Acidic Oligosaccharides from Pectin Hydrolysate as New Component for Infant Formulae: Effect on Intestinal Flora, Stool Characteristics, and pH

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.63). 09/2005; 41(2):186-90. DOI: 10.1097/01.mpg.0000172747.64103.d7
Source: PubMed


To come even closer to the functional composition of human milk, acidic oligosaccharides (AOS) from pectin were added to well known neutral prebiotics (galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)). The effect of AOS and GOS/FOS/AOS on intestinal flora, stool characteristics as well as acceptance and tolerance was investigated.
Human milk contains 75% to 85% neutral and 15% to 25% acidic oligosaccharides. In this prospective, randomized, double blind study, a mixture of 80% neutral oligosaccharides (from long-chain galacto- and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides) with 20% acidic oligosaccharides derived from pectin hydrolysis was investigated. Forty-six term infants were fed a standard formula supplemented with either maltodextrin as control (n=15), or with 0.2 g acidic oligosaccharides (n=16), or with the latter plus 0.6 g neutral oligosaccharides (mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides; n=15). Fecal flora using plating technique and pH were measured. Stool characteristics and possible side effects (crying, vomiting, and regurgitation) were recorded.
There was no difference in the bifidobacteria counts between the control and the group supplemented with acidic oligosaccharides alone (8.75+/-0.50 vs. 8.58+/-0.94 log colony forming units [CFU]/g stool). In infants fed the combination of acidic and neutral oligosaccharides, bifidobacteria were increased (9.61+/-0.70 log CFU/g stool; P<0.01). The same pattern was observed with lactobacilli. Stool consistency was softest in infants fed the complete oligosaccharide mixture, but also in those fed formula supplemented with acidic oligosaccharides alone, the stool consistency was significantly softer compared with the control group. Fecal pH increased in the controls, remained constant in acidic oligosaccharides alone, and decreased in the complete mixture of oligosaccharides group.
There was no difference in growth, crying, vomiting, and regurgitation patterns between the groups. In summary, acidic oligosaccharides from pectin hydrolysate are well tolerated as ingredient in infant formulae but do not affect intestinal microecology.

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Available from: Jürgen Jelinek, Jul 09, 2014
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    • "Gentler depolymerization can be obtained by enzymatic treatment. Commercial multicomponent enzyme preparations (Ralet et al. 1994; Fanaro et al. 2005; Gullon et al. 2007; Martinez et al. 2009) provided a nonspecific degradation of pectin from citrus, sugar beet and apple, whereas monoactive enzymes, used either alone or in combination, have been proven to provide a more controlled and specific degradation of pectins and polygalacturonic acid (Hotchkiss et al. 1991; Spiro et al. 1993; Olano-Martin et al. 2001; Holck et al. 2011b). Hydrolases and lyases can be applied for production of saturated and unsaturated oligosaccharides , which may possess different biological properties. "
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    • "Boehm 2003 [47] Knol 2005 [48] Pre-Term Numico Fanaro 2005 [49] Full Term None / Not clear Chrzanowska-Liszewska 2012 [50] Pre-Term None/Not clear Fanaro 2008 [51] Full Term Humana GmbH Costalos 2003 [52] Pre-Term None/Not clear Gibson 2009 [53] Full Term Nestle Dani 2002 [54] Pre-Term None/Not clear Gil-Campos 2012 [55] Full Term Puleva Indrio 2008 [56] Pre-Term Bio Gaia Hascoet 2011 [57] Full Term Nestle Indrio 2009 [58] Pre-Term Numico Holscher 2012a [59] Full Term Nestle Kapiki 2007 [60] Pre-Term None/Not clear Holscher 2012b [61] Full Term Nestle Kitajima 1992 [62] Pre-Term None/Not clear Kim 2010 [63] "
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