Resting Heart Rate Changes after Endurance Training in Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis

Department of Physical Education, University of Southern Indiana, Evansville, IN 47712, USA.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (Impact Factor: 3.98). 09/2005; 37(8):1381-6. DOI: 10.1249/01.mss.0000174899.35392.0c
Source: PubMed


Question remains regarding endurance training and changes in resting heart rate (HR) among older individuals. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of controlled aerobic training on resting HR among sedentary older adults.
Studies were identified by a systematic computer database search, hand article search, and cross-reference. The inclusion criteria were (i) controlled clinical trials, (ii) endurance exercise as the only intervention, (iii) a nonexercise control group, (iv) within-group mean ages of subjects > or = 60 yr, (v) a measure of changes in resting HR, (vi) studies published in English journals.
Outcome was derived from 13 studies with a total of 651 individuals in 14 control (N = 241) and 16 exercise groups (N = 410). The pooled standardized effect size by a fixed-effect model showed an upper moderate effect of -0.58 +/- 0.08 (mean +/- SEM, 95% CI = -0.74 to -0.42). This homogeneity effect was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The magnitude of net change averaged -6 bpm (-2 to -12 bpm), representing an 8.4% reduction. Greater and statistically significant decrease of resting HR among the elderly was found in the studies with training length more than 30 wk.
This meta-analytic investigation supports the efficacy of endurance exercise training in decreasing HR at rest in older adults. This training induced adaptation may have protective benefits for cardiovascular aging. A longer exercise training length, probably more than 30 wk, may be needed for older individuals to be more effective in terms of resting HR reduction.

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    • "For example, research demonstrates that the activation of bodily systems promotes a greater range of motion and muscle tone, and improves digestive system functioning and cardiovascular health [11]. More specifically, endurance training is purported to be effective for decreasing fat mass [13], resting heart rate [14] and blood pressure [15], and resistance training can increase basal metabolism [16], bone mineral density (BMD) [17], muscle strength and power [18], and muscle and connective tissue cross-sectional area [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Evidence demonstrates that physical exercise and psychological wellbeing are closely interlinked, particularly in older-aged women. However, research investigating how different forms of exercise influence mental health in older-aged women is underdeveloped. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial (N = 300) will assess the relative effectiveness of two different exercise programs (whole-body vibration and Multicomponent Training) for improving psychological wellbeing in older-aged women. The following outcomes will be assessed at three time points (that is, pre, post, and follow-up): psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude, quality of life, and happiness. Discussion Results will have important implications for preventing psychological and physiological disease in older-aged women and for managing health-related costs for this population group. Trial registration Number NCT01966562 on Clinical Gov database the 8 October 2013
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Trials
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    • "It is well known that both endurance exercise and resistance training can substantially improve physical fitness and health-related factors in older individuals [6] [7] [8]. However, while endurance training is purported to be more effective for decreasing fat mass [9], resting heart rate [10] and blood pressure [11], resistance training has been shown to be more effective for increasing basal metabolism [12] [13], bone mineral density (BMD) [14- 17], muscle strength and power [18] [19] [20], and muscle and connective tissue cross-sectional area [21]. Thus, whilst an exercise program incorporating both aerobic and resistance exercises can result in significant and wideranging improvements in body composition and physiological function, the time and monetary investment may be problematic for program adherence. "
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Aging and Disease
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    • "An extensive meta-analysis performed by researchers showed that the average increase in the VO2max after 16 to 20 weeks of exercise amounted to 3.8 ml/kg/min or 16.3%, compared with the control group of persons who did not exercise in the period in question. Better results in the improvement of VO2max were observed after a longer exercise period (from 20 to 30 weeks), but higher-intensity effort does not necessarily bring positive effects (at the level of > 70% VO2max) [19]. "
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