFT, [A-14C]-OFT and [B-14C]-OFT. After a single oral administration of 50 mg/kg [U-14C]-OFT, about 70% of the administered dose is eliminated in the first 24 hours: 6% of the dose is excreted as14CO2 in expired air, 19% is eliminated in urine and 45% in faeces. The major urinary metabolites are hippuric acid, ethylcatechol and m-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid. The major faecal metabolite is ethylcatechol. The major biliary metabolites are vanillic acid and m-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid. The degradation of OFT is dependent on the activity of the microflora in the gut. The distribution of radioactivity in rat tissues shows that there are two kinds of target tissues for OFT: connective tissues and tissues of the adrenal-thyroid-pituitary axis.
Article
Ethyl acetate extracts of Sephadex LH20-purified proanthocyanidins of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) exhibited potent biological activity by inhibiting adherence of uropathogenic isolates of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli bacteria to cellular surfaces containing α-Gal(1 → 4)β-Gal receptor sequences similar to those on epithelial cells in the urinary tract. The chemical structures of the proanthocyanidins were determined by NMR, electrospray mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser absorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry and by acid catalyzed degradation with phloroglucinol. The proanthocyanidin molecules consisted predominantly of epicatechin units with mainly DP of 4 and 5 containing at least one A-type linkage. The procyanidin A2 was the most common terminating unit occurring about four times as frequently as the epicatechin monomer.
Article
Escherichia coli with both P and type 1 fimbriae caused vaginal colonization in the female green monkey, while only the P-fimbriated bacteria frequently caused ascending bladder infection. Bladder inoculation caused only short-lived bladder infection from type 1 fimbriated E. coli, but those with P-fimbriae caused acute pyelonephritis even in the absence of vesicoureteral reflux. Thus, type 1 fimbriae of E. coli, while causing vaginal colonization, did not often cause ascending infection in the non-compromised host as did P-fimbriated bacteria.
Article
Cranberry juice has been widely used for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and is reputed to give symptomatic relief from these infections. Attempts to account for the potential benefit derived from the juice have focused on urine acidification and bacteriostasis. In this investigation it is demonstrated that cranberry juice is a potent inhibitor of bacterial adherence. A total of 77 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli were tested. Cranberry juice inhibited adherence by 75 per cent or more in over 60 per cent of the clinical isolates. Cranberry cocktail was also given to mice in the place of their normal water supply for a period of 14 days. Urine collected from these mice inhibited adherence of E. coli to uroepithelial cells by approximately 80 per cent. Antiadherence activity could also be detected in human urine. Fifteen of 22 subjects showed significant antiadherence activity in the urine 1 to 3 hours after drinking 15 ounces of cranberry cocktail. It is concluded that the reported benefits derived from the use of cranberry juice may be related to its ability to inhibit bacterial adherence.
Article
To determine the effect of regular intake of cranberry juice beverage on bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Volunteer sample of 153 elderly women (mean age, 78.5 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 300 mL per day of a commercially available standard cranberry beverage or a specially prepared synthetic placebo drink that was indistinguishable in taste, appearance, and vitamin C content but lacked cranberry content. A baseline urine sample and six clean-voided study urine samples were collected at approximately 1-month intervals and tested quantitatively for bacteriuria and the presence of white blood cells. Subjects randomized to the cranberry beverage had odds of bacteriuria (defined as organisms numbering > or = 10(5)/mL) with pyuria that were only 42% of the odds in the control group (P = .004). Their odds of remaining bacteriuric-pyuric, given that they were bacteriuric-pyuric in the previous month, were only 27% of the odds in the control group (P = .006). These findings suggest that use of a cranberry beverage reduces the frequency of bacteriuria with pyuria in older women. Prevalent beliefs about the effects of cranberry juice on the urinary tract may have microbiologic justification.
Article
To the Editor: The consumption of cranberry juice has been recommended for the prevention of urinary tract infections, and a 1994 clinical study1 provides scientific validation of this claim. The effect is due not to the highly acidic nature of cranberries but to specific compounds in cranberries that inhibit the adherence of Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells.2,3 Bacterial adherence to mucosal surfaces, a prerequisite for the development of most mammalian infections, is facilitated by fimbriae, which are proteinaceous fibers on the bacterial cell wall. Fimbriae produce adhesins that attach to specific monosaccharide or oligosaccharide receptors on uroepithelial cells.4 Cranberries . . .
