Berg MB, Safren SA, Mimiaga MJ, Grasso C, Boswell S, Mayer KH. Nonadherence to medical appointments is associated with increased plasma HIV RNA and decreased CD4 cell counts in a community-based HIV primary care clinic

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
AIDS Care (Impact Factor: 1.6). 11/2005; 17(7):902-7. DOI: 10.1080/09540120500101658
Source: PubMed


This study examined the association of appointment nonadherence to markers of disease severity using one year of demographic and health information on 995 individuals with HIV in primary care at an urban community health centre. At the latest visit, 106 of 946 valid cases (11.2%) had a CD4 less than or equal to 200, and 454 of 936 valid cases (48.5%) had detectable plasma HIV RNA (greater than 50 copies/ml). Using logistic regression, appointment nonadherence (number of missed appointments) was a significant predictor (p < .03) of having an AIDS-defining CD4 count over and above the effects of number of kept appointments (p < .0001), and whether or not the patient was taking HAART (p < .002). Appointment nonadherence was also a significant predictor (p < .05) of having a detectable viral load over and above the effects of number of kept appointments (p < .003), HAART (p < .0001) and age (p < .004). Looking only at individuals with a detectable viral load at the earliest visit, the only significant unique predictor of improvement to an undetectable viral load at the latest visit was being on HAART (p < .05). Looking at those only with an undetectable viral load at the earliest visit, the only predictor of declining to a detectable viral load was number of kept appointments (p < 003), and being on HAART (p < .05).

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    • "Physician appointments provide an important avenue for blood pressure control through patient education, medication titration and early detection of complications. Appointment non-adherence constitutes an obstacle to the provision of adequate patient care and may be associated with poor control of chronic illness [1]–[4], increased risk of hospitalization [5], [6], reduced clinic efficiency [7], and mortality [8]. This is especially true among minorities in the United States [9], and among individuals with chronic conditions such as hypertension [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Missed appointments are associated with an increased risk of hospitalization and mortality. Despite its widespread prevalence, little data exists regarding factors related to appointment non-adherence among hypertensive African-Americans. Objective: To investigate factors associated with appointment non-adherence among African-Americans with severe, poorly controlled hypertension. Design and Participants: A cross-sectional survey of 185 African-Americans admitted to an urban medical center in Maryland, with severe, poorly controlled hypertension from 1999–2004. Categorical and continuous variables were compared using chi-square and t-tests. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression was used to assess correlates of appointment non-adherence. Main Outcome Measures: Appointment non-adherence was the primary outcome and was defined as patient-report of missing greater than 3 appointments out of 10 during their lifetime.ResultsTwenty percent of participants (n = 37) reported missing more than 30% of their appointments. Patient characteristics independently associated with a higher odds of appointment non-adherence included not finishing high school (Odds ratio [OR] = 3.23 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.33–7.69), hypertension knowledge ([OR] = 1.20 95% CI: 1.01–1.42), lack of insurance ([OR] = 6.02 95% CI: 1.83–19.88), insurance with no medication coverage ([OR] = 5.08 95% CI: 1.05–24.63), cost of discharge medications ([OR] = 1.20 95% CI: 1.01–1.42), belief that anti-hypertensive medications do not work ([OR] = 3.67 95% CI: 1.16–11.7), experience of side effects ([OR] = 3.63 95% CI: 1.24–10.62), medication non-adherence ([OR] = 11.31 95% CI: 3.87–33.10). Substance abuse was not associated with appointment non-adherence ([OR] = 1.05 95% CI: 0.43–2.57). Conclusions: Appointment non-adherence among African-Americans with poorly controlled hypertension was associated with many markers of inadequate access to healthcare, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cannot currently be free of the virus, so they must regularly visit medical facilities and receive appropriate care to prevent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related or non-AIDS-related complications. Patients who do not receive regular HIV care tend to experience adverse outcomes such as antiretroviral therapy failure, hospitalization, AIDS-defining illness, and death [1–3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Poor retention in the care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with adverse patient outcomes such as antiretroviral therapy failure and death. Therefore, appropriate case management is required for better patient retention; however, which intervention in case management is important has not been fully investigated. Meanwhile, in Japan, each local government is required to organize mental health services for patients with HIV so that a case manager at an HIV care facility can utilize them, but little is known about the association between implementation of the services and loss to follow-up. Therefore, we investigated that by a nested case-control study. The target population consisted of all patients with HIV who visited Osaka National Hospital, the largest HIV care facility in western Japan, between 2000 and 2010. Loss to follow-up was defined as not returning for follow-up care more than 1 year after the last visit. Independent variables included patient demographics, characteristics of the disease and treatment, and whether the patients have received mental health services. For each case, three controls were randomly selected and matched. Of the 1620 eligible patients, 88 loss to follow-up cases were identified and 264 controls were matched. Multivariate-adjusted conditional logistic regression revealed that loss to follow-up was less frequent among patients who had received mental health services implemented by their case managers (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.35 [0.16-0.76]). Loss to follow-up also occurred more frequently in patients who did not receive antiretroviral therapy (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 7.51 [3.34-16.9]), who were under 30 years old (2.74 [1.36-5.50]), or who were without jobs (3.38 [1.58-7.23]). Mental health service implementation by case managers has a significant impact on patient retention.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Following HIV diagnosis, timely linkage to care, prompt initiation of ART when indicated, and maintaining good adherence to ART are critical for successful HIV treatment. Delayed linkage and poor retention in care have been associated with deleterious clinical outcomes including delayed ART initiation, high rate of ART failure, and worse survival (19, 22, 23). The present analysis showed that the mortality rate and the risk factors for death were different over time after ART initiation. "
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective study was conducted to determine the mortality, causes and risk factors for death among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Korea. The outcomes were determined by time periods, during the first year of ART and during 1-5 yr after ART initiation, respectively. Patients lost to follow-up were traced to ascertain survival status. Among 327 patients initiating ART during 1998-2006, 68 patients (20.8%) died during 5-yr follow-up periods. Mortality rate per 100 person-years was 8.69 (95% confidence interval, 5.68-12.73) during the first year of ART, which was higher than 4.13 (95% confidence interval, 2.98-5.59) during 1-5 yr after ART. Tuberculosis was the most common cause of death in both periods (30.8% within the first year of ART and 16.7% during 1-5 yr after ART). During the first year of ART, clinical category B and C at ART initiation, and underlying malignancy were significant risk factors for mortality. Between 1 and 5 yr after ART initiation, CD4 cell count ≤ 50 cells/µL at ART initiation, hepatitis B virus co-infection, and visit constancy ≤ 50% were significant risk factors for death. This suggests that different strategies to reduce mortality according to the time period after ART initiation are needed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Korean medical science
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