Effective Group Training Techniques in Job-Search Training.

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Abstract
The aim was to examine the effects of group training techniques in job-search training on later reemployment and mental health. The participants were 278 unemployed workers in Finland in 71 job-search training groups. Five group-level dimensions of training were identified. The results of hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated that preparation for setbacks at the group level significantly predicted decreased psychological distress and decreased symptoms of depression at the half-year follow-up. Trainer skills at the group level significantly predicted decreased symptoms of depression and reemployment to stable jobs. Interaction analyses showed that preparation for setbacks at the group level predicted fewer symptoms of psychological distress and depression, and shared perceptions of skilled trainers at the group level predicted fewer symptoms of depression among those who had been at risk for depression.

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Effective Group Training Techniques in Job-Search Training
Jukka Vuori
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
Richard H. Price
University of Michigan
Pertti Mutanen
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
Ira Malmberg-Heimonen
University of Helsinki
The aim was to examine the effects of group training techniques in job-search training on later
reemployment and mental health. The participants were 278 unemployed workers in Finland in
71 job-search training groups. Five group-level dimensions of training were identified. The results
of hierarchical linear modeling demonstrated that preparation for setbacks at the group level
significantly predicted decreased psychological distress and decreased symptoms of depression at
the half-year follow-up. Trainer skills at the group level significantly predicted decreased
symptoms of depression and reemployment to stable jobs. Interaction analyses showed that
preparation for setbacks at the group level predicted fewer symptoms of psychological distress
and depression, and shared perceptions of skilled trainers at the group level predicted fewer
symptoms of depression among those who had been at risk for depression.
Keywords: group training, reemployment, mental health, trainer skills, inoculation
Extensive research has demonstrated that there is a
significant decline in mental health as a result of job
loss and unemployment (Dooley, Catalano, & Wil-
son, 1994; Fryer & Payne, 1986; Kessler, House, &
Turner, 1987). Unemployment also contributes to
many other harmful social and psychological out-
comes (Catalano, 1991). At the same time, earlier
research has shown that reemployment reduces psy-
chological distress and symptoms of depression and
that reemployment in a satisfactory job restores psy-
chosocial functioning to previous levels (Kessler,
Turner, & House, 1989; Leana & Feldman, 1995;
Vuori & Vesalainen, 1999; Wanberg, 1995). Conse-
quently, most programs for unemployed workers
have been designed to promote reentry into the labor
force.
A variety of programs aim at promoting the reem-
ployment of unemployed workers. Many of them are
job-search programs focusing primarily on intensify-
ing job-search efforts (e.g., Azrin, Flores, & Kaplan,
1975; Eden & Aviram, 1993) or focusing more
broadly on enhancing job-search skills, preventing
depressive symptoms related to unemployment, and
facilitating transition into high-quality reemployment
(e.g., Caplan, Vinokur, Price, & van Ryn, 1989).
Some job-search programs have their origins in the
counseling tradition and emphasize the participant’s
career goals (e.g., Amundson, Borgen, & Westwood,
1990). Often job-search training is an adaptation of
some program or a compiled mixture of many pro-
grams or has no specific theoretical foundation. In
previous studies, job-search training has generally
shown positive effects on reemployment, quality of
reemployment, and mental health (Dolton & O’Neill,
2002; Rife & Belcher, 1994; Vinokur, Price, &
Schul, 1995; Vuori, Silvonen, Vinokur, & Price,
2002). However, little is known about the role that
the applied training techniques play in these effects.
An example of a theory-driven job-search program
is the Michigan Prevention Research Center (MPRC)
Job Search Program for recently unemployed work-
ers. The MPRC program is designed to influence
individual job-search self-efficacy and skills and pro-
vide inoculation against setbacks, as its key ingredi-
ents (Price & Vinokur, 1995). Two field experimental
studies with randomized designs investigating the
effects of the MPRC program have found significant
increases in reemployment rates and significant de-
creases in depressive symptoms both in the 6-month
and in the 2-year follow-ups (Caplan et al., 1989;
Jukka Vuori, Department of Psychology, Finnish Institute
of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland; Richard H.
Price, Department of Psychology and Institute for Social
Research, University of Michigan; Pertti Mutanen, Depart-
ment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Finnish Institute of
Occupational Health; Ira Malmberg-Heimonen, Swedish
School of Social Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki,
Finland.
Correspondence concerning this article should be ad-
dressed to Jukka Vuori, Department of Psychology, Finnish
Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A,
00250, Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: jukka.vuori@ttl.fi
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
2005, Vol. 10, No. 3, 261–275
Copyright 2005 by the Educational Publishing Foundation
1076-8998/05/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/1076-8998.10.3.261
261
Page 1
Vinokur et al., 1995; Vinokur, Schul, Vuori, & Price,
2000; Vinokur, van Ryn, Gramlich, & Price, 1991).
In both studies the beneficial effects of the interven-
tion were significantly greater for those with an ele-
vated risk for depression assessed at pretest. A Finn-
ish version of the MPRC program, the Tyo¨ho¨n Job
Search Program, was also tested in a randomized
field study and included long-term unemployed
workers (Vuori et al., 2002). The Tyo¨ho¨n Job Search
Program is almost identical to the 20-hr MPRC pro-
gram but includes some minor adaptations. The Tyo¨-
ho¨n program showed beneficial effects similar to
those of the U.S. MPRC Job Search Program and
demonstrated that the intervention program is also
beneficial to longer term unemployed workers (Vuori
& Silvonen, 2005; Vuori et al., 2002). A study by
Vuori and Vinokur (2005) demonstrated this mediat-
ing role of job-search self-efficacy and inoculation
against setbacks for mental health and reemployment
outcomes.
The JOBS manual describes the MPRC Job Search
Program in detail (Curran, Wishart, & Gingrich,
1999). The five basic techniques or group training
elements in the program are as follows:
1. Job-search skill training. The participants are
invited to acquire and rehearse job-search
skills; this is critical for effective job-seeking
performance, as most people have insufficient
knowledge and skills in this area (Caplan et al.,
1989).
2. Active teaching and learning methods. Trainers
use active learning methods to engage the par-
ticipants to learn about job-search techniques.
The active learning methods help the partici-
pants to take advantage of the knowledge and
skills of other participants as part of the learn-
ing process. Participant experience is elicited
through small-group and large-group discus-
sions, role-playing exercises, and other activi-
ties (Caplan, Vinokur, & Price, 1997).
