Resting Heart Rate Changes after Endurance Training in Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis
Department of Physical Education, University of Southern Indiana, Evansville, IN 47712, USA. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
(Impact Factor: 3.98).
09/2005; 37(8):1381-6. DOI: 10.1249/01.mss.0000174899.35392.0c
Question remains regarding endurance training and changes in resting heart rate (HR) among older individuals. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of controlled aerobic training on resting HR among sedentary older adults.
Studies were identified by a systematic computer database search, hand article search, and cross-reference. The inclusion criteria were (i) controlled clinical trials, (ii) endurance exercise as the only intervention, (iii) a nonexercise control group, (iv) within-group mean ages of subjects > or = 60 yr, (v) a measure of changes in resting HR, (vi) studies published in English journals.
Outcome was derived from 13 studies with a total of 651 individuals in 14 control (N = 241) and 16 exercise groups (N = 410). The pooled standardized effect size by a fixed-effect model showed an upper moderate effect of -0.58 +/- 0.08 (mean +/- SEM, 95% CI = -0.74 to -0.42). This homogeneity effect was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The magnitude of net change averaged -6 bpm (-2 to -12 bpm), representing an 8.4% reduction. Greater and statistically significant decrease of resting HR among the elderly was found in the studies with training length more than 30 wk.
This meta-analytic investigation supports the efficacy of endurance exercise training in decreasing HR at rest in older adults. This training induced adaptation may have protective benefits for cardiovascular aging. A longer exercise training length, probably more than 30 wk, may be needed for older individuals to be more effective in terms of resting HR reduction.
Available from: Enzo Grossi
- "For example, research demonstrates that the activation of bodily systems promotes a greater range of motion and muscle tone, and improves digestive system functioning and cardiovascular health . More specifically, endurance training is purported to be effective for decreasing fat mass , resting heart rate  and blood pressure , and resistance training can increase basal metabolism , bone mineral density (BMD) , muscle strength and power , and muscle and connective tissue cross-sectional area . "
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Evidence demonstrates that physical exercise and psychological wellbeing are closely interlinked, particularly in older-aged women. However, research investigating how different forms of exercise influence mental health in older-aged women is underdeveloped.
A randomized controlled trial (N = 300) will assess the relative effectiveness of two different exercise programs (whole-body vibration and Multicomponent Training) for improving psychological wellbeing in older-aged women. The following outcomes will be assessed at three time points (that is, pre, post, and follow-up): psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude, quality of life, and happiness.
Results will have important implications for preventing psychological and physiological disease in older-aged women and for managing health-related costs for this population group.
Number NCT01966562 on Clinical Gov database the 8 October 2013
Available from: Salvador Romero-Arenas
- "It is well known that both endurance exercise and resistance training can substantially improve physical fitness and health-related factors in older individuals   . However, while endurance training is purported to be more effective for decreasing fat mass , resting heart rate  and blood pressure , resistance training has been shown to be more effective for increasing basal metabolism  , bone mineral density (BMD) [14- 17], muscle strength and power   , and muscle and connective tissue cross-sectional area . Thus, whilst an exercise program incorporating both aerobic and resistance exercises can result in significant and wideranging improvements in body composition and physiological function, the time and monetary investment may be problematic for program adherence. "
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ABSTRACT: Declines in maximal aerobic power and skeletal muscle force production with advancing age are examples of functional declines with aging, which can severely limit physical performance and independence, and are negatively correlated with all cause mortality. It is well known that both endurance exercise and resistance training can substantially improve physical fitness and health-related factors in older individuals. Circuit-based resistance training, where loads are lifted with minimal rest, may be a very effective strategy for increasing oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, strength, and functional capacity while improving body composition. In addition, circuit training is a time-efficient exercise modality that can elicit demonstrable improvements in health and physical fitness. Hence, it seems reasonable to identify the most effective combination of intensity, volume, work to rest ratio, weekly frequency and exercise sequence to promote neuromuscular, cardiorespiratory and body composition adaptations in the elderly. Thus, the purpose of this review was to summarize and update knowledge about the effects of circuit weight training in older adults and elderly population, as a starting point for developing future interventions that maintain a higher quality of life in people throughout their lifetime.
Available from: Andrzej Folga
- "An extensive meta-analysis performed by researchers showed that the average increase in the VO2max after 16 to 20 weeks of exercise amounted to 3.8 ml/kg/min or 16.3%, compared with the control group of persons who did not exercise in the period in question. Better results in the improvement of VO2max were observed after a longer exercise period (from 20 to 30 weeks), but higher-intensity effort does not necessarily bring positive effects (at the level of > 70% VO2max) . "
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ABSTRACT: The influence of physical exercise on the parameters of the cardiovascular system of elderly persons has not been sufficiently investigated yet. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of regular 6-week physical exercise using the Nordic walking (NW) method in a group of elderly persons on their physical performance and regulation of selected parameters assessing the cardiovascular system.
Fifty patients over 65 years of age participated in the study. The study encompassed: medical interview, physical examination, resting ECG, spiroergometry examination, 6MWT (6-minute walk test) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). During the exercise programme, the pulse was monitored using pulsometers. After the completion of the training, check-up tests assessing the same parameters were performed. The control group consisted of 18 persons over 65 years of age with similar cardiovascular problems.
In the test group, duration of the physical effort increased by 1.02 min (p = 0.0001), the maximum load increased by 10.68 W (p = 0.0001), values of VO2max by 2.10 (p = 0.0218), distance improved in 6MWT by 75.04 m (p = 0.00001), systolic blood pressure decreased by 5.50 mm Hg (p = 0.035) and diastolic blood pressure by 3.50 mm Hg (p = 0.054) as compared to the control group.
Systematic NW physical exercise limited by the pulse had a beneficial effect on the physical performance of elderly persons as assessed with main parameters. A short 6-week programme of endurance exercises had a hypotensive effect in elderly persons over 65 years of age.
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