ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Police occupy an important position within the community as both enforcers of the law and as role models for appropriate behavior. Despite this interesting juxtaposition, research has shown that they may consume alcohol and tobacco at rates higher than the general population. A significant causal factor is occupational stress, and the fact that police are regularly exposed to stressors beyond the range of normal human experiences. Given this ongoing and unavoidable relationship, the recognition and control of stress is paramount within law enforcement. Because police stressors are usually multi-faceted, health promotion interventions should focus on stress-reduction at both the institutional and individual level. Examples of health promotion strategies may include reducing overtime, carefully organizing shift rosters, streamlining administrative processes and allowing rest breaks for those on the night-shift. Interventions which focus on the individual are also important, because excess alcohol and tobacco consumption levels often relate to individual stress-coping mechanisms. Programs to help recognize and prevent excess alcohol and tobacco consumption may be worthwhile, as too, counseling, interpersonal support and critical incident debriefing. Promoting non-drinking and non-smoking stress-reduction activities where police can socialize and de-brief with their colleagues may be beneficial. Encouraging social events at sports clubs and gymnasiums has also been suggested. In order to achieve these goals however, governments will need to place a greater emphasis on the occupational health of police officers and the law enforcement agencies in which they work.
... It affects more than 1 in 4 United States (US) adults and increases the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) by 5-fold and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) by 1.5 to 3fold in over 5-10 years [2]. In US, study showed that this occupational group has a high risk for development of MetS and causing mortality at an earlier age compared to other groups [3]. The increase in risk is related to the lifestyle and working environment of the police that frequently under constant stress with a high rate of smoking and alcohol addiction [3]. ...
... In US, study showed that this occupational group has a high risk for development of MetS and causing mortality at an earlier age compared to other groups [3]. The increase in risk is related to the lifestyle and working environment of the police that frequently under constant stress with a high rate of smoking and alcohol addiction [3]. Some policemen are often lead a physically inactive life, have irregular diet and limited choice of foods while on duty, take overtime and shift work, suffer from disrupted sleep patterns, stress and have high rates of tobacco and alcohol consumption than the general population, they have been found to have an increased prevalence of MetS risk factors and DM than any other occupational group and among the general population in many countries [3]. ...
... The increase in risk is related to the lifestyle and working environment of the police that frequently under constant stress with a high rate of smoking and alcohol addiction [3]. Some policemen are often lead a physically inactive life, have irregular diet and limited choice of foods while on duty, take overtime and shift work, suffer from disrupted sleep patterns, stress and have high rates of tobacco and alcohol consumption than the general population, they have been found to have an increased prevalence of MetS risk factors and DM than any other occupational group and among the general population in many countries [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors which includes hyperglycemia, central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This study aimed to describe the clinical profile of metabolic syndrome among police officers. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the police officers who performed the screening program at Bhayangkara Hospital Denpasar. The data was obtained by anamnesis, physical examination from anthropometric measurements and blood pressure, and laboratory findings. All data was computerized and analyzed using SPSS v.24. Criteria of metabolic syndrome was established using modified 3rd Adult Treatment Panel, International Diabetes Federation. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the police officers who performed the screening program in the period of January-June 2019 was 68.7%. Males (87.3%) were found to be more frequent than females (12.7%), and the most prevalent age were ranging from 36-45 years old (62.7%). A significant association was found between the metabolic syndrome event and gender (OR=0.169, 95% CI=0.078-0.366, p-value <0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the police officers was high, especially in male. The most frequent component of metabolic syndrome found in both male and female was central obesity. Association was found between metabolic syndrome and gender.
... A fifth of these deaths occur in India, where more than 800 000 people die and 12 million fall ill due to tobacco use each year. [1][2][3] The second Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2) reported that 28.6% of Indian adults consume tobacco in any form, 10.7% smoke and 21.4% use smokeless tobacco (SLT). Khaini (a form of SLT) and beedis are the most commonly used tobacco consumed in India, at 11% and 8%, respectively. ...