3. Skilled trainers. The workshop trainers are well
trained to build trust and to facilitate active and
supportive group processes that promote the
learning of skills and coping with job-search
tasks (Caplan et al., 1997).
4. Supportive learning environment. During train-
ing, the trainers model and reinforce supportive
behavior and work to create a positive learning
environment through exercises that provide op-
portunities for the participants to learn from and
support each other. A supportive environment
is a key ingredient for new learning and for
facing the challenges of the job market, as
social influences support or undermine key
components of job-search motivation (Vinokur
& Caplan, 1987). Social support may also have
a positive mental health impact on distressed
unemployed individuals (Atkinson, Liem, &
Liem, 1986).
5. Preparation for setbacks. Earlier studies have
shown that highly motivated job seekers failing
in job searches appear to be at risk for poor
mental health compared with those who are not
so motivated (Vesalainen & Vuori, 1999; Vi-
nokur & Caplan, 1987). Job-search training
aimed at increasing motivation to search for a
job could further increase risk among highly
motivated job seekers (Caplan et al., 1989). The
program addresses this risk by providing the
workshop participants with a problem-solving
process to help them to be prepared and to cope
with the stress related to the experience of un-
employment, the job-search process, and the
inevitable setbacks that they will encounter.
Part of the group problem-solving process in-
volves identification or anticipation of possible
barriers to success and advance preparation of
solutions to overcome these barriers. Inocula-
tion against setbacks is fundamental to effective
coping with an inherently stressful job-search
process.
Job-search skill training, active learning methods,
skilled trainers, a supportive learning environment,
and preparation for setbacks are examples of group
elements that may be found in many job-search train-
ing groups. However, the presence of these underly-
ing dimensions in training contents may vary greatly,
depending on the method, training procedure or train-
ers used, or group characteristics. Group elements
may influence individuals via two separate routes
(Choi, Price, & Vinokur, 2003). First, they can influ-
ence individuals in a differential and selective way,
acting as so-called discretionary stimuli (Hackman,
1992). For example, some individual participants
may experience their interaction with the trainers, or
the supportiveness of the group, differently than do
other group members. Second, group techniques as
group characteristics may be shared simultaneously
by all group members, acting as so-called ambient
stimuli (Hackman, 1992). Objective group character-
262 VUORI, PRICE, MUTANEN, AND MALMBERG-HEIMONEN
Page 2
istics, such as the group size and duration or gender
ratio and mean age of the group participants, may be
regarded as extreme examples of stimuli that affect
all group members simultaneously. Similarly, shared
perceptions of group-level techniques, such as per-
ceptions of active learning methods used in a group,
shared perceptions of supportiveness of the learning
environment, or shared perceptions of discussions on
possible setbacks and ways to overcome them repre-
sent intersubjective group elements (Ickes & Gonza-
lez, 1996). In group-based job-search training, train-
ing techniques are also expressed as intersubjective
group elements that may have cross-level effects on
the participant’s later employment or mental health.
The Finnish Context
The unemployment rate in Finland rose drastically
at the beginning of the 1990s and remained high
during the late 1990s. The government undertook a
labor market reform that was carried out beginning in
1998. The new reform emphasized making individual
plans for unemployed workers and conducting fol-
low-up interviews with the unemployed job seekers,
as well as organizing job-search training courses. The
Finnish Ministry of Labor set demanding goals for
labor offices in increasing their job-search training,
and, consequently, new job-search training activities
spread quickly. One of them, the Tyo¨ho¨n method,
was based on the MPRC Job Search Program, and its
use spread widely in Finland during the late 1990s.
Altogether, a variety of different job-search training
methods were applied with varying degrees of fidel-
ity, and many methods did not have any identifiable
background theory.
Purpose of the Present Study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the
effects that the applied group-level training tech-
niques of job-search training have on later reemploy-
ment, quality of reemployment, and mental health of
group participants. Our assumption was that all the
applied differing group methods for job-search train-
ing could be described by means of a few focal
group-training techniques. Our aims were as follows:
1. To empirically identify the group training di-
mensions underlying the variety of different
group-based job-search trainings applied.
2. To investigate which group-level techniques of
group-based job-search training are most effec-
tive in increasing reemployment and mental
health among the unemployed.
3. To study, in addition, whether individual-level
risk for depression assessed prior to the training
would moderate the effects of group-level tech-
niques of job-search training on reemployment
and mental health.
Using countrywide evaluation data for group-
based job-search training in Finland, we compared
the role of different underlying dimensions of train-
ing in their effects on reemployment and mental
health. We used the MPRC training elements as the
starting point in identifying the group training dimen-
sions underlying various job-search training methods
that have been used. We generally hypothesized that
the MPRC job-search training elements at the group
level would be effective in increasing reemployment
and quality of employment, and in decreasing symp-
toms of distress and symptoms of depression in par-
ticipants, as training that makes use of these elements
has been demonstrated to have these effects at the
individual level (Vinokur et al., 1995, 2000; Vuori et
al., 2002). There are, however, no empirical results
showing, more specifically, the effects of the group-
level training elements on reemployment and mental
health. On the basis of the theoretical assumptions
underlying the MPRC job-search training elements
(Caplan et al., 1989), we hypothesized that group
techniques characterized by active learning methods,
a supportive learning environment, skillful trainers,
and the teaching of adequate job-search skills would
increase later reemployment and the quality of em-
ployment. On the other hand, group techniques char-
acterized by a highly supportive learning environ-
ment and preparation of the participants for setbacks
in the job-search process would decrease psycholog-
ical distress and symptoms of depression. As we were
interested in cross-level effects of the group-level
training techniques on the individual outcomes, we
needed to simultaneously control for the effects of
individual-level perceptions of the groups and for the
cross-level effects of the group characteristics on the
individual outcomes (Klein, Dansereau, & Hall,
1994). In light of previous findings on the differential
effectiveness of job-search training with those at risk
for depression (Price, van Ryn, & Vinokur, 1992;
Vinokur et al., 1995; Vuori et al., 2002), we also
hypothesized that these group-level training tech-
niques would be most effective for individuals at risk
for depression assessed prior to the training.
