[Application of reverse transcription-multiplex nested PCR to detect MLL rearrangement in AML-M4/M5].
To explore the value of reverse transcription-multiplex nested PCR in detecting MLL rearrangement in lzAML-M4/M5.
Bone marrow chromosome preparation was made using direct method or short-term culture. Karyotypic analysis was carried out by R-banding technique. Five common MLL fusion genes and MLL partial tandem duplication in 40 AML cases, including 12 M4 and 28 M5 were detected by reverse transcription(RT)-multiplex nested PCR.
R-banding karyotypic analysis revealed 11q23 translocation including t(6;11)(q27;q23), t(9;11)(p21;q23), t(11;17)(q23;q21) and t(11;19)(q23;p13.1) in 7 cases. MLL rearrangements consisting of MLL/AF6 (1 case), MLL/AF9 (1 case), MLL/AF17 (2 cases), MLL/ELL (2 cases) and MLL partial tandem duplication(2 cases) were detected in 8 cases by RT-multiplex nested PCR. Among 8 cases with MLL rearrangement, 6 were chromosome translocation, 2 were MLL partial tandem duplication.
RT-multiplex nested PCR is a powerful technique in the detection of MLL rearrangement for tentativelly diagnosed AML-M4/M5.
Available from: Ahmad Miremadi
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ABSTRACT: The cancer epigenome is characterised by specific DNA methylation and chromatin modification patterns. The proteins that mediate these changes are encoded by the epigenetics genes here defined as: DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) proteins, histone acetyltransferases (HAT), histone deacetylases (HDAC), histone methyltransferases (HMT) and histone demethylases. We review the evidence that these genes can be targeted by mutations and expression changes in human cancers.
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ABSTRACT: To explore clinical and experimental features of 28 cases of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with 11q23/MLL gene rearrangements.
Karyotypes of 234 cases of de novo childhood AML were analyzed using short-term culture of bone marrow cells and R-banding. The fusion transcripts involving MLL gene and partial tandem duplication of MLL (MLL-PTD) were detected by multiple reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Two cases with 11q23 translocation by karyotypic analysis but with negative result of multiple RT-PCR were studied with MLL-dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (D-FISH).
R-banding karyotypic analysis has revealed 20 cases with 11q23 translocation (14 cases with M5, 4 cases with M4, 2 cases with M2), including 12 cases with t(9;11)(p22;q23), 3 cases with t(1;11)(q21;q23), 2 cases with t(6;11)(q27;q23), 1 case with t(11;19)(q23;p13), 1 with t(5;11)(q31;q23), and 1 with t(X;11)(q24;q23). Eighteen cases with 11q23 translocation having fusion transcripts involving MLL genes were confirmed with multiple RT-PCR; 2 cases showed negative results, but they were confirmed to have MLL rearrangements by D-FISH. MLL-PTD was also detected in 8 cases (4 cases M5, 2 cases M4, M2 and M6, one case each) from the other childhood AML cases. The total incidence of 11q23/MLL gene rearrangements was 11.97% (28/234), and most of patients(85.7%, 24/28) were M4/M5. The complete remission (CR) rate after treatment for the 28 cases with MLL rearrangements was 53.8%, the difference was significant by statistics (P< 0.05) compared with 90.5% for the control group (M4/M5 childhood AML with other karyotypic abnormalities or normal karyotype). Of them, 2 cases receiving intensive chemotherapy survived for 81 and 66 months, respectively, 4 cases receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation survived for 21, 20, 16 and 11 months, respectively, and are still alive with CR. The medium survival (MS) time for 28 cases with 11q23/MLL rearrangements was 11 months, whereas the MS for control group was 15 months. The difference was not statistically significant(P> 0.05).
The 11q23/MLL rearrangements is highly correlated with the occurrence of monocytic leukemia (M4 and M5). The 11q23 translocation and MLL-PTD are mutually exclusive, though both are indicative of poor prognosis. Intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation may ameliorate the clinical outcome. Multiple RT-PCR combined with karyotypic analysis and D-FISH are useful for screening the 11q23/MLL rearrangements in childhood AML.
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