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The authors investigated the relationships among stress, values, and value conflict. Data collected from 400 people working in a variety of companies in Flanders indicated that the values of openness to change, conservation, self-transcendence, and self-enhancement were important predictors of stress. Participants open to change reported less stress, whereas participants who had high scores on conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence perceived more stress. People who reported high value conflict also experienced more stress. Separate analyses for men and women showed that there were gender differences in the relationships observed between the 4 value types and stress. These data have noteworthy theoretical and practical implications.

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... Congruity between people's values and their environment promotes well-being regardless of the particular values to which people ascribe importance. People are likely to experience a positive sense of well-being when they emphasize the same values that prevail in their environment and when they live in an environment that allows them to attain the goals to which their values are directed (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000;Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). ...
... Based on the findings of these studies, value congruence leads to better work adjustment, higher job satisfaction, and career success and satisfaction. Likewise, it also leads to commitment, turnover reduction, stress reduction, greater emotional well-being, and fewer psychosomatic symptoms (Meglino, Ravlin & Adkins, 1989;O'Reilly, Chatman & Cadwell, 1991;Finegan, 2000;Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000;Burke, 2001;Lauver & Kristof-Brown, 2001;Taris & Feij, 2001;Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005;Ostroff, Shin & Kinicki, 2005). ...
... Contrastingly, value conflict may have an adverse effect on the well-being of people which can lead to job stress. Job stress in person-organization fit model either results from a misfit between individual values and environmental opportunities to fulfill those values or from environmental demands that exceed the individual's capacity (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). The lack of value congruence may operate as a liability which can affect corporate culture and employee commitment to the organization (Iyha & Adejumo, 2008). ...
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Measuring the Lecturers’ Teaching Practices requires a measurable instrument to be developed. This study aims to test the validity and reliability of a developed instrument to measure Lecturers’ Teaching Practices. The sample of this study consisted of 103 respondents as lecturers from Community Colleges, Yemen. The developed questionnaire termed LTP covered five concepts including problem centre, Activation, Demonstration, Application, and Integration. The validity and reliability of the 33 items of the LTP questionnaire were tested using Raasch Model analysis. The findings of the Raasch Model analysis showed that the developed instrument is valid and reliable to measure the Lecturers’ Teaching Practices. © 2018, Southeast Asian Association for Institutional Research. All rights reserved.
... Congruity between people's values and their environment promotes well-being regardless of the particular values to which people ascribe importance. People are likely to experience a positive sense of well-being when they emphasize the same values that prevail in their environment and when they live in an environment that allows them to attain the goals to which their values are directed (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000;Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). ...
... Based on the findings of these studies, value congruence leads to better work adjustment, higher job satisfaction, and career success and satisfaction. Likewise, it also leads to commitment, turnover reduction, stress reduction, greater emotional well-being, and fewer psychosomatic symptoms (Meglino, Ravlin & Adkins, 1989;O'Reilly, Chatman & Cadwell, 1991;Finegan, 2000;Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000;Burke, 2001;Lauver & Kristof-Brown, 2001;Taris & Feij, 2001;Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005;Ostroff, Shin & Kinicki, 2005). ...
... Contrastingly, value conflict may have an adverse effect on the well-being of people which can lead to job stress. Job stress in person-organization fit model either results from a misfit between individual values and environmental opportunities to fulfill those values or from environmental demands that exceed the individual's capacity (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). The lack of value congruence may operate as a liability which can affect corporate culture and employee commitment to the organization (Iyha & Adejumo, 2008). ...
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This paper primarily described and correlated the extent of practice of the workplace core values and the degree of organizational commitment of teachers of a Catholic University in the Philippines. Likewise, it explored whether a significant difference existed in the respondents' practice of the workplace core values and organizational commitment. Using a descriptive-comparative and correlational research design, the data were collected using survey questionnaires. The major findings of the study revealed that the respondents demonstrated a very high extent of practice of the workplace core values and indicated a dominant affective organizational commitment. No significant difference was found in both their practice of the workplace core values and their degree of organizational commitment. However, the results posited a relationship between workplace core values and organizational commitment. In fact, the results affirmed that the practice of the workplace core values significantly affected the organizational commitment of the teachers. © 2018, Southeast Asian Association for Institutional Research. All rights reserved.
... Congruity between people's values and their environment promotes well-being regardless of the particular values to which people ascribe importance. People are likely to experience a positive sense of well-being when they emphasize the same values that prevail in their environment and when they live in an environment that allows them to attain the goals to which their values are directed (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000;Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). ...
... Based on the findings of these studies, value congruence leads to better work adjustment, higher job satisfaction, and career success and satisfaction. Likewise, it also leads to commitment, turnover reduction, stress reduction, greater emotional well-being, and fewer psychosomatic symptoms (Meglino, Ravlin & Adkins, 1989;O'Reilly, Chatman & Cadwell, 1991;Finegan, 2000;Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000;Burke, 2001;Lauver & Kristof-Brown, 2001;Taris & Feij, 2001;Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005;Ostroff, Shin & Kinicki, 2005). ...
... Contrastingly, value conflict may have an adverse effect on the well-being of people which can lead to job stress. Job stress in person-organization fit model either results from a misfit between individual values and environmental opportunities to fulfill those values or from environmental demands that exceed the individual's capacity (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). The lack of value congruence may operate as a liability which can affect corporate culture and employee commitment to the organization (Iyha & Adejumo, 2008). ...
Article
Being recognized as one of the top best mobile applications, LINE has been widely used around the world. In education, many LINE functions have been extensively used to assist language learning. As commonly seen in school, many students of all levels spend lots of time discussing their problems in learning English with teachers, sending their assignments, and doing many activities on this application. With regard to the coming of LINE to language learning, the present study explored the effects of using LINE as a channel for improving English writing ability of Thai EFL students in a public university in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand. The findings report a greater improvement of the students’ writing ability after the month of English paragraph writing practice on LINE. When compared with the control group, English writing ability of the students in the experimental group who practiced writing on LINE was significantly greater (t = 3.96, p≤ 0.05.) Those who practiced writing on LINE claimed that they felt more enjoyable and had less learning anxiety. They believed that LINE was an effective language learning tool. © 2018, Southeast Asian Association for Institutional Research. All rights reserved.
... Congruity between people's values and their environment promotes well-being regardless of the particular values to which people ascribe importance. People are likely to experience a positive sense of well-being when they emphasize the same values that prevail in their environment and when they live in an environment that allows them to attain the goals to which their values are directed (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000;Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). ...
... Based on the findings of these studies, value congruence leads to better work adjustment, higher job satisfaction, and career success and satisfaction. Likewise, it also leads to commitment, turnover reduction, stress reduction, greater emotional well-being, and fewer psychosomatic symptoms (Meglino, Ravlin & Adkins, 1989;O'Reilly, Chatman & Cadwell, 1991;Finegan, 2000;Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000;Burke, 2001;Lauver & Kristof-Brown, 2001;Taris & Feij, 2001;Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005;Ostroff, Shin & Kinicki, 2005). ...
... Contrastingly, value conflict may have an adverse effect on the well-being of people which can lead to job stress. Job stress in person-organization fit model either results from a misfit between individual values and environmental opportunities to fulfill those values or from environmental demands that exceed the individual's capacity (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). The lack of value congruence may operate as a liability which can affect corporate culture and employee commitment to the organization (Iyha & Adejumo, 2008). ...
Article
Measuring the Lecturers’ Teaching Practices requires a measurable instrument to be developed. This study aims to test the validity and reliability of a developed instrument to measure Lecturers’ Teaching Practices. The sample of this study consisted of 103 respondents as lecturers from Community Colleges, Yemen. The developed questionnaire termed LTP covered five concepts including problem centre, Activation, Demonstration, Application, and Integration. The validity and reliability of the 33 items of the LTP questionnaire were tested using Rasch Model analysis. The findings of the Rasch Model analysis showed that the developed instrument is valid and reliable to measure the Lecturers’ Teaching Practices.
... Congruity between people's values and their environment promotes well-being regardless of the particular values to which people ascribe importance. People are likely to experience a positive sense of well-being when they emphasize the same values that prevail in their environment and when they live in an environment that allows them to attain the goals to which their values are directed (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000;Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). ...
... Based on the findings of these studies, value congruence leads to better work adjustment, higher job satisfaction, and career success and satisfaction. Likewise, it also leads to commitment, turnover reduction, stress reduction, greater emotional well-being, and fewer psychosomatic symptoms (Meglino, Ravlin & Adkins, 1989;O'Reilly, Chatman & Cadwell, 1991;Finegan, 2000;Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000;Burke, 2001;Lauver & Kristof-Brown, 2001;Taris & Feij, 2001;Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005;Ostroff, Shin & Kinicki, 2005). ...
... Contrastingly, value conflict may have an adverse effect on the well-being of people which can lead to job stress. Job stress in person-organization fit model either results from a misfit between individual values and environmental opportunities to fulfill those values or from environmental demands that exceed the individual's capacity (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). The lack of value congruence may operate as a liability which can affect corporate culture and employee commitment to the organization (Iyha & Adejumo, 2008). ...
Article
A significant dropout rate of freshmen in university X during 2011-15 prompted us to carry out the present study to detect freshmen’s attitudes and learning preferences. Holland’s theory of six personality types: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional was applied. The survey includes data from 1,558 freshmen from five colleges. The survey questionnaire had 194 items. The analysis showed Realistic and Investigative types were significant in males while Artistic and Social types were more projecting in females. Also, it revealed poor Person-Environment congruence and learning performance in the College of Science and Engineering. The students at risk need a transfer to another major or subject of their interest. Besides, differentiating instruction for customized service will satisfy the real demand and solve the thorny dropout problems. By data mining, all students at risk were advised to four channels for appropriate actions. The outcome of this study offers directions to low GPA students through psychological and physical assessments.
... En el caso del conflicto entre la organización y el trabajador, las formas más utilizadas son las de preguntar por comportamientos relacionados con este tipo de vivencia, como los estudios realizados por Medina, Munduate, Dorado, Martínez, y Guerra (2005); y Jehn, Chadwick, y Thatcher (1997), midiendo situaciones de conflicto, aunque no necesariamente conflicto de valores. Otros investigadores, por su parte, han construido sus propias escalas de medición de la vivencia de conflicto de valores como en el caso Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, y Vanderheyden (2005). ...
... Esto quiere decir que, por alguna razón, ni el individuo ha conseguido modificar a la organización en una determinada situación de incongruencia, ni la organización al individuo, lo que trae como consecuencia una confrontación entre los valores. Bouckenooghe, et al. (2005) apoyan esta idea al proponer que hay conflicto cuando existe una percepción de desvío entre valores personales y valores organizacionales, vivenciándose como elementos contradictorios. ...
... El conflicto tiene causas entonces para la persona, y muchas veces esto es considerado como conflicto interno, y causas para la organización, llamado conflicto externo, clasificación utilizada por Sagiv y Schwartz (2000) y Bouckenooghe, et al. (2005); siendo el enfoque hacia el conflicto interno aquel más utilizado en los estudios organizacionales. ...