263EFFECTIVE GROUP TRAINING TECHNIQUES
Page 3
Method
Participants, Study Design, and Methods of
Recruitment
The present study included 278 study participants in 71
job-search groups in 19 employment offices throughout
Finland. In order to obtain a representative sample from the
employment offices, the study participants were recruited
both personally, during their visit to the employment office,
and by mail. Those invited to the training had not previously
been in job-search training. The 71 job-search groups stud-
ied also included participants who were other customers of
the employment offices and were not participating in our
study. On average, 4 persons in each group participated in
this study (SD 2.5). Each group included at least 2 study
participants (range 2–13), but there were at least 5 par-
ticipants in groups with a mean size of 11 members (SD
2.9). The 71 groups studied were originally part of 149
groups in a countrywide evaluation of group-based job-
search training. However, groups with only 1 study partic-
ipant either at the baseline measurements (58 groups) or at
follow-up (17 groups) had to be excluded from the study,
because it was not possible to calculate aggregated evalua-
tions regarding group techniques. Three groups were ex-
cluded as outliers with respect to group size (63, 66, and 110
participants, respectively).
Job seekers were given the baseline questionnaire at Time
1 (T1) with an information letter about the job-search train-
ing courses and the study. The participants filled out the first
follow-up questionnaire 2 weeks after the initial group
session at Time 2 (T2) and the second follow-up question-
naire 6 months after they entered the study at Time 3 (T3).
The response rate for the study participants at T3 was 92%,
and there were no statistically significant differences be-
tween T3 respondents and dropouts regarding age, gender,
marital status, education, unemployment duration, level of
financial support, and baseline mental well-being or depres-
sive symptoms.
Demographic Characteristics of the Sample
The sample was 65% female. The respondents varied
between 19 and 59 years of age, with a median age of 39
years. With regard to education, 46% had only primary level
education, 5% had a university degree, and the rest of the
sample had vocational qualifications. At the time of recruit-
ment, the median duration of unemployment of participants
was 7 months. Finally, 35% of the respondents had experi-
enced long-term unemployment; they had been continu-
ously unemployed for a year or longer. The comparisons
with labor market statistics displayed in Table 1 show that
the participants were more often women, were older, and
were somewhat less educated and had a longer history of
unemployment than the average Finnish unemployed indi-
vidual who participated in job-search training (Finnish Min-
istry of Labor, 2000).
Group Characteristics and Group Experiences
Based on the evaluations of the study participants regard-
ing their own job-search group, the mean size of the groups
was 11 participants (Mdn 11, SD 2.90, range 5–19).
The groups comprised both study participants and other
customers of employment offices participating in the
groups, but not in the study. The mean duration of the
groups was 30 hr (Mdn 25, SD 13.5), with an average
of 5.2 hr per day (Mdn 5, SD 1.1).
Based on the reports of the trainers, several partly inter-
Table 1
Demographic Comparison Between the Research Sample and the Finnish
Ministry of Labor National Statistics on Job Search Participants in 1999
Variable
Research
sample
(%)
Individuals in
job-search
training (%)
2
(df)
p
Gender
Women 65 57 7.98(1) .01
Men 35 43
Age, years
15–24 11 17 7.53(2) .05
25–50 75 70
51–64 14 14
Education
Primary 46 28 40.09(2) .001
Secondary 49 62
Higher 5 9
Duration of unemployment
12 months 65 79 45.20(2) .001
12–23 months 18 14
24 months or longer 17 7
Note. For the research sample, N 278; for individuals in job-search training, N 47,720.
264 VUORI, PRICE, MUTANEN, AND MALMBERG-HEIMONEN
Page 4
twined training methods were used. The Tyo¨ho¨n (MPRC)
method was used in its authentic form in 11% of the groups.
Furthermore, in 22 groups (31%), the Tyo¨ho¨n method was
used, but the trainers added some elements of their own to
the program. In 6 groups (8%), the Tyo¨ho¨n method was
used, but some elements were left out. In addition, in 12
groups (17%), elements from the Tyo¨ho¨n method were used
selectively. In 12% of the groups, some other training
method was reported (Amundson et al., 1990; Engpass
Konzentrierte Strategie; local career counseling method).
And finally, in 21% of the groups no specific training
method was reported. In this study, all of these different
kinds of training groups reflected some use of the studied
underlying dimensions to one degree or another, whether
they reported any connections to the Tyo¨ho¨n method or not.
The mixed nature of the groups provided variation within
the sample and a basis for more general findings.
Altogether 52 trainers trained the 71 groups in this study.
Nearly two thirds (64%) of the trainers had a university
degree, and the others had vocational qualifications. Over
half of the trainers (58%) had attended training meant
specifically for job-search trainers, and 53% of them had
received more general group trainer training.
Of the study participants, 68% evaluated their experi-
ences of the group as either “good” or “very good,” 27%
had satisfactory experiences, and only 5% reported “bad” or
“very bad” experiences. Women reported more positive
group participation experiences than did men, t(198)
3.81, p .01; younger persons were more positive than
older persons, t(276) 3.17, p .05; and unemployed
persons with higher levels of financial support had more
positive responses to group participation than did unem-
ployed individuals with lower levels of financial support,
t(205) 2.23, p .05. In addition to individual variation in
the evaluations, there was variability between the groups
regarding the group experiences; larger groups had more
negative experiences than did smaller groups, t(270)
4.68, p .05.
Measures
Demographics were obtained at T1 by asking standard
survey questions on age, gender, marital status, and educa-
tion. Length of unemployment was measured as the number
of months unemployed since job loss.
Level of financial support was coded based on the situa-
tion of the respondents at T1. In Finland, unemployment
benefits are provided in two systems that differ in their level
of financial support: the earnings-related unemployment
benefit and the much lower flat-rate benefit. If both the
husband and the wife are unemployed and receive a flat-rate
benefit, they often also receive social assistance. Social
assistance is a means-test benefit that keeps families mar-
ginally above the poverty line. In the study, the level of
financial support was coded as 1 if the participants received
social assistance, as 2 if they received only a flat-rate
benefit, and as 3 if they received an earnings-related unem-
ployment benefit.
Individual experiences with group participation and
group processes were evaluated using a 30-item group tech-
nique measure. The measure includes five composite scales,
derived from a principal-factor analysis with varimax rota-
tion, giving these five factors with eigenvalues above one.
The dimensions of individual experiences with group par-
ticipation are displayed in Table 2. The first scale is active
learning methods, and it measures the frequency with which
active learning techniques such as role-playing and group
problem solving were used during the training (
.84).
The second scale, trainer’s skills, measures the frequency of
positive feedback and support from the trainers to the group
participants (
.82). The third scale, preparation and
inoculation against setbacks, measures the frequency with
which barriers and setbacks and ways to overcome them in
the job-search process were discussed during the training
(
.84). The fourth scale, supportive learning environ-
ment, measures how often during the training the partici-
pants felt that their learning was supported by the trainers by
positive reinforcement and encouragement (
.89). The
fifth scale, job-search skills training, measures the fre-
quency with which job-search skills were discussed during
the training (
.86). The participants reported their rat-
ings on the group technique measure after taking part in the
training at T2. The group technique measure was developed
at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Malmberg-
Heimonen & Vuori, 2000).