... 6 Police personnel are known to consume smoking and chewing forms of tobacco at higher rates than the general population, and this is an interesting juxtaposition. 10 The psychological effects of shift work, disrupted sleep patterns and occupational stress contribute to higher tobacco use among police personnel. 10,11 Other factors, such as fear of public opposition to implementation of the law, lack of proper training and lack of administrative support, have also been reported as barriers to implementing COTPA. ...
... 10 The psychological effects of shift work, disrupted sleep patterns and occupational stress contribute to higher tobacco use among police personnel. 10,11 Other factors, such as fear of public opposition to implementation of the law, lack of proper training and lack of administrative support, have also been reported as barriers to implementing COTPA. 6,12,13 Existing literature on COTPA has described compliance with different sections of the Act or examined at knowledge and attitudes among specific groups and the general public. ...
Article
Full-text available
Setting and Objetives: Police personnel, alongside other key stakeholders, are responsible for implementing the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) in India. This study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes about COTPA among police personnel and explore enablers and barriers in implementing it. Design: This convergent parallel mixed-methods study used a self-administered questionnaire (quantitative) and key informant interviews (qualitative). Of 300 police personnel across all eight police stations in Daman, 155 participated. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the χ2 test. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews of six key informants from all coordinating departments were analysed thematically. Results: Overall, 63.2% of responders were aware of any tobacco control law in India, and only 12.9% were trained in its implementation. One person had conducted inspections for COTPA compliance in the last 12 months. The majority (78.1%) of the police personnel, and significantly more tobacco non-users than users (81.2% vs. 52.9%, P = 0.016), felt that enforcing anti-tobacco regulations is one of their most important functions. Perceived benefits of the act and formal authority to act were the two main enablers of COTPA implementation. Lack of awareness and coordination, competing priorities, concentration of authority with higher-ranking officials and evasion of the law by retailers and the public hampered effective implementation of the law. Conclusion: Knowledge about the COTPA was average and implementation poor. Sensitisation and training of implementers, systematic transparent reporting and creating awareness among public are recommended for effective implementation.
... This finding is supported by various studies where dependence on smoking, alcohol and substance use has been mentioned among the police due to their lifestyles and working environment. [38][39][40] Previous studies had shown that lack of resources, poor infrastructure and a high number of vehicles contributed to poor mental health in traffic police officers. In addition, this study has highlighted the role of personal habits like smoking and alcohol use that can increase the risk of suffering from mental illnesses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, associated factors and stress-coping strategies among traffic police officers in Kathmandu, Nepal. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Participants A total of 300 traffic police officers working under the different traffic units of Kathmandu Valley for at least 6 months were recruited via a simple random sampling procedure. Primary outcome measures State of depression, anxiety and stress among traffic police officers based on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Secondary outcome measures Coping strategies under stressful conditions based on the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory (Brief-COPE) tool. Results Altogether 124 (41.3%) traffic police officers had symptoms of depression, 141 (47%) had anxiety symptoms and 132 (44%) had symptoms of stress. Smoking was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing symptoms of depression (adjusted OR (AOR): 10.7, 95% CI: 4.8 to 23.6), anxiety (AOR: 7.1, 95% CI: 3.4 to 14.9) and stress (AOR: 6.8, 95% CI: 3.3 to 14.1). Similarly, longer working hours was significantly associated with higher odds of experiencing symptoms of depression (AOR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.8 to 6.4), anxiety (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.9) and stress (AOR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.4), and lack of physical exercise was associated with an increased likelihood of exhibiting depressive symptoms (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.7). Participants in this study used positive coping strategies more than negative coping strategies. Conclusion Our study found a high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among traffic police officers in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Smoking and longer working hours were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, and lack of physical exercise was associated with an increased likelihood of depressive symptoms.