... This relationship between both values has been studied in terms of congruence, and its effect in the organization has been determined from elements such as satisfaction, permanence, performance, and well-being (Boxx & Odom, 1991;Davis, 2006;Edwards & Cable, 2009). Previous research has established a significant correlation between levels of stress and congruence values, so that higher incongruence, which is ultimately manifested by a value conflict, leads to high levels of stress and to possibly even leaving the organization (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005;Lamm, Gordon, & Purser, 2010;Liedtka, 1989;Medina, Munduate, Dorado, Martínez, & Guerra, 2005;Oliveira, Tenório, Souza, Pereira, & Souza, 2002). ...
... According to , the research that has dealt with the relationship between value congruence and work stress has not reached a consensus. On one hand, there are studies establishing a significant and positive correlation between value conflict and stress (Bouckenooghe et al., 2005;Lamm et al., 2010;Talbot & Billsberry, 2011); whereas in other studies, the variable that correlates in a significant and negative way with stress is the fit of values (Edwards, 2008;Jansen & Kristof-Brown, 2006). However, these studies which correlate fit and work stress have been criticized because of the use of misfit and conflict as synonyms, and at the same time, fit was used as an antonym of misfit and conflict, when in fact these variables can, and should be, considered independent from one another (Talbot & Billsberry, 2010;. ...
... This result was sustained for both private and public sector organizations when they were analyzed separately. The significant correlation found between work stress and value conflict verifies previous results obtained by Bouckenooghe et al. (2005) and Lamm et al. (2010), and in the case of the Portuguese context, by Morais (2011). However, we did not obtain significant correlations between work stress and value fit, or between work stress and organizational value recognition. ...
Article
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Work stress is one of the problems that organizational psychologists have been concerned with during the last few decades. However, there is still no general consensus about the relationship between this type of experience and value congruence within the working organizations. This study attempts to identify the relationship established between work stress and value congruence, considering value congruence as the states of adjustment, conflict, and value recognition. In our calculations, we included other socio-demographic variables such as gender, age, and organizational tenure; and organizational variables such as the company's sector. The study was applied to a sample of 298 workers, distributed in two organizations from different sectors (N private = N public = 149). The results obtained have indicated conflict as the element of value congruence that correlates significantly with work stress (β = 0.022, p < 0.05). Other results have indicated significant correlations between gender and work stress (β men =-0.424, p < 0.05), and between organization sector and work stress (β private = 0.293, p < 0.05). This investigation is relevant not only to the context in which it was applied, but also as a comparison framework with other research about value congruence and work stress organizations.
... Researchers in social psychology (e.g., Rokeach, 1973;Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000) have provided several values frameworks that could be applied to help operationalize and test the values-related elements of COR theory. Of particular note is a cross-cultural values framework developed and tested by Schwartz (1992Schwartz ( , 1994, with additional validation and application by a variety of researchers over the last 16 years (e.g., Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005;Feather, 1995). Building on Rokeach's (1973) cross-cultural differences in values, Schwartz (1994) defined a personal value as "a (1) belief (2) pertaining to desirable end states or modes of conduct, that (3) transcends specific situations, (4) guides selection or evaluation of behavior, people, and events, and (5) is ordered by importance relative to other values to form a system of value priorities" (p. ...
... Both of these value continua have been used in research examining the relationship of values to other variables such as physiological symptoms (Creswell et al., 2006) and decisionmaking (Tal & Yinon, 2002). For example, Bouckenooghe et al. (2005) identified a negative correlation between the openness-to-change value grouping and stress outcomes and a positive relationship between the conservation value grouping and stress. ...
... for a self-transcendence values score) are within range of recommended coefficient alpha values for measures that are still relatively young in terms of their development (Nunnally, 1978). Other researchers have directly applied the SSVS to social-science research (e.g., Aarnio & Lindeman, 2007), have used similar multidimensional modeling techniques for scoring in other measures (e.g., Joshanloo & Ghaedi, 2009), and have employed the value dimensions that the SSVS efficiently defines (e.g., Bouckenooghe et al., 2005). ...
Article
The common usage of Conservation of Resources (COR) theory highlights the quantity of resources in explaining stress reactions and responses. To expand the theoretical understanding and explanatory power of COR theory, this study tested the proposition that the perceived importance of an individual's resources is a function of personal values. Using a value framework based on Schwartz (199438. Schwartz , S. 1994. Are there universal aspects in the structure and content of values?. Journal of Social Issues, 50: 19–45. doi: 10.1111/j.1540–4560.1994.tb01196.x [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references), it was expected that values would influence both the appraisal of resource importance and coping behaviors. Results from both student and working samples indicated that while resource importance did not clearly mediate all of the coping outcomes, values did have an influence on the importance an individual assigns to resources. Measurement and theoretical implications related to COR theory are discussed.
... Interestingly, all of these studies examined value congruence in relation to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, or overall performance with very few health or wellbeing variables such as role stress studied. Given the many positive effects that value congruence has on various work attitudes, it seems important to study the link between value congruence and stress because of the potential motivational aspects that having congruence might have, as well as the notion that congruence may act as a possible coping mechanism to counter various negative aspects of the work environment (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). The few studies that have examined the impact of value congruence on various conceptualizations of well-being have concluded that congruence leads to fewer somatic complaints (Burke, 2001), greater perceived stress when values conflict (Bouckenooghe et al. 2005), and less burnout (Siegall & McDonald, 2004). ...
... Given the many positive effects that value congruence has on various work attitudes, it seems important to study the link between value congruence and stress because of the potential motivational aspects that having congruence might have, as well as the notion that congruence may act as a possible coping mechanism to counter various negative aspects of the work environment (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). The few studies that have examined the impact of value congruence on various conceptualizations of well-being have concluded that congruence leads to fewer somatic complaints (Burke, 2001), greater perceived stress when values conflict (Bouckenooghe et al. 2005), and less burnout (Siegall & McDonald, 2004). Furthermore, Gilbert, Winne and Sels (2011) argue that although past research on role perceptions has produced many benefits, it does not provide results pertaining to specific aspects of an individual's role that might help explain why individuals experience role stress. ...
... Dentro del conjunto de elementos que integran a la cultura organizacional, los valores han sido aquellos que se han utilizado, debido a que son el punto de unión entre el comportamiento del trabajador y las demandas de la organización, para identificar la relación entre la cultura y la vivencia de estrés laboral dentro de una organización (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005;Burke, Oberklaid, & Burgess, 2005;Chang & Lu, 2007;Oliveira, Tenório, & Santos, 2006;Oliveira, Tenório, Souza, Pereira, & Souza, 2002;Peterson & Wilson, 2004). En vez de considerar qué valores particulares generan una vivencia de estrés en los trabajadores, debido a que estos valores pueden corresponderse con la descripción de un contexto específico, las investigaciones realizadas apuntan al estudio de la influencia de la congruencia entre valores personales y organizacionales como el aspecto que genera una vivencia de estrés en una organización. ...
... En vez de considerar qué valores particulares generan una vivencia de estrés en los trabajadores, debido a que estos valores pueden corresponderse con la descripción de un contexto específico, las investigaciones realizadas apuntan al estudio de la influencia de la congruencia entre valores personales y organizacionales como el aspecto que genera una vivencia de estrés en una organización. En este sentido, autores como Bouckenooghe et al. (2005), Lamm, Gordon, y Purser (2010), Morais et al. (2012) y Oliveira et al. (2002 determinaron la relación entre la congruencia y el estrés ocupacional, apareciendo la vivencia de estrés como resultado fundamentalmente del conflicto entre valores personales y organizacionales. ...
... Para Liedtka (1989) y Posner y Schmidt (1993), la congruencia de valores se puede manifestar como ajuste entre ellos, como desajuste y como conflicto entre valores personales y organizacionales. Este último tipo de relación se define por la existencia de valores organizacional opuestos a los del trabajador (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005;Ramos et al., 2012). ...
... De todas las formas de congruencia de valores mencionadas, va a ser el conflicto de valores el ele-mento que va a influir en la vivencia de estrés laboral (Bouckenooghe et al., 2005;Lamm, Gordon, & Purser, 2010;Liedtka, 1989;Medina, Munduate, Dorado, Martínez, & Guerra, 2005;Oliveira, Tenório, Souza, Pereira, & Souza, 2002). Esto fue soportado por los estudios de Morais (2011) y Ramos y Jordão (2013a) en empresas portuguesas, que identificaron una correlación significativa y positiva entre el conflicto de valores y la vivencia de estrés laboral, argumentando la importancia del conflicto en comparación con el ajuste o el desajuste como otras formas de congruencia. ...
Article
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RESuMEn El estrés laboral, de acuerdo con el modelo transaccional, es un proceso resultante de la relación entre el entorno la-boral y los trabajadores. Sin embargo, no se ha considerado la influencia del contexto organizacional, definido por el conflicto entre valores personales y organizacionales y el sector una empresa. El presente estudio tiene por objetivo elaborar un modelo de relaciones entre el conflicto de valores, el sector y proceso de estrés laboral. Para el estudio utili-zamos una muestra constituida por 310 trabajadores distribuidos en dos organizaciones de diferente sector y pareados de acuerdo con el género y la edad. Como principal resultado obtuvimos un modelo con buenos índices de ajuste, que describe el efecto mediador de la vivencia de estrés y del conflicto de valores en las relaciones entre las variables. Esto justifica la importancia del contexto en el estudio del estrés laboral. Palabras clave: estrés laboral, conflicto de valores, sector de la organización, fuentes de estrés, estrategias de coping, modelo de ecuaciones estructurales ABSTRACT Work-related stress, according to the transactional model, is a process born of the relation between the workplace environment and workers. However, no consideration has been given to the influence of the organizational context, defined by the conflict between personal and organizational values and the organization's sector as part of this process. This paper aims to draw up a model of relations between value conflict, the sector and process, and work-related stress. We used a sample of 310 workers distributed in two organizations from different sectors and paired by gender and age. The principle result of our work was the production of a model with good adjustment indexes, which describes the mediating effect of the experience of stress and the conflict of values in the connections between the variables. This justifies the importance of the context in the study of stress in the workplace.
... In fact, Schwartz's well-known and highly cited typology of values is organized into sets of two opposing values (self-transcendence vs. self-enhancement and openness to change vs. conservation; cf. Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005;Schwartz, 1994). For the purposes of this research, I define conflicting values as oppositional sets of beliefs that appear contradictory and incompatible with one another to a majority of individuals. ...
... Unfortunately, when this is combined with the fact that offenders are unlikely to succeed in rehabilitation (i.e., recidivism rates of offenders is nearly 68%, and the amount of quality treatment programs are limited in availability to about 4% of inmates in need; Mumola, 1999;Belenko, 2002) it can lead to burnout. In contrast, the personal value of rehabilitation could act as a motivator for redemptionminded correctional officers who feel they are performing a difficult, but valuable service (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005). In addition, it is unclear how punitive and rehabilitative values might interact to affect the relationship between values and burnout in such an environment. ...
... The congruence between workplace values and an individual's personal values in life has implications for wellbeing and burnout (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001;Sagiv, Roccas, & Hazan, 2004). For example, congruence between business and psychology students' values and those of their academic environment was associated with enhanced wellbeing (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000), while conflict between personal values and organisational values has been found to be related to burnout (Maslach & Leiter, 1997) and to stress (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005). This study is novel in that it looks at an individual's personally-held work values, rather than the values of the organisation. ...
