Karafet, T. M., Lansing, J. S., Redd, A. J., Reznikova, S., Watkins, J. C., Surata, S. P. K. et al. Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders. Hum. Biol. 77, 93-114

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
Human Biology (Impact Factor: 0.85). 03/2005; 77(1):93-114. DOI: 10.1353/hub.2005.0030
Source: PubMed


The island of Bali lies near the center of the southern chain of islands in the Indonesian archipelago, which served as a stepping-stone for early migrations of hunter-gatherers to Melanesia and Australia and for more recent migrations of Austronesian farmers from mainland Southeast Asia to the Pacific. Bali is the only Indonesian island with a population that currently practices the Hindu religion and preserves various other Indian cultural, linguistic, and artistic traditions (Lansing 1983). Here, we examine genetic variation on the Y chromosomes of 551 Balinese men to investigate the relative contributions of Austronesian farmers and pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherers to the contemporary Balinese paternal gene pool and to test the hypothesis of recent paternal gene flow from the Indian subcontinent. Seventy-one Y-chromosome binary polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) and 10 Y-chromosome-linked short tandem repeats (STRs) were genotyped on a sample of 1,989 Y chromosomes from 20 populations representing Indonesia (including Bali), southern China, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Near East, and Oceania. SNP genotyping revealed 22 Balinese lineages, 3 of which (O-M95, O-M119, and O-M122) account for nearly 83.7% of Balinese Y chromosomes. Phylogeographic analyses suggest that all three major Y-chromosome haplogroups migrated to Bali with the arrival of Austronesian speakers; however, STR diversity patterns associated with these haplogroups are complex and may be explained by multiple waves of Austronesian expansion to Indonesia by different routes. Approximately 2.2% of contemporary Balinese Y chromosomes (i.e., K-M9*, K-M230, and M lineages) may represent the pre-Neolithic component of the Indonesian paternal gene pool. In contrast, eight other haplogroups (e.g., within H, J, L, and R), making up approximately 12% of the Balinese paternal gene pool, appear to have migrated to Bali from India. These results indicate that the Austronesian expansion had a profound effect on the composition of the Balinese paternal gene pool and that cultural transmission from India to Bali was accompanied by substantial levels of gene flow.

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    • "Comparative data with other populations of south China, ISEA and Oceania were taken from the literature and comprised Yueh/Daic-speaking populations [27,30,36-38], Malayo-Polynesians and Papua New Guineans [39], and Han Chinese [7,8,12,29,30,40,41]. These datasets are shown in Additional file 1: Table S1. "
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    • "The data collected for the eight Sungi river subaks were reanalyzed to discover whether there are significant differences between the demographic histories of the upstream and downstream subaks (supplement A, section 1.2). The methods used for the genetic analysis are fully described in Karafet et al. 2005 "

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    • "In contrast with this conclusion, Shi et al. (2008, 2005) estimate an older northward expansion of Y chromosome haplogroup D-M174 (60,000 years ago) than the above-mentioned O-M122 haplogroup (25–30,000 years ago), after an origin in southern East Asia. An even younger estimate of 4,400 years before present (BP) was obtained for O-M122 in Balinese populations (Karafet et al. 2005). – As the Munda exhibit a high frequency and diversity of Y chromosome M95 (O2a) haplotypes (Karafet et al. 2001; Kumar et al. 2007; Reddy and Kumar 2008; Sengupta et al. 2006; Su et al. 2000, 1999), the origin of the Austroasiatic phylum has been claimed to occur in India around 65,000 years BP according to the age estimated for this haplogroup (Kumar et al. 2007), by contrast to the young age of 8,800 years previously given by Kayser et al. (2003). "
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