Serotype Diversity and Reassortment between Human and Animal Rotavirus Strains: Implications for Rotavirus Vaccine Programs

Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 09/2005; 192 Suppl 1(s1):S146-59. DOI: 10.1086/431499
Source: PubMed


The development of rotavirus vaccines that are based on heterotypic or serotype-specific immunity has prompted many countries to establish programs to assess the disease burden associated with rotavirus infection and the distribution of rotavirus strains. Strain surveillance helps to determine whether the most prevalent local strains are likely to be covered by the serotype antigens found in current vaccines. After introduction of a vaccine, this surveillance could detect which strains might not be covered by the vaccine. Almost 2 decades ago, studies demonstrated that 4 globally common rotavirus serotypes (G1-G4) represent >90% of the rotavirus strains in circulation. Subsequently, these 4 serotypes were used in the development of reassortant vaccines predicated on serotype-specific immunity. More recently, the application of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction genotyping, nucleotide sequencing, and antigenic characterization methods has confirmed the importance of the 4 globally common types, but a much greater strain diversity has also been identified (we now recognize strains with at least 42 P-G combinations). These studies also identified globally (G9) or regionally (G5, G8, and P2A[6]) common serotype antigens not covered by the reassortant vaccines that have undergone efficacy trials. The enormous diversity and capacity of human rotaviruses for change suggest that rotavirus vaccines must provide good heterotypic protection to be optimally effective.

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Available from: Thea Kølsen Fischer, Dec 28, 2014
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    • "Moreover, mixed infections by several genotypes are mainly found in developing countries. In Japan and the United States, mixed infections are only found in less than 5 % of cases while in India and Brazil it reaches 10–25 % (Gentsch et al. 2005). Surveillance study in Argentina by Esteban (Esteban et al. 2010) reported that 18 % of infections were mixed. "
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    • "Based on the two outermost capsid proteins, VP4 and VP7, RVA strains were dually classified into G and P genotypes. At least 27 G-genotypes and 37 P-genotypes have been identified (Matthijnssens et al., 2011, 2008b; Trojnar et al., 2013) and in humans, RVA strains with G1, G2, G3, G4 or G9 in combination with P[4], P[6] or P[8] have been identified as the commonest strains globally (Banyai et al., 2012; Gentsch et al., 2005; Santos and Hoshino, 2005). G12 RVA strains also increased globally as one of the important causes of diarrhoea in children (Castello 1567-1348/Ó 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. "
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    • "diversity (Matthijnssens et al., 2011). A number of strains with unusual G and P types, regarded as animal-like strains, have been sporadically identified in humans in different parts of world (Gentsch et al., 2005; Santos and Hoshino, 2005). "
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