The effect of diesel fuel sulfur content on particulate matter emissions for a nonroad diesel generator

Article (PDF Available)inJournal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 55(7):993-8 · August 2005with1,032 Reads
Source: PubMed
Abstract
The effect of sulfur content on diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions was studied using a diesel generator (Generac Model SD080, rated at 80 kW) as the emission source to simulate nonroad diesel emissions. A load simulator was used to apply loads to the generator at 0, 25, 50, and 75 kW, respectively. Three diesel fuels containing 500, 2100, and 3700 ppm sulfur by weight were selected as generator fuels. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampling Method 5 "Determination of Particulate Matter Emissions from Stationary Sources" together with Method 1A "Sample and Velocity Traverses for Stationary Sources with Small Stacks or Ducts" was adopted as a reference method for measurement of the exhaust gas flow rate and DPM mass concentration. The effects of various parameters on DPM concentration have been studied, such as fuel sulfur contents, engine loads, and fuel usage rates. The increase of average DPM concentrations from 3.9 mg/Nm3 (n cubic meter) at 0 kW to 36.8 mg/Nm3 at 75 kW is strongly correlated with the increase of applied loads and sulfur content in the diesel fuel, whereas the fuel consumption rates are only a function of applied loads. An empirical correlation for estimating DPM concentration is obtained when fuel sulfur content and engine loads are known for these types of generators: Y = Zm(alphaX + beta), where Y is the DPM concentration, mg/m3, Z is the fuel sulfur content, ppm(w) (limited to 500-3700 ppm(w)), X is the applied load, kW, m is the constant, 0.407, alpha and beta are the numerical coefficients, 0.0118 +/- 0.0028 (95% confidence interval) and 0.4535 +/- 0.1288 (95% confidence interval), respectively.
    • "G Model PARTIC-839; No. of Pages 9 expected to be approximately proportional to the fuel sulfur content (Kittelson, 1998). The low-sulfur fuels used in the Athabasca oil sands region are needed to accommodate the post-engine exhaust treatment systems that will be required for future engines, and lowsulfur contents also mitigate against the formation of diesel PM (Baranescu, 1988; Corro, 2002; Saiyasitpanich, Lu, Keener, Liang, & Khang, 2005). NH 3 participates in the formation of secondary ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, which are important components of ambient PM 2.5 . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Real-world fuel-based emission factors (EFs) from Caterpillar 797B diesel heavy haulers when used for oil sands mining operations were measured using an on-board portable emissions monitoring system. Average EFs (in g/kg fuel) for 16 separate tests on four trucks were 3150 ± 4 for CO2, 2.51 ± 1.30 for CH4, 10.28 ± 3.21 for CO, 0.61 ± 0.32 for non-methane hydrocarbons, 55.49 ± 9.75 for NOx (reported as NO2), 0.70 ± 0.17 for PM2.5 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm), and 0.34 ± 0.05 for black carbon (BC). Ultrafine particle numbers averaged (4.7 ± 4.1) × 1015 particles/kg fuel. Fuel-based EFs of NO, NO2, and particle numbers were higher during idling, whereas PM2.5 and BC EFs were higher during traveling without a load. A comparison of emissions with those reported by oil sands facilities showed large variations, both among the facilities and between the reported emissions and the real-world measurements.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The Chemical Engineering Journal
    • "In the recent years, worldwide environmental regulations toward transportation fuels have been increasingly strict in order to reduce the air pollution and related public health impacts [1]. S-compounds in diesel fuel are converted into SO x when combusted and further reduce combustion efficiency and increase emission of particulates123. Many countries mandated stringent legislation to cut diesel fuel S-content down to 10 ppm, which put forth a critical challenge to the refinery industry [1]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ILs having a protonated amide-cation were investigated in ODS process. S-components can be completely converted in a short time. The mechanism was studied by experimental and theoretical methods. Both hydrogenated diesel and straight-run diesel were used for desulfurization. a b s t r a c t A series of Brønsted acidic ionic liquids having a protonated amide-or lactam-based cation were synthesized and investigated as extractants and catalysts in the extraction combined with oxidative desulfur-ization (ECODS) of both model oil and diesel fuel, with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , 30 wt%) as oxidant. Each of them showed obvious removal of benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil. Among them, [HCPL][TFA] exhibited the best performance by completely removing BT and DBT in a short time. The detailed structure and conformation of [HCPL][TFA] were investigated by 1 H NMR and FTIR as well as theoretical calculation. HCPL + cation was verified to exist in an enol form, which was supposed to contribute to high desulfurization performance by improving the formation of perox-ides. In the end, two kinds of diesel were used to evaluate its desulfurization performance. [HCPL][TFA] can reduce the S-content of real hydrogenated diesel from 659.7 ppm to 8.62 ppm with 98.69% S-removal efficiency after two ECODS processes. Furthermore, the total S-content of straight-run diesel fuel was reduced to 89.36 ppm from 11,034 ppm with a similar S-removal rate. The results of GC-PFPD before and after each ECODS process indicated that almost all the original S-compounds in diesel had been converted to their corresponding oxidation products. The desulfuriza-tion performance was actually restricted by extraction capability.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
    • "Such emission might contain particulate matter (PM) and toxic gases such as NOx, SOx, and CO. This has forced the petroleum refining industry to produce clean petroleum products by removing the impurities from their major products, diesel and gasoline12. Selective adsorption of sulfur compounds from diesel oil is an economically acceptable method for the attainment of diesel oil with low sulfur content [3]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adsorption of sulfur compounds form commercial diesel oil on a granular activated charcoal (GAC) was investigated. The equilibrium of sulfur adsorption on GAC was examined. The adsorption isotherms were determined and correlated with two well-known isotherm equations: Langmuir and Freundlich. The surface chemistry and structure of the sorbent material was studied using nitrogen sorption isotherm and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) integrated with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The sulfur and other metal contents in diesel oil were evaluated using X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results showed that the sulfur content was reduced by 20.9 % compared to the original sample. The metal content of the sorbent materials, before and after desulfurization process, was determined using microwave acid digestion system followed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Chemical Engineering Journal
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