... Congruence between important life and work values was expected to be associated with higher wellbeing and lower burnout (e.g. Bouckenooghe et al., 2005;Sagiv et al., 2004), as was successful pursuit of life and work values (Ciarrochi, Fisher, & Lane, 2011;Leiter & Harvie, 1996). Those who endorse and are successful in the pursuit of pro-social values, in keeping with a caring profession, were expected to report greater wellbeing and less burnout (Ferssizidis et al., 2010;Kasser & Ahuvia, 2002;Sagiv et al., 2004). ...
Article
Living according to one's personal values has implications for wellbeing, and incongruence between personal and workplace values has been associated with burnout. Using the SGP Card Sorting Task (Ciarrochi & Bailey, 2008), this study explored mental health practitioners' personal life values and personal work-related values, and their relationships with wellbeing and burnout. Congruence between life and work-related values was related to wellbeing and perceived accomplishment at work. Those whose personal values were consistent with the commonly-shared values of a caring profession experienced lower burnout and higher personal wellbeing. Successfully pursuing one's work values predicted lower burnout and greater wellbeing. Honesty, clearly defined work, competence and meeting obligations were associated with lower burnout and higher wellbeing. Acceptance of others and helping others were associated with lower burnout. The implications for recovery-oriented practice are noted. Values clarification exercises may invigorate the sense of meaning in practitioners' work, increasing wellbeing and reducing staff burnout.
... Value congruence is discussed in the person-organization fit literature (e.g., Kristof-Brown et al., 2005) because it refers to the fit or match between an individual's own values and those of the organization he/she works for (Cable & Edwards, 2004). The value congruence hypothesis is that the greater the match between individual and organizational values, the more positive is the experience of working in that environment for the employee (Bouckenooghe, Fontaine & Vanderheyden, 2005). In contrast, when an individual perceives conflict between their own values and those of their work environment, they are more likely to experience negative outcomes (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000). ...
... Value congruence refers to the perceived fit or match between an individual's own values and those of the organization he/she works for (Cable & Edwards, 2004;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). The value congruence hypothesis is that the greater the match between individual and organizational values, the more positive is the experience of working in that environment for the employee (Bouckenooghe et al., 2005). In contrast, when an individual perceives conflict between their own values and those of their working environment, they are more likely to experience negative outcomes (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000). ...
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Weick (2006) calls for researchers to investigate how employees ‘hold it together’ during periods when organizational routine and order are challenged. This thesis focuses on employee experiences during two types of organizational upheaval: periods of planned, large-scale organizational change and periods of organizational crisis triggered by external events. In both conditions, employees can react negatively. This leads to failure to cope with the current situation and with future situations that pose similar threats and challenges. On the other hand, if employees can make sense of a threatening, challenging situation, the outcomes are more positive for them as individuals and for the organization as a whole. Weick’s (1988) concept of sensemaking is used as a guiding framework for investigating the experiences, attitudes, and actions reported by employees in times of organizational change and crisis. The general assertion of the thesis is that the espoused and enacted values of an organization provide sensemaking cues to employees in difficult times. More specifically, the role of stated organizational values is examined. Organizational values are often stated as a set of principles that provide guidance for employees, particularly as part of a managing-by-values approach. The context for the research program is the healthcare industry, because values are very important for healthcare employees. Moreover, healthcare organizations must continue to function optimally during challenging conditions. Three research studies are reported. Study 1 was conducted in an Australian public hospital that was undergoing large-scale change. Thirty-five employees from a range of occupations were interviewed midway through the five-year period of change. Thematic analysis of their interviews revealed that employees mostly reported negative experiences of the change program. Furthermore, employees made sense of the change program by focusing on specific cues in their situation. One such cue was the organization’s strongly promoted set of ‘core values’. The stated values were seen to be a visible symbol of the hospital’s principles, but there were negative perceptions about how well these principles were enacted. Study 2 was conducted in a public hospital in Singapore exposed to a crisis situation due to the SARS virus in 2003. Thirty-one employees from a range of occupations were interviewed four months after the outbreak had ended. Twenty of these participants returned for a second interview, one week after the first interview. A card sort procedure and thematic analysis of the interview data were used to investigate employees’ experiences of the crisis. Results revealed that employees made sense of the crisis through identification with their profession and their organization. They also perceived that the hospital’s actions during the crisis were consistent with its written set of organizational values. In addition, employees identified a number of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) that they had shown during the crisis. Study 3 was conducted at three hospitals in Singapore. A pilot study involved 24 employees from a public hospital. They engaged in a focus group discussion about professionalism and they refined a set of hospital-specific employee behaviors that could potentially be classified as OCBs. The main study involved survey completion by a stratified sample of employees from another public hospital (n= 214) and from a private hospital (n=184). All respondents were invited to complete a second survey (measuring related variables) three weeks after the first survey. Analysis of 301 usable survey responses revealed findings that contribute to different literatures. Firstly, asking respondents to rate OCBs according to whether they were voluntary, unrewarded, and beneficial to the organization, revealed that many OCB items used in previous research were not perceived as being ‘true OCBs’ by the survey respondents. Furthermore, despite the use of many possible OCB dimensions, the true OCB items were factor analyzed into just two factors. One factor reflected OCBOs, which are behaviors directed towards the organization as a whole, while the other factor reflected OCBIs, which are behaviors directed towards other individuals. A second contribution is the suggestion that employees’ sense of ‘professionalism’ is a single construct. Survey respondents did not distinguish between professional identification and professional commitment in the same way as organizational identification and commitment were differentiated. Professionalism was weakly related to tendency to engage in OCBOs and more strongly related to tendency to engage in OCBIs. Finally, the main contribution to the values literature is the development of the concept of ‘organizational values integrity’ (OVI). This is conceptualized as the perceived alignment between organizational actions and organizational words, especially those words espoused in values statements. Structural equation modeling revealed that OVI influenced organizational identification and organizational commitment, which both mediated the impact of OVI on OCBOs. Furthermore, OVI had a direct impact on OCBOs. Overall, this thesis highlights employee perceptions that the organization acts in ways that are aligned to its stated values as important influences on employee attitudes and OCBs, particularly in difficult times. Implications for managerial practice and further research are discussed.
... In sum, working in a values-fit environment tends to enhance motivation and energy, while working in a values-misfit environment tends to lead to stress (Bouckenooghe et al., 2005), cognitive dissonance (Hinojosa et al., 2017), lower self-esteem and well-being (Fulmer et al., 2010), and hence a values-fit misalignment attenuated the prospects of optimal career outcomes ( van Vianen, 2018). ...
Article
We investigate the relationships between gender-role-orientation (i.e., androgynous, masculine, feminine and undifferentiated) and subjective career success among business professionals from 36 societies. Drawing on the resource management perspective, we predict that androgynous individuals will report the highest subjective career success, followed by masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated individuals. We also postulate that meso-organizational culture and macro-societal values will have moderating effects on gender role's impact on subjective career success. The results of our hierarchical linear models support the hypothesized hierarchy of the relationships between gender-role-orientations and subjective career success. However, we found that ethical achievement values at the societal culture level was the only variable that had a positive moderating impact on the relationship between feminine orientation and subjective career success. Thus, our findings of minimal moderation effect suggest that meso- and macro-level environments may not play a significant role in determining an individual's perception of career success.
... Despite calls to examine value congruity at different levels (Bouckenooghe et al., 2005;Karabati and Cemalcilar, 2010), research has yet to study value congruence within the family, what could be argued is the most influential, immediate environment for an adolescent. As such, it has not yet been examined whether for adolescents, the family environment provides a temporary respite from the negative effects of materialism. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this research is to offer a theoretical explanation for the perpetuation of materialistic values among adolescents. In a recent survey by the Pew Research Center (2019), adolescents in America say that having a lot of money is more important to them in their future than getting married or having children. This research answers the call for a theoretical explanation for the perpetuation of materialistic values among adolescents. Using person–environment fit (P-E fit) theory, this study argues that it is not the content of the values, but rather the fit between a person’s value priorities and the values prevailing in the environment which is crucial to well-being. Design/methodology/approach A national online panel was used to collect cross-sectional survey data from 278 families (adolescents aged 13–18 and their parents). Findings Findings indicate that adolescents in congruent value households express significantly greater life satisfaction and less depressed mood than adolescents in conflict value households. In fact, materialistic adolescents living in materialistic households expressed the greatest life satisfaction, a finding which contrasts with the current claims that materialism uniformly causes anxiety and depressed mood. Research limitations/implications To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to test person–environment fit theory in the context of the family and to offer this theory as a viable explanation of affluenza among America’s youth. The results of this study support the P-E fit theory and suggest that materialism is not universally associated with negative well-being, but rather that adolescents’ well-being is a function of the congruency of an adolescent’s values to his/her family environment. Social implications While materialistic socialization within the family does enhance the well-being of adolescents temporarily, it may also set adolescents up for a lifetime of harmful expectations from the pursuit money. A consistent pattern of overconsumption as a reward to adolescents may later produce materialistic adults who suffer from financial difficulties and mental health disorders. Disproportionate consumption further leads to environmental pollution. Originality/value No study to date has examined the impact of value congruence in the household (parent-child), as it pertains to the development of materialism in adolescents and its effects on adolescents’ well-being. This study suggests that highly materialistic adolescents can experience happiness from the pursuit of consumption. This offers insight into how a value deemed as detrimental as materialism continues to permeate in our society.
... This line of research has examined the effects of misfit by using different conceptualisations and operationalisations of the construct. For example, value incongruence, a type of misfit, was shown to increase stress and burnout (Bocchino, Hartman, & Foley, 2003;Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005). Value incongruence was assessed by using difference scores between P and E or Likert-type measuring instruments where respondents were required to indicate their agreement to a series of statements relating to their values and that of their organisations. ...
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Orientation: Although the literature on person–environment fit has burgeoned, misfit has been relatively overlooked. The 21st-century business environment has seen an increase in the number of employee misfits in the workplace, and this has proved a challenge to many organisations. It is uncertain how misfit impacts on employees and organisations experiencing this phenomenon. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to broaden the current misfit research boundaries by exploring the consequences of misfit as experienced by individuals at work. Motivation for the study: There exist several under-researched areas in the misfit terrain. One such is the effect of misfit in the workplace. This study aimed to fill this void. Research approach, design and method: A qualitative constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Using purposive and snowball sampling, 40 employee misfits participated in face-to-face, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data analysed by using four steps prescribed by grounded theory researchers. Main findings: Results highlight two themes that epitomise the consequences of misfit: (1) causing negative reactions in individual employees and (2) producing organisationally directed detrimental outcomes. Practical/managerial implications: The study provides managers with a more profound understanding of the adverse consequences of misfit in the workplace and this will assist them in dealing more effectively with misfits. Contributions/value added: This research contributes to the literature in two ways: (1) it contributes to the theory of misfit by adding to the conception that misfit is a qualitatively different construct to that of low fit or the absence of fit, and (2) our approach sheds light on the multifaceted and intricate construct of misfit and its consequences.