The aggregated group technique variables were com-
posed of means of the evaluations of the study participants
in each group regarding individual experiences on group
participation. The aggregated active learning methods had
an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of .63. The other
ICCs were .31 for aggregated trainer’s skills, .12 for aggre-
gated preparation and inoculation against setbacks, .17 for
aggregated supportive learning environment, and .17 for
aggregated job-search skills training. All coefficients were
statistically significant.
Group-level characteristics were group duration and
group size; these were means of values reported by the
study participants in each group. Mean age and proportion
of men were calculated in each group. The number of study
participants is the number of participants in each group.
Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item
version of Goldberg’s (1972) General Health Questionnaire
and included questions such as “Have you recently been
able to concentrate on whatever you are doing?” and “Have
you recently been able to enjoy your daily activities?” The
respondents rated the items on 4-point scales ranging from
1(not at all)to4(more than usual). The internal consis-
tency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the scale was .93 at T1.
The measure of depressive symptoms, the DEPS Scale
(Salokangas, Stengård, & Poutanen, 1994), was based on
the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (Derogatis, Lipmann,
Rickels, Uhlenhuth, & Covi, 1974). The respondents indi-
cated how often in the last month they had experienced each
of the following 10 symptoms: sleeping disorders, feeling
blue, feeling that everything requires extra effort, lack of
energy, feeling of being alone, feeling of a hopeless future,
were not enjoying life, felt worthless, had the feeling that all
pleasure had disappeared from life, and felt that apathy did
not disappear even with the help of family or friends. The
respondents’ answers ranged from 0 (not at all)to3(very
much). The reliability of the scale (Cronbach’s alpha) was
.93 at T1. At T1, risk for depression was assessed by
constructing a dichotomous variable using this DEPS scale
(Salokangas et al., 1994). Those who scored 9 points or
more were given the value 1 (at risk), and others were given
the value 0.
Reemployment status was based on the answer to the
265EFFECTIVE GROUP TRAINING TECHNIQUES
Page 5
Table 2
Dimensions of Individual Experiences With Group Participation by Principal-Factor Analysis With
Varimax Rotation
Dimension and experience
a
Factor
12345
Active learning methods
You practiced in pairs .14 .22 .62 .23 .07
You worked in small groups .15 .13 .81 .13 .13
The participants took part in role-play .07 .26 .63 .07 .14
The participants discussed their experiences .24 .14 .43 .31 .14
You did exercises with other participants .18 .10 .76 .21 .11
Trainer skills
The trainers turned questions from the group back to the group to be
processed and answered .08 .21 .26 .51 .10
The trainers made encouraging comments about the strengths that came up in
discussion .30 .14 .17 .63 .19
The trainers explained why something you or some other participant said was
well-founded or suited the situation regarding the objectives of the group .21 .20 .15 .65 .18
The trainers made use of the participants’ answers later in the group work .23 .22 .23 .66 .12
The trainers encouraged the silent group members to participate in the given
tasks .21 .06 .04 .47 .15
The trainers thanked the speakers in the group .25 .12 .22 .43 .16
Preparation and inoculation against setbacks
You talked about things which may have prevented you or other participants
from presenting your skills and strengths efficiently .29 .06 .19 .18 .66
You talked about things which may prevent you or other participants from
finding job openings through personal contacts .18 .09 .10 .12 .84
You talked about things which may prevent you or other participants from
coming off a job interview successfully .11 .15 .16 .18 .74
You searched for solutions for your or other participants’ job-search
problems, for example, that age and education are not suitable .22 .24 .15 .31 .52
You searched for solutions for your or other participants’ job-search
problems, for example, that there are too few jobs available .29 .22 .04 .29 .40
Supportive learning environment
The material and discussion matched your situation well .59 .24 .23 .15 .16
You felt that the atmosphere was friendly and stimulating .51 .11 .20 .25 .08
The trainers showed that they value your participation .56 .10 .17 .39 .22
The trainers made you feel happy or satisfied .74 .20 .12 .17 .14
The trainers inspired you .79 .20 .09 .14 .14
Something that the trainers did or said made you believe that they understood
your situation .68 .16 .05 .31 .21
The trainers encouraged you to participate in the given tasks .54 .23 .10 .28 .21
Other participants helped you in understanding your problems .45 .26 .33 .16 .18
Job-search skill training
You practiced how to find job openings through contacts with acquaintances
and employers .19 .65 .04 .20 .15
The trainers and other group members helped you to see how to find job
openings through contacts with acquaintances and employers .28 .70 .06 .20 .10
The trainers and other group members helped you learn to make a successful
job application .23 .56 .17 .07 .05
You practiced with the group how to contact employers for getting a job
interview .05 .67 .33 .12 .20
The trainers and other group members helped you learn how to contact
employers for getting a job interview .17 .70 .21 .20 .08
The trainers and other group members helped you learn how to come off a
job interview successfully .18 .56 .41 .16 .10
Note. Factor loadings of leading items on each dimension are in boldface type.
a
Participants indicated how often during group sessions the experience occurred.
266 VUORI, PRICE, MUTANEN, AND MALMBERG-HEIMONEN
Page 6
question “What is your employment status now?” The re-
spondents were classified as reemployed (coded 1) if they
described themselves as “being employed without a subsidy
from the state” or were “running their own business.” The
respondents were coded 0 if they were unemployed, in labor
market training, in a subsidized job, studying, or on mater-
nity leave. Reemployment in a stable job was coded 1 if
they reported a stable job at T3. For all other respondents
the variable was coded as 0. In the Finnish labor market, a
stable job is generally more desirable and has a clearly
higher status than a temporary job. Termination of a stable
job is difficult, because the law sharply limits the acceptable
reasons for layoffs, and layoff time in stable jobs varies
from 1 to 6 months depending on the length of employment.
Analysis
We investigated the cross-level effects of the aggregated
group techniques on individual outcomes, and at the same
time controlled for the effects of individual-level experi-
ences with group participation, as well as for the cross-level
effects of the group characteristics on the outcomes. Con-
sequently, the observations in our data could no longer be
regarded as independent, and we thus needed multilevel
analysis for modeling the structure of the data. Accordingly,
we used multivariate hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) in
our statistical analysis (Bryk & Raudenbush, 1992) with
HLM 5 software (Version 5.04; Raudenbush, Bryk,
Cheong, & Congdon, 2000).
