Smoking and lung cancer

Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.
Tuberkuloz ve toraks 02/2005; 53(2):200-9.
Source: PubMed


Nowadays, around one-third of adults are known to be smokers, and smoking rates are increasing among the female population. It is estimated that deaths attributable to tobacco use will rise to 10 million by 2025, and one-third of all adult deaths are expected to be related to cigarette smoking. The association between cigarettes and lung cancer has been proven by large cohort studies. Tobacco use has been reported to be the main cause of 90% of male and 79% of female lung cancers. 90% of deaths from lung cancer are estimated to be due to smoking. The risk of lung cancer development is 20-40 times higher in lifelong smokers compared to non-smokers. Environmental cigarette smoke exposure and different types of smoking have been shown to cause pulmonary carcinoma. DNA adducts, the metabolites of smoke carcinogens bound covalently with DNA, are regarded as an indicator of cancer risk in smokers. In recent decades, there has been a shift from squamous and small cell lung cancer types to adenocarcinoma, due to increasing rates of smoking among female population and rising light cigarette usage. After smoking cessation, the cumulative death risk from lung cancer decreases. Patients who continue smoking experience greater difficulties during cancer treatment. Stopping smoking may prolong survival in cancer patients, and also decreases the risk of recurrent pulmonary carcinoma. In order to save lives and prevent smoking related hazards, physicians should advise both healthy individuals and those with cancer of the benefits of stopping smoking.

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Available from: Yilmaz Bulbul, Dec 03, 2015
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    • "Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of preventable diseases worldwide and, in the USA alone, smoking causes approximately 400 000 deaths annually1, 2. Smoking is associated with an increased incidence of acute respiratory infections3, periodontitis4, bacterial meningitis5, rheumatoid arthritis6, Crohn's disease7, systemic lupus erythematosus8, atherosclerosis9, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases10, lung cancer11 and coronary heart disease12. While increasing data indicate that smoking might decrease the incidence and/or severity of several diseases, including ulcerative colitis13, 14, Parkinson's disease (PD)15, 16, 17, 18, some forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD)19, 20, 21, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP)22 and type I diabetes23; nicotine also protects the kidneys from renal ischemia/reperfusion injury24. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke is a major health risk factor which significantly increases the incidence of diseases including lung cancer and respiratory infections. However, there is increasing evidence that smokers have a lower incidence of some inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Nicotine is the main immunosuppressive constituent of cigarette smoke, which inhibits both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Unlike cigarette smoke, nicotine is not yet considered to be a carcinogen and may, in fact, have therapeutic potential as a neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent. This review provides a synopsis summarizing the effects of nicotine on the immune system and its (nicotine) influences on various neurological diseases.Keywords: nicotine, cigarette smoke, immune system
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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    • "Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to cigarette smoke, a complex mixture of more than 4000 particulate and volatile components, increases the incidence of lung carcinogenesis, a leading cause of cancer deaths in the US and other developed countries (Sasco et al., 2004). The risk of lung cancer development is 20–40 times higher in lifelong smokers compared to non-smokers accounting for 90% of male and 79% of female lung cancers (Ozlu and Bulbul, 2005). Airway inflammation is ubiquitous in the lungs of smokers, regardless of the presence or absence of lung disease. "
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    Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Oncogene
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    • "Cigarette smoking is somewhat less prevalent in the cancer patients than the non-cancer patients, in spite of the well-known association of tobacco use and cancer incidence. This could be because cancer survivors are highly motivated to quit smoking [30], or that smokers with cancer die at a higher rate than non-smokers with cancer [31]. "
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