... It is indicated in the literature that this situation can cause negative emotions. The research results of Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine and Vanderheyden (2004) indicate that value conflicts in organizations cause professional stress. This can be seen as important in terms of motivation, commitment and performance. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of classroom justice perceptions and school engagement for academic success of high school students. The sample of the study consisted of 650 high school students studying in Istanbul City in the 2018-2019 academic year. The study was designed as a correlational survey study. The data were collected by classroom justice perception of students and the school engagement scales. The data were analyzed by independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and regression analyses. The results suggest that there is a significant difference between high school students’ per- ceptions of justice in classroom management and their school engagement levels according to their gender, class levels and the types of schools they were educated. Besides, positive and low correlation was found between school engagement levels with distributive and awarding justice. It was concluded that the teachers should be fair in evaluating the students while ensuring fair classroom conduct. Bu çalışmanın amacı, lise öğrencilerinin sınıf yönetimindeki adalet algıları ile okula bağlılık düzeyleri ve akade- mik başarıları arasındaki ilişkileri ve lise öğrencilerinin sınıf içi adalet algılarının ve okula bağlılıklarının birlikte, akademik başarılarının bir yordayıcısı olup olmadığını belirlemektir. Araştırmanın örneklemini 2018-2019 eği- tim-öğretim yılında İstanbul İlinde eğitim gören 650 lise öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma modeli olarak ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Veriler ‘‘Sınıf Yönetiminde Adalet Algısı Ölçeği’’ ve ‘‘Okula Bağlılık Ölçe- ği’’ yardımıyla toplanmıştır. Veriler bağımsız gruplar t-testi, tek yönlü varyans analizi (ANOVA), korelâsyon ve regresyon analizleri ile çözümlenmiştir. Araştırma sonucuna göre lise öğrencilerinin sınıf yönetimindeki adalet algıları ve okula bağlılık düzeylerinde cinsiyetlerine, sınıf seviyelerine ve eğitim gördükleri okul türlerine göre anlamlı bir farklılık bulunmuştur. Öğretmenler, öğrenciler için adil bir sınıf yönetimi sağlarken yaptıkları değer- lendirmelerde adil olmaları gerektiği sonucuna varıldı.
... In contrast, the pursuit of conflicting values leads to psychological tension (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002;Schwartz, 1992). Consequently, in situations where a person cannot express and fulfill their values well-being diminishes (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005;Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002;Emmons & King, 1988;Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000). This finding is also consistent with Festinger's (1957) work on cognitive dissonance in which he states that the existence of internal dissonance within a person's mind is psychologically uncomfortable. ...
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This paper explores the potential negative side-effects of the sustainability movement in societies with large segments of materialistic consumers. Across three studies, there is evidence that a conflict between materialistic and green value profiles can arise in consumers. When it arises, it seems to be related to diminished well-being. Study 1 shows that consumers with a higher value conflict (VC) experienced higher levels of stress. Consumers with higher degrees of stress then reported lower satisfaction with life. Study 2 reveals the underlying process by which this value conflict affects well-being. The results suggest that the value conflict is related to a reduced clarity of consumers' self-concept (SCC), which in turn is related to increased levels of stress and a lower satisfaction with life. Results of Study 3 show that preference for consistency (PfC) serves as a boundary condition to this effect. The negative effect of VC on SCC is most pronounced among consumers high in PfC, while low PfC consumers seem to suffer less from the negative consequences of a conflict between green and materialistic values. Conceptual and public-policy implications of these results are discussed. K E Y W O R D S green values, materialism, preference for consistency, satisfaction with life, self-concept clarity, stress, value conflict
... The role of human values as moderating factors in the analysis of how job insecurity affects life satisfaction and wellbeing has, to our knowledge, not been considered before. The role of values for stress and wellbeing more generally has been the subject of a few studies, the most relevant for the present study being the one by Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, and Vanderheyden (2005). Drawing upon theories about growth-and deficiency-related needs, they argue that "stimulation" and related values are growth-related and are likely to alleviate stress, whereas "security" and related values are deficiency-related and therefore should correlate in a positive way with stress. ...
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The purpose of this study is to analyse the extent to which human values moderate the impact of job insecurity on life satisfaction and subjective wellbeing. Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, we argue that human values may affect both the relative importance of resources as well as the competency to successfully adjust to a changing work context. This theoretical framework leads to the expectation that individuals who are motivated by values emphasising variety seeking and taking on challenges in life will suffer less from job insecurity, whereas the wellbeing and life satisfaction of individuals with values motivating them to avoid uncertainty and resist change will be affected relatively more by job insecurity. Empirical analyses, using data from 28 countries from two waves of the European Social Survey, are largely supportive of these hypotheses.
... This outlook implies skepticism and confusion in regard to research on values, which is intensified by the large number of definitions and instruments used for their assessment. This implication results in the use of different value dimensions and makes it difficult to a universal reapplicability (BOUCKENOOGHE et al., 2005). The theoretical thought of Bourne and Jenkins (2013) reveals that a significant part of existing approaches ends up conceiving the phenomenon a single entity as stable and totally formed, which hinders the empirical and theoretical dialogue and, thus, the practical capacity of these instruments to assess the value basis that guide organizations. ...
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The studies on organizational values have acquired centrality in the Business Administration field within a functionalist perspective, based on the evidence that organizations with strong cultures achieve better global results. The belief in the potentiality of this resource, especially in regard to behavior alignment aimed for goal achievement, has prompted the quest for a theoretical structure of the concept and development of different ways of assessment. More contemporary perspectives, however, have come across significant constraints within the existing framework, especially the ones that disregard the dynamics of this concept. Such views provoke debates about the practical capacity of the instruments used for assessing the basis of values that govern organizations. The present study seeks to present a contemporary theoretical review on organizational values. Methodologically, it is a qualitative study that brings back to light the theory of value and its applicability to the organizational sphere, based on a survey of a literature review of empirical articles published on the subject between the period of 2000 and 2016.
... There have been many empirical studies that have examined the value congruence phenomenon positive affect on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and negative affect on turnover intention (Westerman, Cyr, 2004;Ostroff et al., 2005;Amos, Weathington, 2008;Ren, Hamann, 2015), employees' motivation (Lawrence, 2006;Posner, 2010;Ren, 2010). Previous researches have established a significant correlation between levels of stress and higher incongruence, which is ultimately manifested by a value conflict, leads to high levels of stress and to possibly even leaving the organization (Liedtka, 1989;Bouckenooghe et al., 2005;Medina et al., 2005;Lamm et al., 2010). A variety of types are used to conduct a comprehensive personal and organizational value congruence analysis in organizations: subjective (Cable, Edwards, 2004;Verplanken, 2004;Edwards, Cable, 2009), perceived (Kallas et al., 2010;Hoffman et al., 2011), objective (Suar, Khuntia, 2010) and even triangulation (Knoppen et al., 2006). ...
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The permanent dilemma of congruence between personal and organizational values, prevailing in the research, fosters the new search for answers and the ways to achieve the coherence of employees and organizations. Therefore, this paper investigates the ways of strengthening the congruence of personal and organizational values as applied in organizations from the viewpoint of executives and how to harmonize individual values and those prevailing in organizations. The study is conducted using a semi-structured interview method, giving informants additional questions arising in the course of the interview. The executives of 8 organizations participated in the research. It was found that the causes for value’ incongruence of the person and the organization in the researched organizations are different, and the gap is determined by different experiences with value management in the organizations presented in this paper.
... According to Preston (2003) which have been used in the past (Bouckenooghe et al. 2004). Environmental values typologies have been developed by environmental scientists, conservationists, social scientists and environmental philosophers in attempts to understand the meanings and values that society attaches to natural resources. ...
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Over the last decade or so, there has been an increasing need to acknowledge the role played by local resource users in environmental decision making and to incorporate their perceptions in the management of natural resources. This has led to the development of various methods of assessing environmental attitudes and of natural resource valuation. Most of these studies have been conducted in developed countries and have utilised economic methods of valuation. This study highlights the environmental attitudes and values of a very important group of stakeholders - women - and the significance of taking these into consideration in the management of local coastal natural resources. Using respondents from two Ghanaian coastal communities, Bortianor and Moree, the study also investigated poverty-coastal natural resource linkages and how this knowledge can be used to improve Natural Resource Management in Ghana. In proposing specific policy options for managing the coastal environment an examination of formal, informal institutional and legal framework was also done. Primary data was collected by means of focus group discussions, personal interviews and participant observations. A total of 304 women (151 from Bortianor and 153 from Moree) took part in the study. The results showed that the study communities had poor access to basic amenities such as potable water, schools, health facilities as well as basic sanitation services. Their livelihood patterns revolve around the availability of coastal natural resources such as fish and fuel wood. The attitudinal scale used to assess environmental attitudes achieved adequate internal consistency with Cronbach’s (1951) Alpha reliability coefficients of 0.729 in Bortianor and 0.735 in Moree. The environmental attitudes of respondents were overwhelmingly positive; this however did not match the state of affairs in the area. The study showed that positive attitudes do not always result in pro-environmental behaviour. In the study areas poverty, low educational levels and other social and cultural practices could also influence the ability of respondents to translate the generally positive environmental attitudes into positive environmental action. The section on environmental values assessed the environmental values of respondents through the relative importance they placed on the different benefits derived from coastal natural resources. It also prioritised environmental issues or concerns in the study areas from the perspectives of the respondents. Rather than use a simple ordinal ranking of all objects, the paired comparison approach was used. The study showed that in both areas respondents placed the greatest importance on the coastal natural resources as sources of wealth creation and food. When it came to environmental concerns, it was not surprising that issues of safe drinking water, available fish and good sanitation were most important to respondents. From the results it was argued that since coastal natural resources as sources of food and income ranked highest, developing activities and policies that add value to the fishery industry, generate income and improve the standard of living of respondents would be most effective. Improving their standard of living could shift their focus from more utilitarian values to that of more pro-natural resource values. After examining existing institutional capacities and respondents’ perceptions of who should manage local coastal natural resources, the study concludes by using the findings to make some practical policy recommendations.
... In this case, J. Jacobson emphasizes, there appears the problem from which the person can't escape and which he can't decide in short period by usual ways (Yacobson, 1974). As D. Bukenuge, M. Buelens and others show, the speed of problem decision will depend on its connection with groups of values: conservative values and values opened to changes (Bouckenooghe et al., 2005, pp. 369-382). ...
Article
Psychological aspects of functioning between professionals and amateurs are compared in the article. Thedifferences between professionals and amateurs depending on ethnic characteristics, type of activity, professional environment itself are shown. It is revealed that ideas developed in the subject’s consciousness towards carrying out activity define the peculiarities of its realization and form the demonstration of the corresponding behavior reactions. For professionals it is typical to render about activity as hard, difficult, intensive and responsible work that leads to the clear regulation of its aims and tasks, domination of professional behavior. Positive emotions, attitude towards activity as interesting, actively manifold, giving interesting contacts prevail in the ideas of amateurs, and it can cause revealing of carelessness, dreaminess, bustling. © 2015, Canadian Center of Science and Education. All rights reserved.
... They also found that value conflict mediated the association between materialistic values and subjective well-being in individuals with high collectiveoriented values but not in those with low collective-oriented values. Bouckenooghe et al. (2005) found that working adults with higher value conflicts experienced more stress than others. Owing to resource constraint, attainment of one goal implies non-attainment of another goal to which the individual has an equally strong aspiration. ...