... They are suffering from different types of physical and mental disorders. Police officers often attribute their above average cardiovascular disease risk due to improper scheduling of shift, jobrelated stress, and poor dietary habits while working.They have been found to have an increased prevalence of CVD risk factors and type 2 diabetes than any other occupational group and amongst the general population in many countries [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
Police personnel had to perform overtime and shift work, suffer from disrupted sleep patterns, stress and may have high rates of tobacco and alcohol consumption than the general population forced to live physically inactive lifestyle, have irregular diet while on duty raising serious risk to their health. A study was conducted in Gaziabad District of Uttar Pradesh among to assess the lifestyle pattern with respect to dietary habit, physical activity and their knowledge, attitude and practices regarding non communicable diseases amongst the randomly selected 100 police personnel of Uttar Pradesh Provincial Armed Constabulary. Study found prevalence of high rates of hypertension (34.7 %) and Diabetes (15.8%) were found among them. It was found that the daily vegetable, fruits intake in the personnel was less than five servings was seen among 74.3%. According to the analysis 71.9% of the police personnel were not doing the recommended 150 minutes of physical exercise in a week. According to the analysis 68.5% were either over weight/obese. The unfavorable trends for most major risk factors pose an enormous challenge and call for additional and timely action and policies, especially those of a legislative and regulatory nature and those providing cost-effective chronic care for individuals affected by NCDs. Recommendations: Orientation during induction training of police personnel regarding reduction in alcohol use, increase in fruit servings along with other lifestyle modification measures may help in prevention and control of hypertension and other NCDS. Policemen also require periodic counseling and medical examination to remain healthy. Government to budget for private gymnasium memberships for officers and constables or build fitness stations within an area of the police department. The Police Departments may evolve wellness programme offer incentives, such as additional vacation days, for officers who pass a rigorous wellness test and may also to link fitness for next promotion. There is a need for nationwide multi-centric studies to be conducted on the prevalence of diabetes and its complications amongst the police personnel.
... Suggested reasons for such high levels include periods of non-deployment which encourage alcohol use, frequent trauma exposure, male-dominated culture, and the use of alcohol to form social bonds and unit cohesion (Ames et al., 2009;Breslau et al., 2016;Fear et al., 2010). There may be some occupational similarities between Armed Forces personnel and first responders, such as the "macho" culture, and shift-work or unsociable working hours, which are associated with risky drinking behaviours (Smith et al., 2005). The lower levels of hazardous alcohol use observed in health care workers is harmonious with recent evidence examining occupations associated with level of alcohol consumption, using the UK biobank (Thompson and Pirmohamed, 2021). ...
Article
Background: Trauma exposure is associated with hazardous and/or harmful alcohol use. Occupational groups frequently exposed to trauma may be at risk of alcohol harm. This meta-analysis determined the prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol use across trauma-exposed occupations and meta-regressions explored the impact of pre-defined covariates on the variance in prevalence estimates. Method: Literature was searched from 2000 to March 2020, using Scopus, Web of Science and PsycINFO. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they used a standardized measure of alcohol use (e.g., Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT)). Studies were excluded if they measured alcohol use following an isolated sentinel event (e.g., 9/11). The following occupations were included: first responders, health care workers, Armed Forces, war journalists and train drivers. Results: 1882 studies were identified; 55 studies were eligible. The pooled prevalence of hazardous use was 22% (95% Confidence Intervals [CI]: 17%-27%) and 11% (95% CI: 8%-14%) for harmful use. Hazardous alcohol use was significantly lower in health care workers (13%; 95% CI: 10%-16%) than first responders (26%; 95% CI: 20%-32%) and Armed Forces (34%; 95% CI: 18%-52%). There was marked heterogeneity across studies and higher prevalence rates in low-quality studies. The meta-regression identified higher proportion of males and younger mean age as predictors of variance. Conclusions: Male-dominated occupations, such as police officers and military personnel, showed higher levels of hazardous and harmful alcohol use, indicating that interventions tailored specifically for these occupational groups may be needed.
