Redox response of the endogenous calcineurin inhibitor Adapt78
Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, The Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, USA. Free Radical Biology and Medicine
(Impact Factor: 5.74).
10/2005; 39(6):719-27. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2005.03.036
Adapt 78 (DSCR 1/calcipressin/MCIP 1) is a potent natural inhibitor of calcineurin, an important intracellular phosphatase that mediates many cellular responses to calcium. We previously reported two major cytosolic isoforms (1 and 4) of Adapt 78, and that isoform 4 is an oxidative and calcium stress-response protein. Using a higher cell culture density and new antibody, we again observed that both major isoforms localized to the cytosol, but a significant level of isoform 4 (but not isoform 1) was also detected in the nucleus where it was present in the non-soluble region and not associated with RNA. Exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide led to the significant loss of isoform 4 from the nucleus with a moderate increase in cytosolic localization. The change in isoform 4 phosphorylation state in response to oxidative stress, characterized by a loss of the lesser (hypo) phosphorylated Adapt 78, was not due to accelerated degradation, although general Adapt 78 degradation was proteosome mediated. Finally, stimulation of Jurkat and primary T-lymphocyte signaling led to isoform 4 induction. This induction was BAPTA, diphenylene iodonium, and N-acetylcysteine inhibitable, and accompanied by induction of the classic immune response mediator and calcineurin-pathway-stimulated interleukin-2. These studies reveal new redox-related activities for Adapt 78 isoform 4, which may contribute to its known calcineurin-regulating and cytoprotective activities, and further suggest that Adapt 78 plays a role in basic T-cell response.
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- "All rights reserved response to anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 antibodies (Narayan et al., 2005), it is now clear that RCAN1 plays an important role in immune function. It is surprising that there have been so few studies to date on RCAN1 and the immune system in light of the known importance of calcineurin in Tlymphocyte activation, cytokine production, and apoptosis (Schreiber & Crabtree, 1992; Shibasaki & McKeon, 1995; Zhang et al., 1996; Rusnak & Mertz, 2000; Hogan et al., 2003; Ryeom et al., 2003; Narayan et al., 2005). Nonetheless, the above studies establish RCAN1's role in immunity and further suggest its importance in other immune cell types including B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and regulatory T-cells. "
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ABSTRACT: Studies on the role of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) in immunity are limited, but have demonstrated an involvement in T-lymphocyte function. Here, we expand these studies to macrophages and in vivo infection. The treatment of RAW and primary mouse macrophages with lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli strongly induced RCAN1 isoform 4 (RCAN1-4), but not isoform 1. RCAN1-4 induction involved calcium, calcineurin, and reactive oxygen species. Subsequent analysis with whole bacteria including gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus revealed strong RCAN1-4 inductions by both, and where tested, dependence on calcium. Staphylococcus aureus cell wall components peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid also strongly induced RCAN1-4. In vivo, a significant induction in the proinflammatory cytokines monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α was observed in knockout (KO) lung vs. wild-type (WT) mice 7 days after nasal infection with Fransicella tularensis. This induction was not accompanied by a significant increase in F. tularensis burden in the KO lung. Additionally, a modest increase in respiratory burst activity in KO vs. WT macrophages was observed. Combined, these studies indicate that RCAN1 is involved in macrophage and the overall in vivo immune response, and provide additional evidence that RCAN1 plays an important role in cell immunity and infectious disease.
Available from: Rheem D Medh
- "Calcineurin-dependent upregulation of RCAN1-4 (isoform 4) has been reported to occur through an alternative promoter in intron 3, which includes a cluster of 15 NFAT binding sites . RCAN1-1 expression is upregulated in response to oxidant- and Ca2+-induced stress [20,21], and various reports suggest either a cytoprotective  or apoptotic [22,23] function for it. A recent knock out mouse model suggests that RCAN1 functions as a facilitator of calcineurin activity in vivo . "
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ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) induce apoptosis of leukemic T-cells by transcriptional regulation via the GC receptor, GR. In the human leukemic CEM cell culture model, RCAN1 has been identified as one of the genes that is specifically upregulated only in the GC-sensitive CEM C7-14 cells, but not in the GC-resistant CEM-C1-15 sister cells in correlation with GC-evoked apoptosis. RCAN1 gene encodes two major protein isoforms of the regulator of calcineurin (RCAN1), RCAN1-1 and RCAN1-4 via alternative splicing of exons 1 and 4 respectively, to exons 5-7. Studies reported here evaluated the differential regulation and function of the two transcripts and protein products of RCAN1 by the synthetic GC dexamethasone (Dex), and by modulators of calcium signaling.
Dex selectively upregulates transcript specific for RCAN 1-1 in glucocorticoid (GC)-susceptible human leukemic CEM-C7-14 cells but not in GC-refractory CEM-C1-15 sister cells. Expression of the second major transcript, RCAN1-4, is upregulated by [Ca2+]i inducers, thapsigargin and A23187, but not by Dex, suggesting a mutually exclusive regulatory pathway for both RCAN1 transcripts. GC-mediated upregulation of RCAN1-1 transcript and RCAN1-1 protein was kinase dependent, and was blocked by staurosporine and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB 202190. RCAN1-1 coimmunoprecipitates with calcineurin PP3C and Dex-mediated RCAN1-1 upregulation correlated with reduction in calcineurin PP3C activity.
Data presented here suggest that GCs specifically upregulate RCAN1-1 transcript and protein while inducers of [Ca2+]i selectively upregulate RCAN1-4. GC-mediated increase in RCAN1-1 abundance and binding possibly inhibits calcineurin activity and modulates apoptosis in CEM-C7-14 cells.
Available from: Kevin Morgan
- "It is important to remark that it has been previously demonstrated that RCAN1-4 can itself be subject to post-translational regulation. It has been shown that oxidative stress  and MAP kinase signaling  can induce phosphorylation of RCAN1-4. In addition, RCAN1-4 has been shown to stimulate the production of active GSK-3β which is known to be involved in phosphorylation of both RCAN1-4 as well as NFAT . "
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ABSTRACT: Prokineticins and their receptors are expressed in various cellular compartments in human endometrium, with prokineticin 1 (PROK1) showing a dynamic pattern of expression across the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. Previous studies suggest that PROK1 can play an important role in implantation and early pregnancy by inducing vascular remodeling and increasing vascular permeability. Here we demonstrate that PROK1 induces the expression of IL-8, a chemokine with angiogenic properties, in endometrial epithelial Ishikawa cells stably expressing prokineticin receptor 1 and in human first trimester decidua. We also show that IL-8 promoter activity is induced by PROK1 and that this requires the presence of AP1 and NFAT motifs. The role of calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway is confirmed by the use of specific chemical inhibitors. Additionally, PROK1 induces the expression of the regulator of calcineurin 1 isoform 4 (RCAN1-4) via the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. A modulatory role for RCAN1-4 is demonstrated by RCAN1-4 overexpression which results in the inhibition of PROK1-induced IL-8 expression whereas reduction in RCAN1-4 endogenous expression results in an increase in PROK1-induced IL-8 production. Our findings show that in endometrial cells PROK1 can activate the calcineurin/NFAT pathway to induce IL-8 expression and that this is negatively modulated by the induction of expression of RCAN1-4.
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