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On the basis of self-determination theory, we predicted that the pursuit of material goals might negatively affect quality of life and psychological outcomes including sleep quality and mood states. We further hypothesized that the link between religious affiliation and these outcome variables could be explained, at least partially, by life goals. Longitudinal data collected from 700 Chinese adults demonstrated that for both Christians and non-believers, material goals had a detrimental effect on outcome variables measured 6 months later. More importantly, material goals partially mediated the effects of religious affiliation. That is, Christians were different from non-believers on the outcome variables partly because the former did not go after material goals. For these believers, moreover, the pursuit of religion-based goals brought psychological benefits. Not only can certain life goals explain why people with religious faiths have better psychological health and quality of life, they can also explain why not every religious person feels good and is content about their lives.
... In particular, value congruence between an organization and a job candidate has been linked to positive job choice intentions and later work attitudes, even when controlling for attractiveness of the job (Cable & Judge, 1996). Value congruence between an employee and their organization has been linked to greater affective commitment to the organization (Abbott, White & Charles, 2005), greater task and contextual performance (Goodman, & Svyantek, 1999), and lower levels of stress (Bouckenooghe, 2005). A meta-analysis by Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman, and Johnson (2005) found that person-job and person-organization value congruence were significantly positively linked with job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and significantly negatively linked with intent to quit. ...
... Nevertheless, the mechanism causing materialistic individuals to be more vulnerable to posttraumatic stress symptoms requires further investigation. Values have been documented to be relevant to the experience of stress (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005). Kishon-Barash, Midlarsky, & Johnson (1999) demonstrated that individuals reporting high levels of other-directedness, as measured by altruism, were less likely to suffer from PTSD symptoms. ...
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This study investigated the way in which exposure to traumatic stress, posttraumatic reactions, and materialistic values impact coping and maladaptive consumption behaviors in a real-life traumatic situation. One hundred thirty-nine Israelis were sampled from a town under constant rocket fire (a high-stress environment), and 187 comparison respondents were sampled from a low-stress location. Our data show a main effect for materialism for all of the distress and maladaptive consumer behaviors under study, as well as for most coping behaviors with the exception of interpersonal expressive coping. In the high-stress group, interpersonal expressive coping, reflecting an inclination to utilize social support, was highest among mildly materialistic individuals. Highly materialistic persons were, presumably, more oriented to objects than humans, rendering a more support-seeking way of coping less relevant for them. Highly materialistic participants in the high-stress group reported the highest levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results of this study also suggest that the pleasures of shopping cannot attenuate posttraumatic distress and that maladaptive shopping behaviors increase with the level of traumatic exposure.
... Estos resultados son consistentes con la propuesta teórica de Schwartz (1992), quien plantea que la apertura al cambio y la conservación son dimensiones opuestas entre sí y por lo tanto llevarían a los individuos a comportamientos opuestos. En adición, el estudio de Bouckennoogue et al. (2005) muestra que las personas con bajo estrés tienden a ser más conformistas, lo que es una característica asociada a los valores de Conservación y por ende se sentirán menos dispuestos a lidiar con situaciones novedosas y estresantes como el dejar su país de origen. Lo anterior es respaldado por las relaciones conceptuales observadas entre los valores de Conservación y el rasgo de personalidad de conciencia (Roccas et al., 2002), donde cabe resaltar la coherencia percibida entre ambas variables y sus relaciones con la disposición a emigrar y el posterior comportamiento migratorio observado en la muestra. ...
Article
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This study analyses relationship among several psychological variables as personality traits, personal values and emotional climate with emigrational intentions and migratory behavior of high and middle-class students and young professionals from Peru. In that sense, three groups of participants were compared: those who do not want to emigrate (n=33), those who want to emigrate (n=33) and those who already had emigrated (n=33). Related to personality, trait of Consciousness is inversely associated to intention of emigrate and emigrational behavior. On the other hand, values directly associated to emigrational intentions were those that belong to Self-Enhancement and Openness to Change objectives meanwhile values inversely associated to these intentions were the Conservative ones. Emotional Climate perceptions showed a complex tendency that influences emigrational intentions. However, based on our data, it is difficult to identify specific influences from specific types of emotional climates in emigrational processes. Finally, considering the social and economic characteristics of the sample, it is suggested that reasons that influence migration processes are more individualistic -associated to personality traits and values- than collectivistic -associated to emotional climate.
... Several value items have weak loadings on their value dimensions, others have important cross-loadings, which amplify the problem of multicollinearity. This reliability issue may also be exacerbated by the length of the SVS instrument (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005;Stern, Dietz, & Guagnano, 1998;Van den Broeck, Vanderheyden, & Cools, 2003). When integrated into a survey, the total number of items may easily reach 100 (Burroughs & RindXeisch, 2002), resulting in respondent fatigue. ...
Article
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Schwartz’s value system (SVS) has been widely used in different disciplines (e.g., psychology, management, and marketing). Although the value structure seems to be validated when data are analyzed through multidimensional scaling, we show that the quasi-circumplex structure of human values is not supported when confirmatory analysis approaches (e.g., CIRCUM and constrained confirmatory factor analysis) are used. Based on two samples of French and Swiss respondents, confirmatory tests of SVS provide little support for its quasi-circumplex structure, mainly due to problems of construct and discriminant validity resulting from multicollinearity between value types.
... Furthermore, the Value Congruence Hypothesis assumes that congruity between people's values and their environment promotes well-being regardless of the values to which people ascribe importance. People are likely to experience a positive sense of well-being when they inhabit an environment that allows them to attain the goals to which their values are directed (Bouckenooghe et al., 2005; Joiner, 2001; Sagiv and Schwartz, 2000; Taris and Fei, 2001). Also important to note is that none of the structural characteristics (school size, number of school settlements and the characteristics of student population) and teachers' well-being seem to contribute to a better understanding of the principal's positive and negative well-being. ...
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Purpose The goal of this inquiry is to indicate which individual, organisational and external environment factors contribute to a better understanding of the well‐being of Flemish primary school principals. Design/methodology/approach Data from a representative sample of primary schools in Flanders ( n = 46) were gathered through questionnaires (principals and teachers) and semi‐structured interviews (principals). Findings The quantitative and qualitative outcomes suggest that well‐being is a complex psychological phenomenon affected by a myriad of factors. The analyses indicate that general self‐efficacy and achievement orientedness are significantly correlated with several aspects of positive (i.e. job satisfaction and job enthusiasm) and negative well‐being (i.e. cynicism and personal accomplishment). With respect to school culture and structural characteristics, very weak almost negligible effects are noted. In addition, the analysis demonstrates the significant role school boards fulfill in explaining both positive and negative well‐being. Finally, the role of central government in generally is found to affect well‐being in a negative way. Practical implications The findings of this paper provide important information for policy makers concerned with the improvement of the well‐being of primary school principals. Originality/value Although prior research investigated the influence of different antecedents on well‐being, several limitations in method and conceptual framework yielded information of which the usefulness must be considered tentative. In this inquiry an attempt is made to overcome these limitations and contribute to the literature in a double way: this study adopts a concurrent mixed method approach of data collection; and well‐being is examined from a positive psychology (job enthusiasm and job satisfaction) and negative psychology approach (burnout), whereas prior research almost exclusively looked at the negative pole of well‐being.
... Several value items have weak loadings on their value dimensions, others have important cross-loadings, which amplify the problem of multicollinearity. This reliability issue may also be exacerbated by the length of the SVS instrument (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005;Stern, Dietz, & Guagnano, 1998;Van den Broeck, Vanderheyden, & Cools, 2003). When integrated into a survey, the total number of items may easily reach 100 (Burroughs & RindXeisch, 2002), resulting in respondent fatigue. ...
Article
Full-text available
Schwartz's value system (SVS) has been widely used in different disciplines (e.g., psychology, management, and marketing). Although the value structure seems to be validated when data are analyzed through multidimensional scaling, we show that the quasi-circumplex structure of human values is not supported when confirmatory analysis approaches (e.g., CIRCUM and constrained confirmatory factor analysis) are used. Based on two samples of French and Swiss respondents, confirmatory tests of SVS provide little support for its quasi-circumplex structure, mainly due to problems of construct and discriminant validity resulting from multicollinearity between value types.
... differences between actual, perceived, and subjective fit). As such, the congruence or fit model has not been fully applied, as personal and organisational components were often measured separately (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005). ...
Article
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Research investigating predictors of stress perceptions in organisational settings has been extensive. Value incongruence between employees and the organisation as well as organisational justice (distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal) are thought to be significant predictors of organisational outcomes. The current study investigated value incongruence and organisational justice as predictors of perceived stress in a sample of 362 organisational employees in Beirut, Lebanon. Results indicated that incongruence on value types of benevolence, power, and self-direction are weakly predictive of perceived stress, while perceptions of interpersonal and distributive injustice are strongly predictive of perceived stress in the Lebanese organisational context. Implications of these differential findings for organisational and cross-cultural research are discussed. Nombreuses ont été les recherches sur les prédicteurs du vécu du stress dans les organisations. La contradiction des valeurs des salariés et de l'organisation ainsi que la justice organisationnelle (distributive, procédurale, informationnelle et interpersonnelle) sont considérées comme étant des prédicteurs efficaces des réalités organisationnelles. Ce travail porte sur l'incohérence des valeurs et la justice organisationnelle en tant que prédicteurs du stress ressenti dans un échantillon de 362 salariés de Beyrouth (Liban). Les résultats montrent que des contradictions sur des valeurs comme la bienveillance, le pouvoir et l'autonomie sont peu prédictives du stress perçu, tandis que la perception des injustices interpersonnelle et distributive est fortement prédictive du stress ressenti dans le contexte organisationnel libanais. On discute des retombées de ces résultats différentiels sur les travaux organisationnels et transculturels.
... Oishi, Diener, Suh, & Lucas, 1999;Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000) or stress (e.g. Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, & Vanderheyden, 2005). According to this second perspective, well-being might be promoted by engagement in relationships organized in a way that is compatible with one's values. ...
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In this study, the comprehensive value research by Schwartz (e.g. 1992) was linked to Fiske's relational models theory (RMT, e.g. Fiske, 1991). A sample of 297 people answered the personal values questionnaire (PVQ), the modes of relationship questionnaire (MORQ) and the relationship profile scale (RPS) in a web-based online survey. As hypothesized, the set of 10 values correlated in a systematic manner—according to the circular structure of personal value systems—with both trait-like construal of and motivational investment in the relational models communal sharing (CS), authority ranking (AR) and market pricing (MP). Further research concerning a person–environment value congruency approach to predict well-being is suggested combining the two research traditions. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Students with more conservative values are more likely to fit in and enjoy the supportive atmosphere of their environment. Future research should tackle value congruity at different levels (Bouckenooghe, Buelens, Fontaine, and Vanderheyden, 2005), starting with the person's immediate environments like family and university, also taking into account effects of transnational trends like consumerism and globalization. ...
... Schwartz et al. (2001, p. 523) reported that value priorities have shown 'systematic, meaningful, and predictable relations with numerous attitudes, personality traits, behaviours, and background variables in 20 countries studied'. In their survey of 400 Belgian employees, Bouchenooghe et al. (2005) reported values and value conflicts as significant predictors of stress. Subjects with a value priority of openness to change experienced significantly less stress than those with value priorities of conservation, self-enhancement and self-transcendence. ...
