Breast cancer metastasis: Markers and Models

Division of Experimental Therapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Nature reviews. Cancer (Impact Factor: 37.4). 09/2005; 5(8):591-602. DOI: 10.1038/nrc1670
Source: PubMed


Breast cancer starts as a local disease, but it can metastasize to the lymph nodes and distant organs. At primary diagnosis, prognostic markers are used to assess whether the transition to systemic disease is likely to have occurred. The prevailing model of metastasis reflects this view--it suggests that metastatic capacity is a late, acquired event in tumorigenesis. Others have proposed the idea that breast cancer is intrinsically a systemic disease. New molecular technologies, such as DNA microarrays, support the idea that metastatic capacity might be an inherent feature of breast tumours. These data have important implications for prognosis prediction and our understanding of metastasis.

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Available from: Laura J van 't Veer, Aug 11, 2015
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    • "Invasion and angiogenesis are key steps of the metastatic process of breast cancer [2] [11]. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [12] [13] and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) [14] [15] are important mediators of angiogenesis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in women. The main cause of death from breast cancer is its metastases at distant sites in the body. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a cytokine of the IL-1 family and found overexpressed in various cancers. The aim of the present study was to explore the association of serum IL-33 and sST2 with breast cancer. Here, the serum levels of Interleukin-33 (IL-33) and sST2 were found significantly higher in breast cancer patients than in healthy volunteers. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), metalloproteinase-11 (MMP-11), and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) were also greater in breast cancer patients compared to healthy volunteers. We found that serum levels of IL-33 or sST2 were positively correlated with the serum levels of VEGF, MMP-11, and PDGF-C. Moreover, breast cancer dataset downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas showed that patients with higher level of MMP-11 or PDGF-C expression had shorter survival time than those with lower level of these proteins. In conclusion, IL-33 and sST2 may serve as noninvasive diagnosis markers for breast cancer. IL-33 and sST2 were significantly associated with MMP-11 or PDGF-C which indicated poor prognosis of breast cancer patients.
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    • "The main cause of death in these patients was its metastases at distant sites. Owing to difficulty in predicting metathesis development many women are over-treated and suffer toxic side effects of chemotherapy (Weigelt et al., 2005). Recent epidemiological studies suggested the presence of an inverse association between regular intake of NSAIDs and the relative risk of breast cancer (Harris et al., 2005; Harris et al., 1995; Harris et al., 1996). "
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    • "The main cause of mortality does not lie in the primary tumor, but rather metastasis to distant sites. Once the primary tumor is identified, about 15% of breast cancer patients develop distant metastatic disease in 3 years, and remain at risk for metastasis decades later (Weigelt et al. 2005). Despite metastasis being responsible for almost 90% of cancer-related deaths, there are many aspects of metastasis that remain undefined. "
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