Article

Serotype Diversity and Reassortment between Human and Animal Rotavirus Strains: Implications for Rotavirus Vaccine Programs

Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 09/2005; 192 Suppl 1(s1):S146-59. DOI: 10.1086/431499
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The development of rotavirus vaccines that are based on heterotypic or serotype-specific immunity has prompted many countries to establish programs to assess the disease burden associated with rotavirus infection and the distribution of rotavirus strains. Strain surveillance helps to determine whether the most prevalent local strains are likely to be covered by the serotype antigens found in current vaccines. After introduction of a vaccine, this surveillance could detect which strains might not be covered by the vaccine. Almost 2 decades ago, studies demonstrated that 4 globally common rotavirus serotypes (G1-G4) represent >90% of the rotavirus strains in circulation. Subsequently, these 4 serotypes were used in the development of reassortant vaccines predicated on serotype-specific immunity. More recently, the application of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction genotyping, nucleotide sequencing, and antigenic characterization methods has confirmed the importance of the 4 globally common types, but a much greater strain diversity has also been identified (we now recognize strains with at least 42 P-G combinations). These studies also identified globally (G9) or regionally (G5, G8, and P2A[6]) common serotype antigens not covered by the reassortant vaccines that have undergone efficacy trials. The enormous diversity and capacity of human rotaviruses for change suggest that rotavirus vaccines must provide good heterotypic protection to be optimally effective.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Thea Kølsen Fischer, Dec 28, 2014
  • Source
    • "Moreover, mixed infections by several genotypes are mainly found in developing countries. In Japan and the United States, mixed infections are only found in less than 5 % of cases while in India and Brazil it reaches 10–25 % (Gentsch et al. 2005). Surveillance study in Argentina by Esteban (Esteban et al. 2010) reported that 18 % of infections were mixed. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rotavirus is the major cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5 years old in developed and developing countries. Since improvements in sanitation and hygiene have limited impact on reducing the incidence of rotavirus diarrhea, implementation of a vaccine will be a better solution. We conducted an observational study to determine the disease burden and to identify the genotype of circulating rotavirus in Indonesia. Hospitalized children due to acute diarrhea were enrolled from four teaching hospitals in Indonesia. Stool samples were collected based on WHO protocol and were tested for the presence of group A rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay. Then, rotavirus positive samples were genotyped using RT-PCR. Fisher’s Exact tests, Chi square tests and logistic regression were performed to determine differences across hospital and year in rotavirus prevalence and genotype distribution. There were 4235 samples from hospitalized children with diarrhea during 2006, 2009 and 2010. Among them, the rotavirus positive were 2220 samples (52.42 %) and incidence rates varied between hospitals. The G1P[8], G1P[6], and G2P[4] were recognized as the dominant genotypes circulating strains in Indonesia and the proportion of predominant strains changed by year. Our study showed the high incidence of rotavirus infection in Indonesia with G1P[8], G1P[6], and G2P[4] as the dominant strains circulating in Indonesia. These results reinforce the need for a continuing surveillance of rotavirus strain in Indonesia.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · SpringerPlus
  • Source
    • "Based on the two outermost capsid proteins, VP4 and VP7, RVA strains were dually classified into G and P genotypes. At least 27 G-genotypes and 37 P-genotypes have been identified (Matthijnssens et al., 2011, 2008b; Trojnar et al., 2013) and in humans, RVA strains with G1, G2, G3, G4 or G9 in combination with P[4], P[6] or P[8] have been identified as the commonest strains globally (Banyai et al., 2012; Gentsch et al., 2005; Santos and Hoshino, 2005). G12 RVA strains also increased globally as one of the important causes of diarrhoea in children (Castello http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2015.07.033 1567-1348/Ó 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human G8 Rotavirus A (RVA) strains are commonly detected in Africa but are rarely detected in Japan and elsewhere in the world. In this study, the whole genome sequence of the first human G8 RVA strain designated AU109 isolated in a child with acute gastroenteritis in 1994 was determined in order to understand how the strain was generated including the host species origin of its genes. The genotype constellation of AU109 was G8-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Phylogenetic analyses of the 11 genome segments revealed that its VP7 and VP1 genes were closely related to those of a Hungarian human G8P[14] RVA strain and these genes shared the most recent common ancestors in 1988 and 1982, respectively. AU109 possessed an NSP2 gene closely related to those of Chinese sheep and goat RVA strains. The remaining eight genome segments were closely related to Japanese human G2P[4] strains which circulated around 1985-1990. Bayesian evolutionary analyses revealed that the NSP2 gene of AU109 and those of the Chinese sheep and goat RVA strains diverged from a common ancestor around 1937. In conclusion, AU109 was generated through genetic reassortment event where Japanese DS-1-like G2P[4] strains circulating around 1985-1990 obtained the VP7, VP1 and NSP2 genes from unknown ruminant G8 RVA strains. These observations highlight the need for comprehensive examination of the whole genomes of RVA strains of less explored host species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Infection Genetics and Evolution
  • Source
    • "diversity (Matthijnssens et al., 2011). A number of strains with unusual G and P types, regarded as animal-like strains, have been sporadically identified in humans in different parts of world (Gentsch et al., 2005; Santos and Hoshino, 2005). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the genomic characterization of a rare human G8P[14] rotavirus strain, identified in a stool sample from Guatemala (GTM) during routine rotavirus surveillance. This strain was designated as RVA/Human-wt/GTM/2009726790/2009/G8P[14], with a genomic constellation of G8-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A13-N2-T6-E2-H3. The VP4 gene occupied lineage VII within the P[14] genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of each genome segment revealed close relatedness to several zoonotic simian, guanaco and bovine strains. Our findings suggest that strain RVA/Human-wt/GTM/2009726790/2009/G8P[14] is an example of a direct zoonotic transmission event. The results of this study reinforce the potential role of interspecies transmission and reassortment in generating novel and rare rotavirus strains which infect humans. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
Show more