... Males smoked (43.8%) and consumed alcohol (32.5%) than females, while females were prone to a sedentary lifestyle (63.8%) and consume salt (82.8%) than males. Some workers collaborated that high daily alcohol consumption, smoking, and systolic hypertension are stronger risk factors in men [17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes type 2 (T2D) had caused the loss of millions of lives all over the world. About 50% of the patients with T2D die because of cardiovascular disease (CVD), primarily myocardial infarction and stroke. Many of the leading risk factors for CVD coexist and act synergistically to increase cardiovascular events. The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence, patterns, and certain predictive factors in the complications of T2D patients attending diabetic clinics at Mnazi Mmoja hospital. A total of 138 respondents made up of 58 females and 80 males within the age brackets of 30-40, 41-50, 51-60, and 61 above were recruited for this study. Data were analysed and interpreted based on certain predictive factors and variables, including smoking, alcohol, excessive salt intake, lipid intake, sedentary lifestyle, family history of diabetes, and hypertension, on how they relate to the development of complications of type 2 diabetes. Pearson Chi-Square test was used to compare the levels of significances. Probability values of less or equal to 0.05 were accepted to be significant. The combination of salt intake, sedentary lifestyle, family history of diabetes, and lipid intake was the commonest risk factor for developing complications of T2D. However, alcohol and cigarette smoking had the most negligible impact on developing complications in T2D. The result also shows the patients between the age bracket of 30 and 40 have more risk factors for developing complications. The result showed no gender difference in the number of risk factors. There was a statistically significant association between some of the risk factors (smoking, alcohol, sedentary lifestyle, and salt intake) and the gender of respondents (p<0.05). Males smoked (43.8%) and consumed alcohol (32.5%) than females, while females were prone to a sedentary lifestyle (63.8%) and consume salt (82.8%) than males. On the other hand, this research showed that the significant complication for both males and females are numbness, pain sensation, and dry skin (diabetic neuropathy). Gender and certain predictive risk factors like salt intake, sedentary lifestyle, and family history of diabetes, and lipid intake are fundamental parameters to be tackled to reduce the complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a greater need now for awareness of the risk factors through effective health promotion in Zanzibar. Also, secondary prevention through regular screening, early detection, and appropriate treatment of chronic complications could reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by diabetes mellitus.
... Police officers experience significant job-related stressors and exposures such as violence, work injuries, job pressure and demand, lack of support, physical threats in operational field, long working hours, burnout and fatigue. These job-related stressors and exposures increase risk of poor mental health [20][21][22][23], and negative consequences such as increased risk of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidaemia, smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, poor sleep quality, decreased quality of life and job satisfaction [24,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. In particular, job-related stressors and exposures increase stress, anxiety and irritability among police officers resulting on reduced productivity, absenteeism and worse quality of life [24][25][26][27][28]. ...
Article
Background: Stress is common among police personnel leading to several negative consequences. Objective: We performed a systematic literature review to identify risk factors for stress among police officers. Methods: We searched PubMed and Scopus electronic databases through to July 2018 and we conducted this review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used for studies quality assessment. Results: After selection, 29 cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria and included in the review. The average quality of studies was low since no study was rated as having low risk of bias, three studies (10.3%) as moderate risk and 26 studies (89.7%) were rated as having high risk of bias. Stress risk factors were summarized in the following categories: demographic characteristics; job characteristics; lifestyle factors; negative coping strategies and negative personality traits. Conclusions: Identification of stress risk factors is the first step to create and adopt the appropriate interventions to decrease stress among police personnel. The early identification of police officers at higher risk and the appropriate screening for mental health disorders is crucial to prevent disease and promote quality of life.
... 6 They are at constant stress with a high rate of smoking and alcohol addiction. 7,8 Male workers have a higher prevalence rate of hypertriglyceridemia and female workers at a higher rate of hypertension. 9 Job strain is significantly related to heart rate variability, 10 increased fasting glucose, 11 dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension. ...
... Several studies demonstrated that the lifestyle and the constant stressful environment that the police face are the contributing factors to high rate of smoking and alcohol [11][12][13] addiction. ...
Article
Full-text available
police personnel have been diagnosed with various stress-induced health problems. Police officers are at a greater risk of various environmental health problems due to the stressful nature of their profession. Police personnel are one of the important pillar of our society but the working conditions of the policemen are lagging behind in many aspects, social as well as human, his training deficient in equipping him to meet the task pressures, public condemnation bad enough to add to his frustration and overall work environment which is dehumanizing. The unresolved frustrations and personal conflicts result in stress and anxiety and the process goes on.
