Executive Committe for the Definition of Cerebral Palsy et al. Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy, April 2005

Division of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Imperial College, London, UK.
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology (Impact Factor: 3.51). 09/2005; 47(8):571-6.
Source: PubMed


Because of the availability of new knowledge about the neurobiology of developmental brain injury, information that epidemiology and modern brain imaging is providing, the availability of more precise measuring instruments of patient performance, and the increase in studies evaluating the efficacy of therapy for the consequences of injury, the need for reconsideration of the definition and classification of cerebral palsy (CP) has become evident. Pertinent material was reviewed at an international symposium participated in by selected leaders in the preclinical and clinical sciences. Suggestions were made about the content of a revised definition and classification of CP that would meet the needs of clinicians, investigators, and health officials, and provide a common language for improved communication. With leadership and direction from an Executive Committee, panels utilized this information and have generated a revised Definition and Classification of Cerebral Palsy. The Executive Committee presents this revision and welcomes substantive comments about it.

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    • "Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent and non-progressive disorders of posture and movement caused by brain lesion or dysfunction occurring early in life [1]. The birth prevalence of cerebral palsy has significantly risen to 2.0 per 1000 life comfort while exercising unmatched by other unweighting systems . "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Treadmill gait training as a therapeutic resource in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) has recently been the focus of many studies; however, still little is known regarding the effect of antigravity treadmill (AGT) on dynamic balance in children with spastic diplegia. Aim of the study: This study aims to evaluate the effect of gait training using AGT on standing balance of the spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP) children. Subjects and methods: 30 SDCP children (6–8 years old), from both sexes, participated in this study. They were divided randomly into 2 groups: control group (group A) and study group (group B). The control group received a specially designed therapeutic exercise program; while the study group received gait training using AGT, for 20 min, 3 times weekly, for 3 months, in addition to the same exercise program given to the control group. The Biodex balance system was used for the assessment of the dynamic postural control of all participants. Results: The results revealed no significant difference when comparing the pretreatment mean values of the 2 groups, while significant improvement was observed in all the measured variables of the 2 groups when comparing their pre and post treatment mean values. A significant difference was also observed when comparing the post treatment results of the 2 groups in favor of the study group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that gait training using AGT could be used as an effective method for improving standing balance for children with SDCP.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics
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    • "Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have a neurodevelopmental disorder due to a nonprogressive lesion of the immature brain occurring early in infancy or during the fetal term1, 2). Motor disorders of children with CP are related to primary deficits (such as spasticity, muscle weakness, reduced coordination, and a loss of selective motor control) and secondary deficits (such as muscle contracture and bone deformities)3, 4). "
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    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between children with spastic diplegic CP and children with normal development (ND). [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen children (eight children with spastic diplegic CP and eight ND children) were recruited for participation as volunteers in this study. The children with CP had a Gross Motor Function Classification (GMFC) System level of between I and II. [Results] Walking velocity, cadence, stride length, and step width of children with CP with a GMFC of between I and II were a level of 60%, 77%, 73%, and 160%, respectively, of those of ND children. The percentages of right and left double-limb support were 188% and 179% higher, respectively, and the proportion of single limb support was shorter by 83% and 82%. [Conclusion] Our results provide objective evidence of distinct differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between children with spastic diplegic CP with a GMFC level I or II and ND children and would be helpful to persons involved in the care of these children.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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    • "Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of disorders affecting the development of movement and posture, and thus limiting activity, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances in the developing fetal or infant brain.1 According to published literature, there is consistent evidence for a reduction of muscle volume (MV) in paretic limbs of children with CP, compared with both non-paretic limbs of children with CP and limbs of typically developing peers.2 "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose This study aimed to investigate useful parameters for estimating gastrocnemius (GCM) muscle volume (MV) using ultrasonography (US) and anthropometry in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Materials and Methods Eighteen legs from nine children with spastic CP aged 2 to 6 years were investigated in this study. Tibial length (TL) of each leg was measured and muscle thickness (MT) and anatomical cross-sectional area (aCSA) of GCM muscles were assessed using US. The volume of the GCM was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The relationship of TL, MT, and aCSA with MV measured by MRI was investigated. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed to establish muscle volume prediction equations. Results Resting MT, aCSA, and TL were highly related to MV of both medial and lateral head of GCM determined by MRI. The MV prediction equation based on simple regression analysis resulted in r2 values ranging from 0.591 to 0.832 (p<0.05). The r2 values were higher using aCSA as independent variable than using MT. The MV prediction equation based on multiple regression analysis resulted in r2 values ranging from 0.779 to 0.903 (p<0.05). However, the relatively high standard error of the estimate values ranged from 18.0-33.6% on simple regression and 15.5-25.6% on multiple regression. The contribution of aCSA was higher than that of MT for predicting MV of GCM. Conclusion Our study demonstrated the suitability of US assessment of aCSA and MT combined with TL for estimating MV of GCM in children with spastic CP and showed that aCSA is more useful parameter than MT.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Yonsei Medical Journal
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