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Burnout is a multidimensional indicator of people's psychological relationship with their job, the opposite end of which is engagement. Culture's impact on students' burnout is investigated by examining the burnout level of Hong Kong Chinese architecture students and its correlation with Confucian conformity values, the dominant societal cultural values in Confucian-Heritage-Cultures (CHC)1 society. Two hundred and ninety-four students enrolled in Bachelor and Master programmes in architecture from two Hong Kong universities participated in the study. The Chinese version of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey and a seven-item conformity scale taken from the Schwartz Value Survey were employed to measure burnout and conformity values. Conformity values were found to be positively correlated with the EX dimension of burnout, negatively correlated with the CY (doubt significance) and the IE dimension of burnout, and not correlated with the CY (lose interest) dimension of burnout. The paradoxical effect of conformity values suggests that burnout is more than an individual phenomenon. Rather, it is a systematic problem rooted in the inconsistencies between the social culture in which the individual students are immersed and the learning culture of the architectural schools to which students are trying to adapt. Without an understanding of the contextual inconsistency, the burnout dilemma seems to be certain. The organizers of the architecture curriculum are urged to take students' social cultural context into account and address cultural diversity in their programmes.
Article
The current study examines the influence of value congruence on the relationship between materialism and well-being in the context of adolescent materialism in the family environment. The study proposes a theoretical foundation of person-environment fit, which maintains that when an individual’s personal values and the values in one’s environment are complementary, the individual experiences enhanced well-being. Evidence shows that when the degree to which an adolescent prioritizes materialism as a personal value aligns with the degree to which a parent prioritizes materialism as a personal value, the adolescent reports higher subjective well-being. The findings imply that the value of materialism itself does not necessarily lead to negative outcomes during adolescence. Children in value-congruent, highly materialistic family environments are likely to experience the greatest life satisfaction and the least depression. Conclusions suggest that researchers should further examine the influence of moderating factors in the relationship between materialism and well-being.
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Pressure from the media affects the daily work of bureaucrats and induces ‘media stress’, with potentially critical effects on the quality of public policy. This article analyses how bureaucrats’ daily work has been adapted to the media (‘mediatised’) and which groups of bureaucrats experience the most media-stress. Reporting the results of an original and large-scale survey (N=4,655) this article demonstrates that levels of media-stress vary among different groups of civil servants. In turn, its analysis suggests that media-stress is more pronounced in the Netherlands than in Norway, is more concentrated in the lower rungs of administrative hierarchies and is related to media pressures on organisations. By untangling the underlying logic of mediatisation and the dynamics of media-stress, this article makes an important contribution to extant scholarship and also provides a series of practical recommendations.
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The article considers new criteria for quantitative assessment of value contradictions — value oppositions and an indicator of value-intentional coherence — that develop Schwartz’s ideas about harmonious, neutral or oppositional relationships of values in the structure of value consciousness. Using statistical analysis, the informative character of the criteria in predicting the success of the formation of professional competencies and assessing the effectiveness of human adaptation to unfavorable socio-psychological conditions is shown. A hypothesis is formulated about the possibility of applying the criteria of value contradictions as a measure of intentional competence, the intensity of an intrapersonal conflict, the success of the formation of professional competencies and the integration of the identity of a person. The obtained results testify to the prospects of using the developed psychodiagnostic criteria in the practice of psychological and personnel counseling, psychological support of the educational process, and also to assess the intensity of social and psychological adaptation.
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The objective of the study was to identify differences between men and women according to their experience with occupational stress, associated risk factors, and the coping mechanisms used. The sample included 579 women and 515 men, all working at the same organization based in Porto. Information was gathered using a four point scale to measure perceived job stress, stress factor sources, the coping strategies employed, and the connection between personal and organizational values. Using the ANOVA test, we found that there were no significant differences, considering as significant p
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Based on a resource perspective, the authors investigated how leader–follower power distance value incongruence influences employees’ withdrawal behavior. Data were collected twice in China, and the sample included 66 leaders and 350 followers. Leader–follower power distance value incongruence was found to be associated with the psychological workplace strain experienced by followers, indicating that incongruence was a stressor for this group and further influenced their withdrawal behavior. Moreover, incongruence had asymmetrical effects; that is, followers experienced higher psychological workplace strain when their power distance was lower than that of their leaders, compared with when their power distance was higher. The authors also found that the leader’s role can make a difference, as the leaders’ political skill mitigated the effect of value incongruence on their followers’ psychological workplace strain. The study provides a novel extension of value congruence theory and also contributes to the field of value conflict management.
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As a leader, it is imperative to focus not only on production but, at the same time, to be considerate of employees. In this study, the "Maslach" Burnout Inventory (MBI) was utilized to measure three general sources of stress; emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The "Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire" (LBDQ) was utilized to measure the production-orientation and consideration-orientation of the participants' leaders. Findings included that the more considerate the leader was the less depersonalized and the less emotionally exhausted the follower felt. The more production-oriented the leader was the more emotionally exhausted the follower was. When analyzing predictors of emotional exhaustion for Generation Y, it was found that the more texting this generation did after work hours, the less job-related emotional exhaustion they felt. © Common Ground, Debra Lopez, Mark Green, Meghan Carmody-Bubb, Stephanie Kodatt, All Rights.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend the attitudinal approach to entrepreneurial intentions by using a structural analysis to explore overlooked personal values as the antecedents of entrepreneurial attitude. Based on the widely adopted value system proposed by Schwartz, this study argues that while one cluster of personal values is positively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude that leads to entrepreneurial intention, another cluster of personal values is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude. Design/methodology/approach – Questionnaire responses obtained from a sample of 276 MBA were analyzed using structural equation models to examine the influences of values on entrepreneurial intentions via entrepreneurial attitude. Findings – The results of this study demonstrate that personal values of self-direction, stimulation, achievement, and universalism are all positively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude, which together constitute a comfort zone for entrepreneurship, whereas values in the opposite end of the circumplex including benevolence, tradition, conformity, security, and power are negatively correlated with entrepreneurial attitude. The values that discourage the formation of an entrepreneurial attitude also counter the positive effect of entrepreneurial attitude on intention, making the relationship between entrepreneurial attitude and intention contingent upon value conflicts. Originality/value – This study regards entrepreneurship as a career development and contributes to the entrepreneurship study by differentiating the influences of a vital construct, i.e., personal values, which should not be regarded as a universalism. The value circumplex with a comfort and discomfort zone developed by this study can serve as a platform to help build the view on entrepreneurial intentions in terms of personal values.
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360 degree feedback is a widely used technique in the area of strategic human resource management (SHRM) and strategic human resource development (SHRD). The reliability of 360 degree feedback on the capacity to develop personal qualities has been investigated. This study shows to what extent the number of raters is related to an increasing reliability and an enhancement of correlation between supervisor and peer ratings. Ten raters are needed to reach a satisfying reliability level of 0.7 for the rating of the capacity to develop personal qualities, while six raters are needed for a reliability level of 0.7 with regard to the rating of motivation to develop these qualities. The use of two or three peer raters, as is common in the daily HRM/HRD practice, results in low reliability levels and in low agreement between supervisor and peer ratings. These results imply that 360 degree feedback is more useful in a personal growth system than in an administrative system, where the outcomes of the feedback are considered to be objective representations of work behaviour. Further implications for the SHRM/SHRD practice, especially concerning the development of competences, with personal qualities as developmental goals, are discussed.
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A hierarquia de valores individuais orienta escolhas, atitudes e comportamentos, inclusive no âmbito profissional. Um aspecto que tem merecido atenção de pesquisadores é compreender em que medida os valores (prioridades axiológicas) de uma pessoa sofrem mudanças ao longo do tempo, em diferentes estágios de sua vida e/ou carreira. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a variação dos valores individuais conforme o tempo de formado de administradores de empresas. Para isso, foi administrado o inventário de valores de Schwartz junto a uma amostra de 179 administradores de empresas, egressos da Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade da Universidade de São Paulo, formados entre 1967 e 2008. A Anova foi calculada em nível dos tipos motivacionais de valores e das dimensões bipolares. Os resultados indicaram variações no perfil axiológico dos sujeitos, à medida que aumenta o tempo de formado. Essa variação avança da priorização dos valores hedonismo e estimulação (abertura à mudança), nos primeiros anos de formado, para uma ênfase maior nos valores segurança, tradição e conformidade (conservação), em estágios mais avançados da carreira. Também há um deslocamento da priorização de valores que atendem a interesses individuais (no início da carreira) para valores que atendem a interesses coletivos (em estágios posteriores). Outros resultados, bem como implicações e possíveis causas, também são discutidos.
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Self-transcendence is a quality inherent in every human being. This process toward personal transformation is instrumental in finding true meaning and purpose in life. When faced with adversity, self-transcendence can be a powerful coping strategy. Clarity of this concept will assist nurses in providing holistic interventions that promote and facilitate self-transcendence.
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This paper presents a theory of potentially universal aspects in the content of human values. Ten types of values are distinguished by their motivational goals. The theory also postulates a structure of relations among the value types, based on the conflicts and compatibilities experienced when pursuing them. This structure permits one to relate systems of value priorities, as an integrated whole, to other variables. A new values instrument, based on the theory and suitable for cross-cultural research, is described. Evidence relevant for assessing the theory, from 97 samples in 44 countries, is summarized. Relations of this approach to Rokeach's work on values and to other theories and research on value dimensions are discussed. Application of the approach to social issues is exemplified in the domains of politics and intergroup relations.
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The relationship between perceived organizational variables (sources of role stress and job characteristics), personality variables (manifest needs, type A personality and self-esteem) and physiological and attitudinal measures of stress were examined. Sixty-two employees from a manufacturing firm provided data on a questionnaire and agreed to have the physiological measurements taken. Correlational data indicated that the job characteristics were generally systematically related to diastolic blood pressure. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the incremental variance accountedfor by certain personal characteristics, the personality variables and the organizational variables. Personality factors as a group accounted for significant variance in manifest anxiety. A number of organizational factors and personality variables accountedfor significant variance in each of the dependent measures.
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The purported advantage of a strong corporate culture presumes that positive outcomes result when peoples' values are congruent with those of others. This was tested by using a design that controlled for artifacts in prior studies. Participants, 191 production workers, their supervisors ( N = 17), and 13 managers at a large industrial products plant, completed questionnaires containing measures of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work values. Responses were later matched with the attendance and performance records of the production workers in the sample. Results showed that workers were more satisfied and committed when their values were congruent with the values of their supervisor. Value congruence between workers and their supervisors was not significantly correlated with workers' tenure; however, its effect on organizational commitment was more pronounced for longer tenured employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
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Publisher Summary This chapter addresses the universals in the content and structure of values, concentrating on the theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries, and its four basic issues: substantive contents of human values; identification of comprehensive set of values; extent to which the meaning of particular values was equivalent for different groups of people; and how the relations among different values was structured. Substantial progress has been made toward resolving each of these issues. Ten motivationally distinct value types that were likely to be recognized within and across cultures and used to form value priorities were identified. Set of value types that was relatively comprehensive, encompassing virtually all the types of values to which individuals attribute at least moderate importance as criteria of evaluation was demonstrated. The evidence from 20 countries was assembled, showing that the meaning of the value types and most of the single values that constitute them was reasonably equivalent across most groups. Two basic dimensions that organize value systems into an integrated motivational structure with consistent value conflicts and compatibilities were discovered. By identifying universal aspects of value content and structure, the chapter has laid the foundations for investigating culture-specific aspects in the future.