... [3] Several studies demonstrated that the lifestyle and the constant stressful environment that the police face are the contributing factors to high rate of smoking and alcohol addiction. [4][5][6] A cohort study done on US police personnel revealed that risk for the development of noncommunicable diseases and cardiovascular disease events at an earlier age is higher in this occupational group and that they die much earlier compared to other groups. [5,7] Police officers are at higher risk for high blood pressure (BP), insomnia, increased levels of destructive stress hormones, heart problems, and posttraumatic stress disorder due to the constant job pressures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Police personnel form an important occupational group who constantly work under stressful situations. Preventive programs in the government organizations and studies investigating the occupational stress among police officers in India, particularly in the state of Andhra Pradesh, are still limited. Materials and Methods: Demographic details such as age, educational qualification, years of service, and number of children etc of Demographic details such as age, educational qualification, years of service, and number of children etc of Male police constables (n = 123) working in the Bellampalli subdivision of Adilabad district of erstwhile Andhra Pradesh were captured. Details of height, weight, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), blood pressure (BP), pulse, the status of addiction, and type of illness were extracted from the records. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and Chi-square test to find an association between categorical variables was performed using SPSS version 16. Results: About 72.4% of the constables were addicted to at least one habit such as alcohol consumption, smoking, and chewing smokeless tobacco and pan. Nearly 20.3% were addicted to chewing tobacco/pan followed by addition to alcohol consumption 14.6%. With the increase in age, the prevalence of hypertension also increased showing a significant association (systolic BP [SBP]: P = 0.001; diastolic BP [DBP]: P = 0.001). Similarly, higher BMI (SBP: P = 0.008; DBP: P = 0.001) and increased number of service years (SBP: P = 0.001; DBP: P = 0.001) were associated with higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Developing an adequate evaluation of the association between chronic diseases and mortality in addition to a hazard surveillance system for tracking the risks for occupational injury and illness among police officers should be considered.
Article
Full-text available
Little research has been done that examines the impact of routinely dealing with alcohol-related incidents on police drinking patterns. This study examined the drinking patterns of a sample of employees from an Australian State police service (n = 4193) through the use of a survey (which included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)). The survey requested officers to estimate the proportion and types of incidents to which they were called that involved alcohol. Analysis revealed that the median estimate, for all officers, of the proportion of incidents involving alcohol in their division was 50-74%. A significant relationship between dealing with alcohol-related incidents and officers' drinking patterns as measured by the AUDIT was also revealed. Assault was the only type of incident to independently predict drinking behaviour. A positive correlation was seen between the proportion of assaults involving alcohol and AUDIT scores.
Article
Full-text available
To examine the prevalence of five life-style behaviours among New South Wales police. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 852 police were recruited from metropolitan Sydney. Prevalence related to age and sex of self-reported alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, inadequate exercise, perception of overweight and stress symptoms. A high level (89%) of participation was achieved in the survey. Almost half (48%) of males and more than two-fifths (40%) of females consumed alcohol excessively including continuous hazardous or harmful consumption and binge drinking. Excessive drinking was more prevalent among younger police. There were 8% of male and 15% of female police who reported that they did not drink alcohol. Over one-quarter (27%) of male and one-third (32%) of female respondents reported smoking. Almost half (46%) of men and women (47%) believed that they were overweight. More than one-fifth (21%) of men and less than one-quarter (24%) of women reported that they did not exercise. Finally, 12% of men and 15% of women reported feeling moderate to severe symptoms of stress. The police work-force offers an opportunity to screen for a large number of healthy, young and high risk individuals (particularly men) who are hard to reach in other settings and who rarely visit their general practitioner. A sizeable majority (83%) of NSW police had at least one unhealthy life-style behaviour with 19% reporting 3-5 unhealthy factors. The high prevalence of excessive alcohol consumption among police is of particular concern. More active health promotion and provision of brief interventions among police may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with unhealthy life-styles.