Article
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was employed to characterize the polygalloyl polyflavan-3-ols (PGPF) in grape seed extracts. Masses corresponding to a series of PGPF units inclusive of nonamers were observed in the positive-ion reflectron mode. Masses of PGPF inclusive of undecamers were observed in the positive-ion linear mode, providing the first known evidence of PGPF of this size. Soluble PGPF of grape seed extracts were precipitated by complexation with Yb(3+). The PGPF were then recovered by dissolving the precipitate in water and removing the Yb(3+) by a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin (Amberlite IRP-64). Comparisons of HPLC chromatograms of the crude grape seed extract prior to precipitation with Yb(3+) and after recovery of the PGPF indicated that 96% of the phenolic compounds were precipitated and 99% of the precipitated PGPF were recovered by cation-exchange resin. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS is able to determine the mass distribution of complex mixtures of oligomeric PGPF and that precipitation of PGPF by Yb(3+) is useful for isolation and quantification.
Article
Procyanidins are a subclass of flavonoids found in commonly consumed foods that have attracted increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, little is known regarding their dietary intake levels because detailed quantitative information on the procyanidin profiles present in many food products is lacking. Therefore, the procyanidin content of red wine, chocolate, cranberry juice and four varieties of apples has been determined. On average, chocolate and apples contained the largest procyanidin content per serving (164.7 and 147.1 mg, respectively) compared with red wine and cranberry juice (22.0 and 31.9 mg, respectively). However, the procyanidin content varied greatly between apple samples (12.3-252.4 mg/serving) with the highest amounts on average observed for the Red Delicious (207.7 mg/serving) and Granny Smith (183.3 mg/serving) varieties and the lowest amounts in the Golden Delicious (92.5 mg/serving) and McIntosh (105.0 mg/serving) varieties. The compositional data reported herein are important for the initial understanding of which foods contribute most to the dietary intake of procyanidins and may be used to compile a database necessary to infer epidemiological relationships to health and disease.
Article
Some of the more important contributions in the field of mass spectrometry (MS) are surveyed to cover a wide variety of techniques and systems. Examples are discussed that provide an overview of using MS to solve interesting and important issues involving polymers and their surfaces.
Article
To the Editor: Dr Van Dijk and colleagues¹ found no difference in 12-month cognitive outcomes between patients who underwent either on-pump or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Although the authors alluded to a possible role of microemboli, they did not provide an explanation for the disturbing frequency and permanency of memory loss and dementia following CABG. It is possible that patients with extremely low hemoglobin levels may be at higher risk for cognitive deficits following CABG. The current practice of performing cardiac surgery on patients with hematocrits as low as 18% has not been adequately evaluated.² Preoperative transfusions to hematocrits as high as 33% may increase survival.³ Valeri et al⁴ estimated that as many as 40 000 myocardial infarctions per million surgical procedures were caused by undertransfusion.
Article
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to characterize the structural diversity of polyflavans in Ruby Red sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Deionization of the polyflavan fractions with Dowex 50 x 8-400 cation-exchange resin and subsequent addition of cesium trifluoroacetate ((133)Cs) allowed the detection of exclusively [M + Cs](+) ions. MALDI-TOF MS of the polyflavans that eluate from Sephadex LH-20 columns with methanol and acetone detected a series of masses corresponding to heteropolyflavan-3-ols differing in degree of hydroxylation and nature of the interflavan bond (A-type and B-type). MALDI-TOF MS of the Sephadex-ethanol/methanol (v/v) eluate revealed a series of masses corresponding to heteropolyflavan-5-O-beta-glucosides that vary in the extent of hydroxylation and contain a flavanone (eriodictyol or eriodictyol-5-O-beta-glucoside) as the terminal unit. The combination of liquid chromatographic separation and MALDI-TOF MS to characterize sorghum polyflavans indicates that the structural heterogeneity is much greater than previously described.
Potential of cranberry flavonoids in the prevention of copper-induced LDL oxidation. Polyphen. Com-mun
  • C G Krueger
  • M L Porter
  • D A Weibe
  • D G Cunningham
  • J D Reed
Krueger, C.G., Porter, M.L., Weibe, D.A., Cunningham, D.G., Reed, J.D., 2000a. Potential of cranberry flavonoids in the prevention of copper-induced LDL oxidation. Polyphen. Com-mun. 2, 447–448.
Potential of cranberry flavonoids in the prevention of copper-induced LDL oxidation
  • Krueger