The Relationship of Smoking Cessation to Sociodemographic Characteristics, Smoking Intensity, and Tobacco Control

University of Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 3.3). 07/2005; 7(3):387-96. DOI: 10.1080/14622200500125443
Source: PubMed


The present study examined the relationship between recent smoking cessation activities and sociodemographic characteristics, smoking intensity, and tobacco control policies among daily smokers in the United States. The study used the U.S. Current Population Survey 1998-1999 Tobacco Use Supplement, supplemented with information on state-level tobacco control policies. The sample was limited to individuals aged 25 years or older who were smoking daily 1 year ago. We estimated frequencies and multivariate logistic equations for making a quit attempt and remaining abstinent at least 3 months. These measures were related to demographic characteristics, smoking intensity, and tobacco control policies. Younger, higher socioeconomic status (SES), and less intense (fewer cigarettes per day) daily smokers were more likely to make quit attempts, but the likelihood of remaining abstinent for those making a quit attempt was greater for older, higher SES, and heavy daily smokers. We found evidence that cessation behaviors were related to higher cigarette prices and the presence of state-level media/comprehensive campaigns, but less clear evidence exists for an association with bans restricting workplace smoking. The results indicate that certain types of smokers are more likely to attempt to quit and to have success and that the characteristics of these smokers differ. Price policies can have an important role in helping daily smokers to quit. Further research is needed regarding the role of quantity smoked.

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Available from: David Theodore Levy, Mar 05, 2015
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    • "The same study, however, found that age was positively associated with the desire to quit (Kviz et al., 1995). More recent evidence suggests younger smokers are more likely to make a quit attempt (Levy, Romano, & Mumford, 2005; Messer et al., 2008), but the majority of relevant studies have found the success rate for quitting is highest for older smokers (bupropion; Dale et al., 2001; Hurt et al., 2002; information only; Campbell, Hansford, & Prescott, 1986; intervention not specified; Hymowitz et al., 1997; Levy et al., 2005; Monso, Campbell, Tonnesen, Gustavsson , & Morera, 2001; Osler & Prescott, 1998). The one exception is a study by Messer et al. (2008; intervention not specified), which found younger smokers were more successful at quitting. "
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    ABSTRACT: Midlife smoking continues to be a problem in Australia, with substantial personal, social, and financial costs. Yet the specific characteristics and needs of this group have been largely overlooked. Here we review the literature for the purposes of (1) profiling the characteristics of midlife smokers and (2) assessing the effectiveness of interventions for this group. This review shows midlife smokers differ from younger smokers in important ways: they underestimate the costs of smoking and overestimate the benefits, and are less confident in their ability to quit. The few studies investigating age-tailored interventions have shown these to be effective in reducing midlife smoking. Still, research in this area is limited, with only one study conducted during the past decade that investigated smoking interventions for those in midlife. Clearly there is a need for smoking cessation interventions for midlife smokers that are tailored to the specific beliefs and needs of this unique group. Future research should focus on establishing the best methods for interventions for those individuals who are resistant to earlier interventions and still continue smoking into midlife. Interventions may benefit from incorporating recent evidence about the less obvious costs associated with midlife smoking, including later-life neurological disease.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Australian Psychologist
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    • "Existing evidence on quit attempts has also been varied. Some studies in the United States have observed differences in quit attempts by socioeconomic measures, with lower likelihood of quit attempts in the past year among smokers with lower education (Gilman et al., 2008; Hatziandreu et al., 1990; Levy, Romano, & Mumford, 2005; Lillard et al., 2007; Shiffman, Brockwell, Pillitteri, & Gitchell, 2008) and income levels (Levy et al., 2005); conversely, others have found no association with income (Barbeau et al., 2004; Lillard et al.) or education (Barbeau et al.). Recent studies in Canada (Reid et al., 2010) and the United Kingdom (Kotz & West, 2009), as well as an analysis including the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia (Hyland et al., 2006), have also failed to find an association between education (in Canada and in the four countries), income (in the four countries) or social class (in the United Kingdom), and likelihood of having made a quit attempt. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups have higher rates of tobacco use, are less likely to successfully quit, and may also be less likely to intend or attempt to quit. However, results are inconsistent for some outcomes, and little is known about how socioeconomic disparities vary across countries and over time. This study examined the associations between SES and quitting-related behaviors among representative samples of smokers in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, using data from the first five waves (2002-2006/2007) of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (35,532 observations from 16,458 respondents). Generalized estimating equations modeling was used to examine whether education and income were related to intentions to quit, incidence of quit attempts, and smoking abstinence. Potential differences in the associations over time and across countries were also considered. Smokers with higher education were more likely to intend to quit, to make a quit attempt, and to be abstinent for at least 1 and 6 months; smokers with higher income were more likely to intend to quit and to be abstinent for at least 1 month. Some between-country differences were observed: U.K. and U.S. smokers were less likely to intend to quit than Australians and Canadians; and, although U.K. respondents were least likely to attempt to quit, those that did were more likely to be abstinent. The results suggest that socioeconomic disparities exist at multiple stages in the path to smoking cessation. Potential effects on socioeconomic disparities should be considered when implementing cessation interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Nicotine & Tobacco Research
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    • "Clearly, changes in public policy, including indoor air acts, increased taxes on cigarettes and bans on tobacco product advertising, have contributed significantly to a decrease in smoking prevalence in the US [17]. However, given that the prevalence of current smokers seems to be stabilizing, and existing cessation treatments help only a fraction of smokers to quit, new tailored approaches for cessation that involve insights from genetics deserve to be considered. "
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    ABSTRACT: New approaches to improve smoking cessation rates are needed. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the genetics of smoking behavior, and this knowledge may eventually be used to personalize treatment for smokers. Although there are highly significant and reproducible genetic associations, none are yet ready for clinical applications. We suggest that translational research from several disciplines, including behavioral science, ethics and economics, should be performed in parallel with ongoing genome-wide association studies for smoking behavior and pharmacogenetic trials. The coordinated effort of multidisciplinary research teams will help reveal the circumstances under which we can translate genetic insights into clinical practice in the hope of reducing the burden of smoking in society.
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