All the outcome variables were analyzed in two steps.
First, we calculated the main effect models with all aggre-
gated-level group techniques and characteristics, individual
experiences with the group, and individual characteristics.
As our sample was relatively small, restricting the number
of variables studied (Snijders & Bosker, 2000, pp. 140
154), we also performed the analyses in another, parallel
way to avoid overfitting of the model at the group level:
Each of the group-level variables was also added one at a
time to the main effect models with the individual variables.
If the main effects were found to be significant with both
procedures, they were considered reliable. We used robust
estimates for standard errors.
Second, the interactive effects of the individual-level
measure of risk of depression and the aggregated-level
group techniques on outcome variables were examined in
order to evaluate whether the aggregated-level group tech-
niques would be most effective among unemployed partic-
ipants at risk for depression prior to the training. During this
second step, all five interactions were added simultaneously
to the main effect models. In order to verify the reliability of
all the interactions found with this procedure, each of the
five interactions was also added one at a time to the main
effect models. If the interactions were found significant with
both procedures, they were considered reliable, that is,
statistically stable. As the power of our sample was rela-
tively small for cross-level interactions (Kreft, 1996), it is
possible that there are additional interactions among the
variables under study that could not be detected using our
experimental design.
For the continuous outcome variables (psychological dis-
tress, depressive symptoms) we applied a three-level hier-
archical model that included (a) the within-individual level,
which represents changes within the participants (e.g., from
T1 to T3 in outcome measures); (b) the individual level
(individual characteristics, individual ratings of the group);
and (c) the aggregated group level (group-level means of
evaluations on the five group technique scales and the group
characteristics).
For the continuous outcome variables, we explained the
mean-level parameter of the model (the initial status of the
outcome, i.e., the intercept at Level 1 with the following
variables: age, gender, marital status, education, duration of
unemployment, and financial support). The change param-
eter (the slope between pre- and postmeasures of the out-
come) was explained with the Level 2 variables (individual
characteristics; age, gender, marital status, education, dura-
tion of unemployment) and with individual experiences
with the group (active learning methods, trainer skills, prep-
aration and inoculation, supportive learning environment,
and training in job-search skills). The change parameter was
also explained with the Level 3 variables, that is, the ag-
gregated group techniques (active learning methods, trainer
skills, inoculation, supportive learning environment, and
training in job-search skill), and the group characteristics
(age and proportion of men). We also tested other group
characteristic variables (group duration, group size, and
number of participants in the main effect models), but they
were omitted as they indicated no effects on outcome vari-
ables. These tests also demonstrated that even though we
had only a few study participants in some groups, the
number of participants did not have any systematic effects
on the outcome variables. For the continuous outcome vari-
ables, the statistical model was based on the equations given
in Table 3. The assumptions for the HLM were met based
on residual examination of the continuous outcome vari-
ables. There were no statistical reasons for not including the
groups with only a few observations (Raudenbush, Brennan,
& Barnett, 1995; Snijders & Bosker, 2000, p. 52).
For the dichotomous outcome variables (reemployment,
stable job), our model was a two-level hierarchical gener-
alized linear model (Bernoulli model), which included (a)
the individual level (individual characteristics, individual
experiences of the group) and (b) the group level (group-
level means of evaluations on the five aggregated group
technique scales and the group characteristics). The out-
come was modeled with the Level 1 individual character-
istics (age, gender, marital status, education, duration of
unemployment, and financial support) and with the Level 1
individual experiences with the group (active learning meth-
ods, trainer skills, preparation and inoculation, supportive
learning environment, and training in job-search skills). At
Level 2, the outcome was modeled with aggregated group
techniques (active learning methods, trainer skills, prepara-
tion and inoculation, social support, and training in job-
search skills) and with group characteristics (age and pro-
portion of men). We also tested other group characteristic
variables (group duration, group size, and number of par-
ticipants in the main effect models), but they were omitted,
as they had no effect on the outcome variables. For the
dichotomous outcome variables, the statistical model was
based on the equations presented in Table 4.
Results
The means, standard deviations, and intercorrela-
tions for the individual-level study variables are pre-
267EFFECTIVE GROUP TRAINING TECHNIQUES
Page 7
sented in Table 5, and Table 6 shows the respective
parameters for aggregated group training technique
variables and group characteristics.
Three blocks of predictors, aggregated training
techniques and group characteristics as group-level
variables, individual perceptions of training tech-
niques, and individual characteristics, were entered
simultaneously into each of the four models. In these
analyses, the role of individual experiences with the
group techniques and group characteristics was con-
trolled in estimating the effect of aggregated group
techniques as predictors of outcome variables. The
four models predicted the initial status and changes in
psychological distress and depressive symptoms dur-
ing the 6-month follow-up (T1 to T3) as well as both
reemployment and reemployment to a stable job at
the 6-month follow-up (T3). Table 7 shows the re-
sults of the hierarchical linear analyses.
The preparation and inoculation against setbacks
as an aggregated group-level indicator of training
technique predicted significant decreases in symp-
toms of distress (
⫽⫺.45, p .01) and in symp-
toms of depression (
⫽⫺.32, p .05) during the
half-year follow-up period (see the upper part of
Table 7). Trainer’s skills reflecting positive feedback
and support from the trainers to the group partici-
pants as a group-level indicator significantly pre-
dicted decreases in symptoms of depression (
.28, p .05) and stable reemployment (
.32,
p .01) one half year after the baseline measure-
ment. Because only 20 participants found stable em-
ployment, we conducted some further analyses in
Table 4
Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model (Bernoulli Model) for the Dichotomous Response Variable (Y)
Hierarchical level Equation
Individual (Level 1) Y has a Bernoulli distribution with parameter
log(
/(1
) (
0
1
age
2
gender
3
married
4
education
5
duration of
unemployment
6
financial support
7
risk of depression
8
active
learning methods
9
trainer skills
10
preparation and inoculation
11
supportive learning environment
12
training in job-search skills
Group (Level 2)
0
00
01
aggregated active learning methods
02
aggregated trainer skills
03
aggregated preparation and inoculation
04
aggregated supportive learning
environment
05
aggregated training in job-search skills
06
mean age
07
proportion of men u
0
Note.
i
s are Level 1 regression coefficients (i 0,1,...,12).
0j
s(j 0,1,...,7)areLevel 2 regression coefficients.
u
0
is Level 2 random error.