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Personality and differential psychology have paid little attention to values research. Consequently, the constructs used in these subdisciplines have developed independently, and evidence regarding the relations of personality to values is minimal. This study seeks to advance our understanding of these relations and to arrive at a theoretical integration of constructs. Starting from recent developments in values theory (Schwartz, 1992; Schwartz and Bilsky, 1987, 1990) and drawing on Maslow's (1955) distinction between ‘deficiency’ and ‘growth’ needs, we elaborate theoretical links between personality and values with special emphasis on structural relations. A set of hypotheses regarding these relations is generated and tested next, using data from a study with 331 German students. These students completed both the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) and the Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI), measuring ten primary and two secondary personality variables, namely extraversion and emotionality. Joint Similarity Structure Analyses (SSAs) of values and personality variables were conducted. The findings reveal both meaningful and systematic associations of value priorities with personality variables, confirming the hypothesized structural relationships. The compatibility of our hypotheses with the complex findings of George (1954) using totally different indexes of both values (Allport–Vernon Study of Values) and personality (drawn from Eysenck and Guilford) further supports the theoretical connections proposed in this study.
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Two studies investigated relations of value priorities to measures of subjective well-being. Samples of students and adults, from Israel and former East and West Germany (N=1261), participated in Part I. Hypothesized direct relations of nine types of values to well-being, based on ‘healthy’ values from the psychotherapy literature, relations of values to needs, self-determination theory, and the emotional resources needed to pursue various values were tested in each sample. Achievement, self-direction, stimulation, tradition, conformity and security values correlated with affective well-being, as predicted, but not with cognitive well-being. Part II tested the hypothesis that well-being depends upon congruence between personal values and the prevailing value environment. Results largely supported specific hypotheses regarding the values conducive to positive and negative well-being among students of business administration (n=40) and psychology (n=42). Hypotheses were derived from the social sanctions, environmental affordances for value attainment, and internal value conflicts likely to be experienced in each department. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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We constructed a theory of the universal types of values as criteria by viewing values as cognitive representations of three universal requirements: (a) biological needs, (b) interactional requirements for interpersonal coordination, and (c) societal demands for group welfare and survival. From these requirements, we have derived and presented conceptual and operational definitions for eight motivational domains of values: enjoyment, security, social power, achievement, self-direction, prosocial, restrictive conformity, and maturity. In addition, we have mapped values according to the interests they serve (individualistic vs. collectivist) and the type of goal to which they refer (terminal vs. instrumental). We postulated that the structural organization of value systems reflects the degree to which giving high priority simultaneously to different values is motivationally and practically feasible or contradictory. To test our theory, we performed smallest space analyses on ratings given by subjects from Israel (N = 455) and Germany (N = 331) of the importance of 36 Rokeach values as guiding principles in their lives. Partitioning of the obtained multidimensional space into regions revealed that people do indeed discriminate among values according to our a priori specifications of goal types, interests served, and motivational domains in both societies. Moreover, the motivational domains of values are organized dynamically in relation to one another in both societies, as predicted by the patterns of compatible or contradictory motivation and practical consequences. We have noted additional values and domains possibly needed for a universal scheme as well as potential applications of this approach for comparing the meanings, structure, and importance of values across cultures, for analyzing relations between social structure and values, and for predicting and interpreting relations of values to attitudes and behavior.
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We explored whether values focused on money, image, and popularity are associated with lowered well-being, even in environmental circumstances supportive of such values. To this end, we administered three widely used measures of a materialistic value orientation to 92 business students in Singapore. As expected, those students who had strongly internalized materialistic values also reported lowered self-actualization, vitality and happiness, as well as increased anxiety, physical symptomatology, and unhappiness. Results are consistent with past research suggesting that some types of values may be unhealthy. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The extent to which negative affectivity (NA), the tendency to experience a wide range of negative emotions, inflated correlations between chronic job stressors and strains was examined in this study. NA was found to account for a large proportion of shared variance between stressors and physical strains (as indicated by absence, doctor visits, and physical symptoms). Contrary to the results of Brief, Burke, George, Robinson, and Webster (1988), NA did not account for much of the variance shared by stressors and affective strains (job satisfaction, anger, and feelings of stress and frustration). Reasons for the failure of this and several earlier studies to successfully replicate Brief et al.'s results are explored.
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Although emotional expressivity figures prominently in several theories of psychological and physical functioning, limitations of currently available measurement techniques impede precise and economical testing of these theories. The 17-item Emotional Expressivity Scale (EES) was designed as a self-report measure of the extent to which people outwardly display their emotions. Reliability studies showed the EES to be an internally consistent and stable individual-difference measure. Validational studies established initial convergent and discriminant validities, a moderate relationship between self-rated and other-rated expression, and correspondence between self-report and laboratory-measured expressiveness using both college student and community populations. The potential for the EES to promote and integrate findings across diverse areas of research is discussed.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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More than 40 years have elapsed since the concept of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) was introduced by Selye in a letter to the editor of Nature. It has since been widely studied, leading to nearly 100,000 publications in the medical and lay press. The essence of the idea is that a wide variety of nonspecific stimuli provoke a relatively stereotyped pattern of response marked by increased adrenal cortical secretion or even adrenal cortical hypertrophy. Selye regards a "stressor" to be any stimulus capable of leading to "general adaptation." The phenomenon of adaptation has become of major importance to neurologists in understanding some of the relationships between the hypothalamus, other parts of the nervous system, and the adrenal cortex, both in terms of normal function and the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases.Selye intended this volume to be an encyclopedia dealing with many aspects of stress ranging from
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The extent to which negative affectivity (NA), the tendency to experience a wide range of negative emotions, inflated correlations between chronic job stressors and strains was examined in this study. NA was found to account for a large proportion of shared variance between stressors and physical strains (as indicated by absence, doctor visits, and physical symptoms). Contrary to the results of Brief, Burke, George, Robinson, and Webster (1988), NA did not account for much of the variance shared by stressors and affective strains (job satisfaction, anger, and feelings of stress and frustration). Reasons for the failure of this and several earlier studies to successfully replicate Brief et al.'s results are explored.
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Causes and Consequences of Organizational Stress Causes and Consequences of Stress from the Interface of Work and Non-Work Domains Causes and Consequences of Stress from the Domain of Non-Work Sociodemographic and Cultural Antecedents of Stress Relevant to the Study of Organizational Behavior Managing the Dysfunctional Aspects of Stress: The Role of Coping and Adaption Conclusion Author and Subject Indexes.
Article
The original idea for this handbook of attitude and personality measures came from Robert Lane, a political scientist at Yale University. Like most social scientists, Lane found it difficult to keep up with the proliferation of social attitude measures. In the summer of 1958, he attempted to pull together a broad range of scales that would be of interest to researchers in the field of political behavior. Subsequently, this work was continued and expanded at the Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan under the general direction of Philip Converse, with support from a grant by the National Institute of Mental Health. The result was a three-volume series, the most popular of which was the last, Measures of Social Psychological Attitudes. That is the focus of our first update of the original volumes. Readers will note several differences between this work and its predecessors. Most important, we have given responsibility for each topic to experienced and well-known researchers in each field rather than choosing and evaluating items by ourselves. These experts were also limited to identifying the 10 or 20 most interesting or promising measures in their area, rather than covering all available instruments. This new structure has resulted in more knowledgeable review essays, but at the expense of less standardized evaluations of individual instruments. There are many reasons for creating a volume such as this. Attitude and personality measures are likely to appear under thousands of book titles, in dozens of social science journals, in seldom circulated dissertations, and in the catalogues of commercial pub-lishers, as well as in undisturbed piles of manuscripts in the offices of social scientists. This is a rather inefficient grapevine for the interested researcher. Too few scholars stay in the same area of study on a continuing basis for several years, so it is difficult to keep up with all of the empirical literature and instruments available. Often, the interdisciplinary investigator is interested in the relation of some new variable, which has come to attention casually, to a favorite area of interest. The job of combing the literature to pick a proper instrument consumes needless hours and often ends in a frustrating decision to forego measuring that characteristic, or worse, it results in a rapid and incomplete attempt to devise a new measure. Our search of ihe literature has revealed unfortunate replications of previous discoveries as well as lack of attention to better research done in a particular area. The search procedure used by our authors included thorough reviews of Psychologi-cal Abstracts as well as the most likely periodical sources of psychological instruments (e.g., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Personality Assessment, Journal of Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Child Devel-opment, and the Journal of Applied Psychology) and sociological and political measures (Social Psychology Quarterly, American Sociological Review, Public Opinion Quarterly, and American Political Science Review). Doctoral dissertations were searched by examin-ing back issues of Dissertation Abstracts. Personal contact with the large variety of empirical research done by colleagues widened the search, as did conversations with researchers at annual meetings of the American Sociological Association and the Ameri-can Psychological Association, among others. Papers presented at these meetings also served to bring a number of new instruments to our attention. Our focus in this volume is on attitude and personality scales (i.e., series of items with homogeneous content), scales that are useful in survey or personality research set-tings as well as in laboratory situations. We have not attempted the larger and perhaps hopeless task of compiling single attitude items, except for ones that have been used in large-scale studies of satisfaction and happiness (see Chapter 3). While these often tap important variables in surveys and experiments, a complete compilation of them (even for happiness) is beyond our means. Although we have attempted to be as thorough as possible in our search, we make no claim that this volume contains every important scale pertaining to our chapter headings. We do feel, however, that our chapter authors have identified most of the high quality instruments.
Article
The process of redesign and organizational development from a functional to a holistic nursing system is evaluated with respect to its influence on work stressors and the implications for burnout and interactional stress. The investigation is based on a longitudinal comparative study between one "model hospital" and two "control hospitals". Two groups of data were analysed: a bundle of quantitative indicators of different forms of work stressors, which proved to be reliable predictors of burnout, and qualitative data stemming from group discussions with the nursing staff to detail and to illustrate the quantitative results. Multivariate analysis of variance was applied to inspect main, simple main, and interaction effects of the factors time and hospital. The quantitative results show that work stressors were substantially reduced in the model hospital in the course of redesign, while emotional exhaustion and depersonalization increased. According to the qualitative results this effect can be interpreted in terms of an intensification of interactional stress and emotional work within the holistic nursing system. The results are discussed against the background of a modernization of work systems in people-oriented human services.
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To test Herzberg's (1966, 1987; Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959) motivator-hygiene theory, I examined the relationship between work values and job satisfaction. Educators (N # 386) from 18 Canadian secondary schools were asked to report the degree to which they experienced 16 work values and five dimensions of job satisfaction. Factor analysis suggested five sets of work values: intrinsic work-related, intrinsic work-outcome, extrinsic job-related, extrinsic job-outcome, and extrinsic people-related. Regression analyses identified the best predictors for each of the five dimensions of job satisfaction. The results support and extend Herzberg's theory. In addition to those identified by Herzberg, other factors contributed portions of variance to the five dimensions of job satisfaction.
