Article

Education-associated cortical glucose metabolism during sustained attention.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Beth Israel Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Neuroreport (Impact Factor: 1.52). 10/2005; 16(13):1473-6.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Despite research suggesting that education may mitigate cognitive sequelae of neural injury, little is known about interactions between education and regional brain function. We examined whether educational experience is associated with relative glucose metabolism in brain regions that are important for sustained attention and learning. Fourteen healthy adults, with 12-18 years of schooling, underwent positron emission tomography scanning with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose during an auditory continuous discrimination task. Years of education correlated positively with relative glucose metabolism in the lingual gyri (bilaterally), left posterior cingulate gyrus, and left precuneus. Previously, these structures have shown early impairment in dementia. Further investigation should explore whether metabolic changes in these regions contribute to the possible protective effect of education on cognition.

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Available from: Stuart W G Derbyshire
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    • "However, studies investigating the effects of education on the brain have been sparse. One experimental study found that during auditory sustained attention tasks, people with longer period of education had relatively higher glucose metabolism in the left posterior cingulate gyrus, the left precuneus, and bilateral lingual gyri in a small sample of adult subjects (Eisenberg et al., 2005). An indirect support for the effect of education on the human brain comes from clinical studies that report longer delays in dementia manifestation in patients with higher education (Bennett et al., 2003; Roe et al., 2007; Garibotto et al., 2008; Stern, 2002). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Apr 2015
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    • "However, studies investigating the effects of education on the brain have been sparse. One experimental study found that during auditory sustained attention tasks, people with longer period of education had relatively higher glucose metabolism in the left posterior cingulate gyrus, the left precuneus, and bilateral lingual gyri in a small sample of adult subjects (Eisenberg et al., 2005). An indirect support for the effect of education on the human brain comes from clinical studies that report longer delays in dementia manifestation in patients with higher education (Bennett et al., 2003; Roe et al., 2007; Garibotto et al., 2008; Stern, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Education involves learning new information and acquiring cognitive skills. These require various cognitive processes including learning, memory, and language. Since cognitive processes activate associated brain areas, we proposed that the brains of elderly people with longer education periods would show traces of repeated activation as increased synaptic connectivity and capillary in brain areas involved in learning, memory, and language. Utilizing positron emission topography (PET), this study examined the effect of education in the human brain utilizing the regional cerebral glucose metabolism rates (rCMRglcs). 26 elderly women with high-level education (HEG) and 26 with low-level education (LEG) were compared with regards to their regional brain activation and association between the regions. Further, graphical theoretical analysis using rCMRglcs was applied to examine differences in the functional network properties of the brain. The results showed that the HEG had higher rCMRglc in the ventral cerebral regions that are mainly involved in memory, language, and neurogenesis, while the LEG had higher rCMRglc in apical areas of the cerebrum mainly involved in motor and somatosensory functions. Functional connectivity investigated with graph theoretical analysis illustrated that the brain of the HEG compared to those of the LEG were overall more efficient, more resilient, and characterized by small-worldness. This may be one of the brain's mechanisms mediating the reserve effects found in people with higher education. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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    • "AOAs have not been reported in the great majority of fMRI studies of auditory processing. Nevertheless, AOAs in normally sighted subjects have been incidentally reported in such diverse tasks as word perception [38], speech discrimination [39], sentence processing [40], detecting a subject's own name [41], intermodal selective attention [42]–[44], music discrimination [45], [46], attention to auditory components in auditory-visual speech [47], auditory sound discrimination [48], [49] and auditory spatial attention in the absence of visual stimuli [9]. While these tasks all require active listening to complex sound sources, it is unclear which cognitive or sensory aspects of auditory tasks are critical for the occurrence of AOAs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that putatively unimodal regions of visual cortex can be activated during auditory tasks in sighted as well as in blind subjects. However, the task determinants and functional significance of auditory occipital activations (AOAs) remains unclear. We examined AOAs in an intermodal selective attention task to distinguish whether they were stimulus-bound or recruited by higher-level cognitive operations associated with auditory attention. Cortical surface mapping showed that auditory occipital activations were localized to retinotopic visual cortex subserving the far peripheral visual field. AOAs depended strictly on the sustained engagement of auditory attention and were enhanced in more difficult listening conditions. In contrast, unattended sounds produced no AOAs regardless of their intensity, spatial location, or frequency. Auditory attention, but not passive exposure to sounds, routinely activated peripheral regions of visual cortex when subjects attended to sound sources outside the visual field. Functional connections between auditory cortex and visual cortex subserving the peripheral visual field appear to underlie the generation of AOAs, which may reflect the priming of visual regions to process soon-to-appear objects associated with unseen sound sources.
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