Table 3
Hierarchical Linear Model for the Continuous Response Variable (Y)
Hierarchical level Equation
Time (Level 1) Y
0
1
Time e
Individual (Level 2)
0
00
01
age
02
gender
03
married
04
education
05
duration of
unemployment
06
financial support
07
risk of depression r
0
1
10
11
age
12
gender
13
married
14
education
15
duration of
unemployment
16
risk of depression
17
active learning methods
18
trainer
skills
19
preparation and inoculation
110
supportive learning environment
111
training in job-search skills
Group (Level 3)
00
000
00
10
100
101
aggregated active learning methods
102
aggregated trainer skills
103
aggregated preparation and inoculation
104
aggregated supportive learning
environment
105
aggregated training in job-search skills
106
mean age
107
proportion of men u
10
Note.
i
s are Level 1 regression coefficients (i 0, 1). e is Level 1 random error.
ij
s are Level 2 regression coefficients
(i 0: j 0,1,...,7;(i 1: j 0,1,...,11). r
0
is Level 2 random error.
000
and
10k
s(k 0,1,...,7)areLevel
3 regression coefficients. u
00
and u
10
are Level 3 random errors.
268 VUORI, PRICE, MUTANEN, AND MALMBERG-HEIMONEN
Page 8
Table 5
Individual-Level Means, Standard Deviations, and Intercorrelations for Study Variables
Individual-level
(N 278)
variables MSD 1234567 8 910111213141516
1. Active learning
methods 20.96 5.94
2. Trainer skills 21.58 6.00 .47*
3. Inoculation
against setbacks 16.16 5.25 .41* .51*
4. Supportive
learning
environment 30.12 7.53 .49* .61* .54**
5. Training in job-
search skills 17.03 5.02 .53* .50* .41** .57*
6. Age 38.47 10.12 .24* .02 .13* .07 .01
7. Male 0.35 0.48 .08 .08 .06 .08 .03 .07
8. Married 0.54 0.50 .08 .00 .06 .03 .04 .06 .14*
9. Education 2.72 1.17 .09 .14* .05 .00 .17** .28* .01 .01
10. Duration of
unemployment 13.83 16.49 .10 .07 .07 .02 .18** .24* .19** .04 .22**
11. Financial support 2.35 0.79 .11 .04 .06 .11 .03 .06 .09 .23** .06 .32*
12. Risk for
depression 0.37 0.48 .06 .01 .00 .02 .01 .08 .08 .02 .07 .01 .05
13. T3 psychological
distress 24.35 6.81 .03 .11 .06 .16* .08 .09 .00 .03 .08 .06 .00 .29**
14. T3 depressive
symptoms 6.44 6.63 .02 .08 .07 .15* .03 .13* .02 .04 .08 .06 .03 .44** .84**
15. Reemployment 0.18 0.38 .01 .06 .06 .04 .01 .16* .17** .06 .14* .13* .06 .05 .20** .18**
16. Stable job 0.07 0.26 .00 .04 .09 .03 .06 .05 .20** .02 .08 .02 .08 .09 .14* .15* .60**
Note. T3 Time 3.
* p .05. ** p .01.
269EFFECTIVE GROUP TRAINING TECHNIQUES
Page 9
order to confirm this result. In reduced models with
fewer predictors, the effect parameter of the trainer’s
skills remained high, and the unadjusted effect of
only the trainer’s skills as a predictor was 0.25 (p
.02). Also, when this result was compared with the
results of the related reemployment variable, there
was a similar but nonsignificant pattern. Moreover,
we also found an effect for an aggregated supportive
learning environment, but these findings were not
reliable, because they were not significant when this
group-level variable was added separately to the
main effect models.
The moderating effects of baseline risk of depres-
sion were estimated simultaneously for all five ag-
gregated group mean level indicators of group train-
ing techniques. As shown in the lower portion of
Table 7, group-level aggregated perceptions of prep-
aration and inoculation against setbacks had a signif-
icant interaction effect with baseline risk of depres-
sion on the decrease in psychological distress (
.86, p .05) and in symptoms of depression (
.80, p .01) during the 6-month follow-up. The
participants who were at greater risk for depression
benefited more from the preparation and inoculation
against setbacks than did those at lower risk. In
addition, group-level measures of trainer’s skills re-
flecting positive feedback and support from the train-
ers produced a significant interaction effect with
baseline risk of depression for decrease in symptoms
of depression (
⫽⫺.46, p .05) at the half-year
follow-up. Again, the participants who were at higher
risk benefited more from the trainer’s skills. More-
over, we also found interaction effects for active
learning methods and job-search skill training with
baseline risk of depression, but these findings were
not reliable, because they were not significant when
the interactions were added separately to the main
effect models.
Discussion
We identified five underlying dimensions of group
training techniques in job-search training derived
from the reports of the participants in nationwide
job-search training for unemployed job seekers in
Finland. The dimensions included (a) active learning
methods involving active participation in small
groups; (b) trainer’s skills managing group processes
and incorporating the participants’ ideas in discus-
sions; (c) preparation against setbacks, including
identifying setbacks and planning strategies to pre-
vent negative outcomes during the job search; (d)
creation of a supportive learning environment, in-
Table 6
Group-Level Means, Standard Deviations, and Intercorrelations for Study Variables
Group-level (N 71) variables MSD 12345678910
1. Aggregated active learning methods 20.52 4.81
2. Aggregated trainer skills 21.53 4.30 .51**
3. Aggregated preparation and inoculation against setbacks 16.03 3.46 .46** .64**
4. Aggregated supportive learning environment 30.10 5.00 .56** .64** .66**
5. Aggregated training in job-search skills 16.98 3.28 .55** .63** .59** .65**
6. Mean age 38.28 7.12 .42** .26* .29* .33 .20
7. Proportion of men 0.33 0.30 .15 .06 .01 .08 .01 .21
8. Group hours 29.72 13.48 .41** .01 .02 .08 .05 .10 .06
9. Group size 10.56 2.94 .28* .04 .01 .04 .16 .01 .14 .01
10. Number of study participants 3.86 2.49 .17 .02 .04 .01 .04 .04 .09 .16 .19
* p .05. ** p .01.
270 VUORI, PRICE, MUTANEN, AND MALMBERG-HEIMONEN
Page 10
cluding encouragement from the trainer and a posi-
tive learning atmosphere; and (e) provision of train-
ing in job-search skills, including instrumental tactics
for a successful job search, such as networking and
the use of information interviews.