Article
The authors present a brief inventory derived from Schwartz's 56-item instrument measuring the structure and content of human values. The inventory's four 3-item scales, measuring the major clusters called Self-Transcendence, Self-Enhancement, Openness to Change, and Conservation (or Traditional) values, all produce scores with acceptable reliability in two studies of pro-environmental attitudes and actions, and the brief inventory predicts those indicators nearly as well as much longer ones. The authors also present subscales of biospheric and altruistic values that can be used to assess whether Self-Transcendence values are differentiated in this way in special samples such as environmental activists. The brief inventory is suitable for use in survey research and other settings in which the longer instrument might be impractical.
Article
It's a manager's perennial question: "How do I get an employee to do what I want?" The psychology of motivation is very complex, and what has been unraveled with any degree of assurance is small indeed. But the dismal ratio of knowledge to speculation has not dampened managers' enthusiasm for snake oil, new forms of which are constantly coming on the market, many of them with academic testimonials. The surest way of getting someone to do something is to deliver a kick in the pants-put bluntly, the KITA. Because of the inelegance of a physical KITA and the danger that a manager might get kicked in return, companies usually resort to positive KITAs, ranging from fringe benefits to employee counseling. But while a KITA might produce some change in behavior, it doesn't motivate. Frederick Herzberg, whose work influenced a generation of scholars and managers, likens motivation to an internal generator. An employee with an internal generator, he argues, needs no KITA. Achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility, and growth or advancement motivate people. The author cites research showing that those intrinsic factors are distinct from extrinsic, or KITA, elements that lead to job dissatisfaction, such as company administration) supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary, status, and job security. Managers tend to believe that job content is sacrosanct. But jobs can be changed and enriched. Managers should focus on positions where people's attitudes are poor, the investment needed in industrial engineering is cost-effective, and motivation will make a difference in performance.
Article
This study examined the relationship of managerial and professional womens’ perception of organizational values supportive of work-personal life balance in their workplace and their work experiences, work and non-work satisfactions and psychological well-being. Data were collected from 251 women using anonymous questionnaires. Managerial women reporting organizational values more supportive of work-personal life balance also reported greater job and career satisfaction, less work stress, less intention to quit, greater family satisfaction, fewer psychosomatic symptoms and more positive emotional well-being. Interestingly, perceptions of organizational values supportive of work-personal life balance were unrelated to hours and extra-hours worked and job involvement.
Article
Job-related stress has significant untoward consequences and appears to be wide-spread. Although job-related stress has a number of causes, the focus of this study is the stress associated with the lack of alignment between managers’ societal values and the culture of the organization in which the manager works. Using a sample of 78 Greek managers, it is argued that the Eiffel Tower organizational culture, characterized by low levels of decentralization and high levels of formalization, is congruent with the Greek societal values of high power distance and strong uncertainty avoidance, reducing Greek managers’ job-related stress and increasing their performance. Results indicate that an Eiffel Tower organizational culture/Greek societal culture fit is associated with lower reported job stress but not increased managerial performance. Implications of the results are discussed.
Article
Research data on dominant work-related values patterns in 53 countries and regions are used to suggest how definitions of the quality of life are affected by national culture patterns.
Article
This index is intended to facilitate finding information on instruments discussed in Robinson, Shaver, and Wrightsman (1991). The book has a detailed table of contents, but no index. When required to find information quickly on a particular instrucment, librarians and researchers would rather consult an index than peruse a lengthy table of contents.
Article
A good deal of evidence indicates that (job) status is inversely related to mental and physical illness. This paper seeks to provide a conceptual linkage between status and health and to review a series of studies which test the relevance of the intervening variables. The concept of self-esteem and self-evaluation organized around differing sub-identities of the self is proposed as a major intervening variable. Occupational self-esteem is viewed as being influenced by encounters with relevant reference persons or groups. Loss of self-esteem and/or status incongruence can lead to the development of symptoms. Some action implications for shaping healthier organizational environments are proposed, namely, increasing the power of low status workers via decentralization, modifying conventional appraisal systems and enabling cohesive and cooperative work groups to develop. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents an empirical description and evaluation of the validity, reliability, and accuracy of 127 social psychological measures in 9 areas (e.g., self-esteem, locus of control, alienation and anomie, authoritarianism and dogmatism, values, and religious and social attitudes). A review of factors involved in the measurement of life satisfaction and happiness is included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews the literature concerning values and work, examining studies on (1) the structure of values, (2) value profiles and patterns, and (3) value change. Studies on the structure of values have tried to find "basic value dimensions," analyzing empirical relationships between value measures in different populations. There appears to be limited convergence between such "basic dimensions." As a result, value theory has little to offer but a bricolage of structural models. Other studies have shown nations, countries, and other social categories to display distinct value profiles or patterns. Due to a lack of theoretical research the origins of such differences are still poorly understood. The same is true for research on changes in values over time. Most value researchers seem to have adopted a narrow focus, concentrating on values per se rather than on the role of values in social or behavioural theory. This may have restricted the relevance of value research for applied psychology. To identify the gaps in current knowledge an integrative model is presented which covers 3 elements (general values, work values, and work activities) and 3 levels (country, groups, and individuals). This model may also be useful in tuning research to the needs of applied psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study focuses on the robustness of the relationship between supplies–values (S–V) fit and work outcomes. Specifically, the functional form that best describes the relationships of three different dimensions of S–V fit (i.e. intrinsic work aspects, extrinsic work aspects, and social relations at work) with job satisfaction, intention to leave the organisation and psychological well-being was investigated using the moderated regression technique proposed by Edwards (1991, 1994). This study extends previous research by examining the stability of these relationships across two occasions, separated by a period of four years. Results showed that the functional form of the relationship of S–V fit with work outcomes differed by the S–V fit dimension and the work outcome under investigation. However, the functional form of each of these relationships on the first occasion was almost identical to the form of the relationships on the second occasion. Additionally, results showed that all three S–V fit dimensions affected job satisfaction and intention to leave, but had only a weak effect on psychological well-being. The organisational supplies component, as well as its quadratic term in particular, had a large influence on job satisfaction and intention to leave. Implications for future research in the P–O fit area are discussed. Cette e´tude est centre´e sur la force de la relation entre la correspondance contributions-valeurs (supplies-values ou S–V) et les re´sultats du travail. Plus particulie`rement, la forme fonctionnelle qui de´crit le mieux les rapports des trois dimensions de la correspondance S–V (c’est-a`-dire les relations sociales au travail et les aspects intrinse`ques et extrinse`ques du travail) avec la satisfaction professionnelle, le projet de quitter l’organisation et le bien-être psychologique a e´te´ explore´e a` l’aide de la technique de la re´gression mode´re´e propose´e par Edwards (1991, 1994). Cette recherche e´largit les travaux ante´rieurs en s’inte´ressant a` la stabilite´ de ces relations a` deux pe´riodes se´pare´es par un laps de temps de quatre ans. Les analyses montrent que la forme fonctionnelle de la relation de la correspondance S–V avec les re´sultats du travail diffe´rent selon les dimensions de la correspondance S–V et selon les aspects des re´sultats du travail pris en conside´ration. Cependant, la forme fonctionnelle de chacune de ces relations sur la premie`re pe´riode e´tait presque identique a` la forme des relations sur la seconde. En outre, les analyses montrent que les trois dimensions de la correspondance S–V affectent la satisfaction professionnelle et le projet de de´mission, mais n’ont qu’un faible effet sur le bien-être psychologique. La composante “contribution organisationnelle”, aussi bien que son terme quadratique en particulier, a une grande influence sur la satisfaction professionnelle et le projet de de´part. On discute aussi des retombe´es sur les futures recherches dans le domaine personne-organisation.
Article
This study was based on 255 European managers (German and British) responses to specific Occupational Stress Indicator scales (Cooper et al., 1988) and explored the impact of personality factors (Type A and locus of control) on subjectively perceived job stress, satisfaction at work and physical and psychological health. No significant relationship was reported between personality, work satisfaction and general health. Overall, Type A internals expressed the most job satisfaction with their work situation and better physical and psychological health, although this was found significant only for the sample of British managers. Type A and B externals displayed higher mental illness scores, whereas Type B externals only reported significantly more physical symptoms (physical ill-health). Type B internals appear to report the best health.
Article
The present study examined dispositional optimism as a moderator of the influence of perceived stress on psychological outcome. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that dispositional optimism significantly moderated the relation between stress and psychological well-being. Some implications of the present findings for theory and research are discussed.
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A career is defined as the combination and sequence of roles played by a person during the course of a lifetime. These roles include those of child, pupil or student, leisurite, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner, positions with associated expectations that are occupied at some time by most people, and other less common roles such as those of criminal, reformer, and lover. A Life-Career Rainbow is presented as a means of helping conceptualize multidimensional careers, the temporal involvement in, and the emotional commitment to, each role. Self-actualization in various roles, role conflicts, and the determinants of role selection and of role performance are discussed. The use of the Rainbow in career education and in counseling is briefly considered.
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Examined the correlations of negative affectivity (NA), locus of control, and 2 components of Type A personality variables (impatience-irritability and achievement striving) with reported job stressors and strains among 109 Ss. Ss completed questionnaires during final semesters of undergraduate studies and after working for 1 yr. Stressors included autonomy, role ambiguity and conflict, workload, constraints, and interpersonal conflict. Strains included concerns with job satisfaction, work anxiety, frustration, and somatic symptoms. Personality variables predicted all job stressors and strains except work frustration. NA was associated with role ambiguity and conflict, constraints, and interpersonal conflict. Locus of control was most strongly related to autonomy and was strongly related to job satisfaction. Impatience-irritability was associated with higher constraints and interpersonal conflict, and achievement striving correlated with more job stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)
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Incl. bibliographical references, index, exercises
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On the basis of Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959) motivator-hygiene theory, it was hypothesized that intrinsic but not extrinsic work values would be inversely related to stress. Also investigated was the question of which work values provide the most relief from stress. Elementary school teachers and administrators (N = 607) from nine school boards in southern Ontario completed a survey that included Pines, Aronson, and Kafry's (1981) stress scale and Elizur's (1984) work values scale. Almost all of the 12 intrinsic work values investigated were negatively correlated with stress, but the 4 extrinsic work values studied were not consistently related to stress. Five work values explained 11% of the variance in physical stress, 9 work values explained 22% of the variance in emotional stress, and 6 work values explained 26% of the variance in mental stress. Four work values emerged as meaningful predictors of all three types of stress: being esteemed by others, achieving through work, doing meaningful work, and being able to use one's knowledge and abilities.
Article
As a component of the response to acute stress, p53 has a well established role in protecting against cancer development. However, it is now becoming clear that p53 can have a much broader role and can contribute to the development, life expectancy and overall fitness of an organism. Although the function of p53 as a tumour suppressor ensures that we can't live without it, an integrated view of p53 suggests that not all of its functions are conducive to a long and healthy life.
Values and value-orientations in the theory of action: An exploration in definition and classification
  • C Kluckhohn
Kluckhohn, C. (1951). Values and value-orientations in the theory of action: An exploration in definition and classification. In T. Parsons & E. Shils (Eds.), Toward a general theory of action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
How good working relationships can help relieve pressures on the job
  • J C Quick
  • J D Quick
Quick, J.C., & Quick J.D. (1984). How good working relationships can help relieve pressures on the job. Management Review, 73, 43-45.
Stress and work: A managerial perspective
  • I Ivancevich
  • M Matteson
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