Article
Health risk factor clinics were established at police stations in Canberra to gain an insight into the cardiac risk of a community police service and to find a focus for future health promotion activities. Self-administered questionnaires were used to determine past and present blood pressure status, family history and smoking habits. Height, weight, blood pressure and cholesterol measurements were conducted on completion of the questionnaire. Comparisons were made with the National Heart Foundation's 1989 survey figures. Seventy four per cent of male and 24% of female police officers were found to have a high body mass index, 15% of males had high blood pressure and 27% of the group smoked cigarettes. However, the presence of multiple risk factors was not a feature of this group. Police under 35 years of age were identified as a target group for health promotion and the importance of utilising senior officers to bring about change is discussed.
Article
The distribution of cigarette smoking (as well as of cigar and pipe smoking in men) by occupation was examined in over 800,000 men and women age 45–70 who were enrolled in the American Cancer Society's prospective study in 1982. Striking variations were seen for men—less striking variations for women. Smoking rates were significantly higher in groups exposed to a number of occupational hazards, compared to groups not so exposed. A considerable amount of variation is related to social class, but some individual occupations exhibit notably high (law enforcement) or low (clergy) smoking rates. This information can be quite useful in planning morbidity or mortality studies of specific occupational groups or in analyzing data from existing studies.
Article
Alcohol use is an important problem among personnel in the high-stress police occupation. The impact of occupational demands, psychological distress, and coping on police alcohol consumption are explored. Results indicate that psychological distress, as an intervening factor between work demands and alcohol use itself, has an important positive effect on alcohol use.
Article
This study aims to describe the prevalence of smoking, snuff use, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in relation to occupation among common female and male workers in Sweden. The associations between shift work, job strain, and tobacco use and exposure to ETS are assessed. The results are based on questionnaire data of 2,584 men and 2,836 women randomly selected from 63 occupations in two counties in Sweden. The prevalence of smoking ranges from 10% (95% CI 4.5-16%, police officers) to 42% (95% CI 29-55%, packing workers) in men, and between 8% (95% CI 2-14%, dentists) and 51% (95% CI 37-65%, packing workers) in women. Snuff use is more common among men (range 11-44% in different occupations) than among women (range 0-7%). The prevalence of exposure to passive smoking in this study ranges from 0.9% to 26% in men and from 0% to 30% in women. Shiftwork is significantly associated with current smoking, and job strain is significantly related to exposure to ETS. Ages between 18 and 29 years experienced an increased risk of exposure to ETS compared to older age groups. In conclusion, this study shows that tobacco use and exposure to ETS is still a major problem in the Swedish workplace.
Article
To evaluate the effects of a brief intervention to reduce excessive drinking, smoking and stress among police. (1) Controlled intervention trial with pre and post-intervention assessment approximately 8 months apart; (2) focus group identification of relevant factors). SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Assessment was carried out of 954 NSW (Australia) police at 19 stations within two matched districts in the Sydney metropolitan area. Five focus groups were carried out with 43 randomly selected police from the matched districts. Weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking, smoking and symptoms of stress were measured by a self-administered Health and Fitness Questionnaire. Recorded responses to set questions provided qualitative data. Participation was high (89%) at both quantitative assessments. Alcohol consumptions, particularly among men, was high at both baseline and follow-up assessments, although comparisons between groups across occasions showed no significant intervention effects. Excessive drinkers and those reporting moderate to severe stress levels reported more sick leave days (p < 0.05, p < 0.05). A significant increase in awareness of alcohol policies in the work-place showed in both experimental and control groups over time (p < 0.01). The percentage of smokers declined significantly in both intervention and control groups. Overall, women had significantly more symptoms of stress than men. Only 20% of police thought they would seek advice from work-place staff about alcohol consumption, 14% for smoking and 61% for stress. In the qualitative study, employees generally distrusted their organization's involvement in health unless work performance was affected. Seeking professional assistance for life-style issues was viewed as a sign of weakness. Alcohol use was seen as a way of obtaining information or group membership, self-medication and socializing. The brief interventions did not produce significant improvements in three life-style factors beyond positive trends in alcohol consumption among women and general reductions in smoking among both study groups. Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches helped identify interactive individual and organizational factors which influence behavioural and cultural norms.