These five elements of group-based job-search
training were aggregated from individual level re-
ports to the group level, and their cross-level impact
on mental health and employment outcomes of the
group participants was estimated using HLMs. We
found that group-level preparation against setbacks
reduced increases in psychological distress and in
symptoms of depression from the baseline to the
follow-up 6 months later. In addition, group-level
trainer skills also reduced increases in symptoms of
depression and increased reemployment to stable
jobs.
The underlying elements of job-search training
also interacted with baseline depression for individ-
uals in the training groups, showing beneficial effects
of some underlying training dimensions. Most nota-
bly, preparation and inoculation against setbacks in-
teracted with baseline risk of depression to reduce the
rate of increase in psychological distress and in
symptoms of depression for participants at higher
risk of depression. Similarly, trainer skills were more
beneficial for those at higher risk for depression in
reducing increases in symptoms of depression than
for those at lower risk for depression.
Our analyses allow us to estimate the effect of
group training elements aggregated from the individ-
ual level reports to the group level over and above the
effects of the participants’ individual perceptions.
The group training techniques applied in small
groups reflected processes engendered in member-to-
member interactions rather than through individual
learning processes. Group-level processes may rein-
force and amplify individual-level perceptions
through modeling and social comparison. It is likely
that the intersubjective group techniques that we have
identified in this study are important not only as
group-level characteristics of training but also be-
cause they serve different functions as “active ingre-
dients” in training. Thus, for example, active learning
methods, the trainer’s skills, and the supportive learn-
ing environment dimensions are probably most im-
portant for establishing a learning environment in
small groups, as they maximize motivation and par-
ticipation and provide a safe context for learning,
relatively free of threat and criticism. At the same
time, training in job-search skills may have a differ-
ent function, teaching trainees the instrumental skills
required for an effective job search. Finally, the prep-
aration against setbacks dimension may provide a
unique dimension of learning anticipatory coping
with the stressful nature of the job-search task, where
reversal and failure are frequent and must be antici-
pated and overcome if a persistent and effective job
search is to be carried out.
As group-level preparation against setbacks was
shown to prevent later deterioration of the partici-
pants’ mental health, job-search training should ap-
ply group elements and discussions preparing the
participants to cope with setbacks that they most
likely will encounter. These include the experience of
unemployment and the stressful job-search process,
especially in tight labor market situations. In this
respect, it also seems that skilled trainers who are
able to use frequent positive feedback in their train-
ing and are able to give sustained support to group
participants may create palliative group-level percep-
tions, which prevent later deterioration of the partic-
ipants’ mental health.
Previous research on job searches suggests that the
risk for depression is a critical dimension in the
success or failure of a job search. For example, Price
et al. (1992) found not only that those at elevated risk
for depression were more likely, without interven-
tion, to fail in their job search and remain depressed
but that job-search training using MPRC group train-
ing methods benefited individuals who were at ele-
vated risk for depression. These results were later
confirmed in a prospective randomized trial (Vinokur
et al., 1995). In neither of these studies, however,
were separate group-level training techniques of the
job-search training measured to allow estimation of
cross-level effects of these elements on the beneficial
effects of the program for those at risk for depression.
In the present study, with a heterogeneous sample of
job-search groups using a diversity of training meth-
ods, we found that different underlying elements of
job-search training have differential effects on those
at risk for depression. In particular, preparation and
inoculation against setbacks appears to be a key
preventive underlying dimension of training for those
at risk for depression, who may often be highly
motivated job seekers failing in their job searches
(Vesalainen & Vuori, 1999; Vinokur & Caplan,
1987). As job-search training typically aims at further
increasing motivation in the job search, it seems
particularly important for high-risk participants to
share views and experiences with other participants
regarding possible barriers to a successful job search
and solutions to overcome them. Similarly, shared
group perceptions of trainer skills, including encour-
agement to participate in the group, positive feed-
271EFFECTIVE GROUP TRAINING TECHNIQUES
Page 11
Table 7
Group-Level and Individual-Level Effects of Job Search Training Techniques on Mental Health and Reemployment
Dimension Variable
Mental health
Psychological distress Depressive symptoms Employment
Initial
status
Change
rate %
Initial
status
Change
rate % Reemployment %
Stable
job %
Main effects models
Aggregated group
techniques and
characteristics
Aggregated active learning
methods
0.21 0.27 0.05 0.14
Aggregated trainer skills 0.24 0.28* 0.09 0.32**
Aggregated preparation
against setbacks
0.45** 0.32* 0.03 0.06
Aggregated supportive
environment
(0.28)
a
(0.26*)
a
0.04 0.07
Aggregated training in job-
search skills
0.24 0.28 0.02 0.12
Mean age 0.00 0.18** 0.00 0.00
Proportion of men (3.77**)
a
(2.90*)
a
0.00 0.00
Individual experiences
with the group
Active learning methods 0.12 0.05 0.10 0.14
Trainer skills 0.01 0.05 0.02 0.08
Preparation against setbacks 0.19 0.13 0.01 0.04
Supportive learning
environment
0.20* 0.19** 0.04 0.00
Training in job-search skills 0.06 0.09 0.02 0.09
Individual
characteristics
Age 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.02
Male 0.42 1.25 0.00 1.32 1.28** 1.73**
Married 0.30 0.49 0.94* 0.38 0.75 0.58
Education 0.57* 0.13 0.19 0.20 0.22 0.29
Unemployment duration 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01
Financial support 0.59 0.52 0.03 0.68
Risk of depression 7.74** 3.31** 9.55** 3.41** 0.36 1.58*
Variance explained by
all variables
10.5
b
15.1
b
19.3
c
28.0
c
Variance explained by
the aggregated
group techniques
and characteristics
3.2
b
8.6
b
2.1
d
7.6
d
Variance explained by
only the aggregated
group techniques
2.1
b
5.4
b
2.1
d
7.6
d
272 VUORI, PRICE, MUTANEN, AND MALMBERG-HEIMONEN
Page 12
Table 7 (continued)
Dimension Variable
Mental health
Psychological distress Depressive symptoms Employment
Initial
status
Change
rate %
Initial
status
Change
rate % Reemployment %
Stable
job %
Models with interactions
Risk of Depression
Aggregated Active
Learning Methods 0.17 (0.37*)
a
0.00 0.04
Risk of Depression
Aggregated Trainer
Skills 0.33 0.46* 0.23 0.38
Risk of Depression
Aggregated
Preparation Against
Setbacks 0.86* 0.80** 0.10 0.06
Risk of Depression
Aggregated
Supportive
Environment 0.33 0.32 0.09 0.25
Risk of Depression
Aggregated Job-
Search Skill
Training 0.24 0.27 0.05 (0.59*)
a
Variance explained by
all variables and by
all the interactions 13.1
b
16.8
b
20.1
e
31.7
e
Variance explained by
only the
interactions 2.8
b
2.0
b
0.9
f
3.7
f
a
Coefficients in parentheses were not verified when respective group-level variables or interaction terms were added one at a time to the main effect models.
b
The Level 1
explained proportion of variance was calculated as the proportional reduction of the sum of the variance components (Snijders & Bosker, 2000).
c
Nagelkerke measure of R
2
of
the full model calculated with ordinary logistic regression.
d
Difference of the Nagelkerke measures of R
2
when aggregated group techniques variables were added to the model.
e
Nagelkerke measure of R
2
of the full model with interactions.
f
Difference of the Nagelkerke measures of R
2
when interactions were added to the model.
* p .05. ** p .01.
273EFFECTIVE GROUP TRAINING TECHNIQUES
Page 13
back, and support, seem to be important for the
mental health of participants at risk for depression.
The results of the present study should be consid-
ered in the light of some empirical limitations. For
example, we were able to obtain only a proportion of
all the group members in any particular training
group in the present sample, which resulted in rela-
tively low statistical power, especially regarding the
cross-level interactions. We may consider these re-
sults, therefore, to be a lower bound estimate of the
impact of the training results aggregated from indi-
vidual level reports to the group level. In addition, the
data on the underlying elements of job-search train-
ing, although consistent with the underlying theory of
the MPRC training principles (Caplan et al., 1989)
and based on the results of factor analysis, are de-
rived from self-report data.
Future research on the group techniques of training
could move in several directions. First, the replica-
tion and extension of these findings with larger sam-
ples would be highly desirable. Beyond that, exper-
imental tests of the degree to which these underlying
elements of group training have unique impacts on
important individual differences such as risk for de-
pression not only are possible but should be carried
out. In the long run, this could allow the design of
adaptive treatment (Cronbach & Snow, 1977) for
individuals facing the stressful task of job search, and
perhaps other stressful coping tasks as well.
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Received October 14, 2003
Revision received March 10, 2004
Accepted August 10, 2004
y
275EFFECTIVE GROUP TRAINING TECHNIQUES
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    • "These guidelines constitute didactic techniques and delivery methods to maximize active learning processes, and to stimulate self-efficacy and inoculation against setbacks (Vinokur & Schul, 1997). Moreover, their applicability to and relevance for jobrelated and career-related interventions has been demonstrated (Vuori, Price, Mutanen, Malmberg-Heimonen, 2005; Vuori et al., 2011). First, career self-management skills were developed through the incorporation of career competencies; for example, by defining one's strengths and interests, and by finding means to achieve career goals. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of the CareerSKILLS program, a career development intervention based on career competencies and the JOBS methodology, which aims to stimulate career self-management and well-being of young employees. In a quasi-randomized control trial, the effects of the program were tested in a homogeneous sample of young employees with intermediate vocational education (Nintervention = 112, Nnon-intervention = 61) and in a heterogeneous sample of employees from a special reintegration program (Nintervention = 71, Nnon-intervention = 41). Our results support the effectiveness of the intervention: participants of the CareerSKILLS program, versus a control group, showed increases in six career competencies (reflection of motivation, reflection on qualities, networking, self-profiling, work exploration, and career control), self-efficacy, resilience against setbacks, career-related behaviors, perceived employability, and work engagement. These results provide empirical support for the effectiveness of the CareerSKILLS program. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
    • "This occurs through modeling and rewarding supportive behaviors (Vuori et al. 2011 ). A supportive environment is crucial for learning and facing challenges (Vuori et al. 2005 ). This peer-group format seems to fi t well with young people who spend a great amount of time socializing with their own age group. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major work-related transition that individuals go through in the beginning of their career is the school-to-work transition (STWT) . During this transition young individuals face many challenges and changes in a relatively brief period of time, such as developing a professional identity (McKee-Ryan et al. 2005 ), fi nding suitable employment (e.g., Scherer 2004 ), and going through the organizational socialization process (Koivisto et al. 2007 ). The STWT is more relevant now than ever because of increasing demands for fl exibility and career self-management (e.g., Akkermans et al. 2013c ), and because the worldwide economic crisis of the past years has struck young employees hardest of all (European Commission 2012 ). Therefore, this chapter focuses specifi cally on this transition. First, we will discuss recent trends with regard to employment statistics of young workers in Europe. Second, we will focus on known antecedents and consequences of an adaptive STWT. Next, we will discuss the new career perspective, and examine two emerging topics; career adaptability and career competencies . Finally, we will present two cases in which the CareerSKILLS method in The Netherlands, and the School-to- Work Group Method in Finland will be detailed.
    Full-text · Chapter · May 2015 · Journal of Vocational Behavior
    • "The goal of the latter is to help unemployed individuals cope better with the negative effects of unemployment through stress management, coping skills or self-esteem building, among other things (Creed et al., 1999; Machin & Creed, 2003; Vuori & Vinokur, 2005 ). Although there are examples of interventions that integrate these two aspects, (Vinokur, Schul, Vuori, & Price, 2000; Vuori, Price, Mutanen & Malmberg-Heimonen, 2005), they are still scarce. Vinokur et al. (2000) and showed that combination of job search skills training and enhancing coping skills can have a positive effect on unemployed adults. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study is to explore the effects of a structured intervention in emotional competences (EC) on employability prospects of unemployed adults. More precisely, the objective is to analyse whether enhancing EC (such as identifying and expressing emotions, understanding emotions, and regulating one's own and others' emotions) can improve perception of employability, job search, entrepreneurial intention and entrepreneurial self-efficacy and improve reemployment success among unemployed participants. Seventy three participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental (40) or control group (33), and the experimental group underwent a 15 h intervention focused on improving EC and developing effective emotion regulation strategies. Both groups completed all the measures before the intervention (T1), one month later (T2), and six months after the intervention (T3). The results showed that the participants in the experimental group significantly increased their level of perceived employability, overall entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and three dimensions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy after the intervention, unlike their control group counterparts. Moreover, the experimental group showed more reemployment success and less reemployment delay than the control group. No changes were detected in job search or entrepreneurial intention in either group after the intervention. In addition, the positive effects of the intervention were not maintained six months after the intervention. The results suggest that structured interventions in EC can increase people's beliefs in their own capabilities (entrepreneurial self-efficacy) and their ability to find employment (employability) and can contribute to the actual reemployment.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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