Is Consumption of Breakfast Associated with Body Mass Index in US Adults?

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824-1224, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 09/2005; 105(9):1373-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2005.06.002
Source: PubMed


To test the hypothesis that breakfast consumption is associated with weight status measured by body mass index in US adults.
Analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000.
Men and women aged > or = 19 years (N=4,218), excluding pregnant and/or lactating women.
SAS (release 8.1, 2000, SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC) and SUDAAN (release 8.0.2, 2003, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC) software were used to calculate sample-weighted means, standard errors, and population percentages of breakfast consumers. Multiple logistic and linear regression models, with controls for covariates, were used to determine the predictability of body mass index from breakfast consumption and from inclusion of ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) in the breakfast meal.
Breakfast consumers were more likely than breakfast nonconsumers to be older, female, white, nonsmokers, regular exercisers, and trying to control their weight. For women, daily energy intake was higher among breakfast consumers than among breakfast nonconsumers; for both men and women, energy intake from fat among RTEC breakfast consumers was significantly lower than among non-RTEC breakfast consumers, whereas energy from carbohydrate among RTEC breakfast consumers was significantly higher than among non-RTEC breakfast consumers. For women, the odds ratios for BMI > or = 25 were lower for breakfast consumers (odds ratio = 0.76) and RTEC breakfast consumers (odds ratio = 0.70) compared with breakfast nonconsumers and non-RTEC breakfast consumers, respectively, after adjusting the models for covariates. When RTEC consumption was added as a covariate, breakfast consumers no longer exhibited significantly lower odds ratios compared with breakfast nonconsumers. Furthermore, regression analyses supported an inverse association between RTEC breakfast consumption and body mass index in women (regression coefficient = -0.37, P<.01) after adjusting for covariates.
When we document the association of breakfast consumption with lower prevalence of overweight and obesity, types of meal should be considered as an important determinant. RTEC breakfast consumption, associated with a desirable macronutrient profile for preventing obesity, predicted weight status in women, but not in men. In addition to sex difference in the association of breakfast consumption and RTEC breakfast consumption with lower prevalence of overweight, the effects of physiological variables and health-related behaviors on the relationship between total and RTEC intake at breakfast and weight status, remain to be established.

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    • "Daily meal frequencies, and breakfast skipping in particular, have been linked to risk for overweight and obesity in UK, USA, and Australian populations, and are associated with female gender, lower socioeconomic status (SES), urban environments, and older age.[8910] Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that regularly skipping breakfast is associated with greater body mass index (BMI) in all age-groups;[11121314151617] However, the mechanisms that might explain the relation between breakfast consumption and body weight are not yet well understood.[18] However, it remains unclear whether breakfast skipping plays a causal role in overweight or is associated with other factors impacting BMI such as parental involvement in food decisions.[19] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and its prevalence continues to increase at a rapid rate in various populations and across all age-group. The effect of meal skipping, both behaviorally and physiologically, may have an impact on the outcome of weight-loss efforts.Aims and Objectives:Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of breakfast skipping and obesity in subjects.Materials and Methods:A retrospective analysis of the patients visited to a metabolic clinic of the city was done.Results:One hundred and eighty-six eligible subjects were included for the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection which included information regarding dietary factors and exercise schedule/physical activity. A 24-hour dietary recall method was used to assess the amount of food consumed. Anthropometric measurements were taken.Conclusion:The higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in the present study could be because of imbalance in the diet and faulty food habits prevalent in the region.
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    • "Some studies reported that breakfast could play an important role in the prevention of adult chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and osteoporosis [4]. Breakfast provides a significant proportion of the day's total nutrient intake [5]-[7] with lower intakes of fat and higher intakes of carbohydrate [8],[9], dietary fibre and certain micronutrients [10],[11]. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with better diets for adults overall where skipping is associated with a lower diet quality and concentrated energy intakes [12] meeting two thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamins and minerals [13] and health-compromising behaviors in adults such as smoking, infrequent exercise, low education level, higher BMI [14]. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%) [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Positive association between skipping breakfast and overweight and obesity is globally observed regardless of cultural diversity among countries. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on a total of 426 urban adults, who were randomly selected in a nutrition counseling center of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The objective of this study was determining the association between breakfast skipping and obesity risk in urban adults of Bangladesh. Results indicated that approximately 35.2% of the sample skipped breakfast. Gender was the only statistically significant sociodemographic variable, with females skipping at two times the rate of males (OR 95% CI: 1.9; 1.3-2.9). Obesity was detected among 39.5% of breakfast skippers and they showed significantly high prevalence (X2=30.15, p<0.05). Skippers were significantly more likely being obese (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.2-5.5) and obesity was more prevalent in female skippers (X2=8.7, p<0.05), with three times more compared to male skippers (OR 95% CI: 2.8; 1.4-5.9). Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent among urban adult population with significant association of obesity in Bangladesh. Health promotion strategies should be used to encourage all adults to eat breakfast regularly.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014
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    • "The rise in childhood overweight and obesity is a likely consequence of the modern obesogenic and predominantly automated environment characterized by growing sedentary activities and less physical activity [2]. Besides lack of sleep [3] and longer screen time [4], altered dietary behavior toward more frequent breakfast skipping [5], eating out [6], constant eating [7] and high energy snacking [8, 9] and less family meals or fixed meal times [10, 11] seems to enhance the problem. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between proxy-reported energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods and body mass index (BMI) z-score in 2-9-year-old European children. From 16,225 children who participated in the identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) baseline examination, 9,782 children with 24-h proxy dietary information and complete covariate information were included in the analysis. Participating children were classified according to adapted Goldberg cutoffs: underreports, plausible energy reports and overreports. Energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods excluding noncaloric beverages were calculated for all eating occasions. Effect of energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods on BMI z-score was investigated using multilevel regression models in the full sample and subsample of plausible energy reports. Exposure variables were included separately; daily food intake and energy intake were addressed in a combined model to check for interactions. In the group of plausible energy reports (N = 8,544), energy intake and daily food intake were significantly positively associated with BMI z-score. Energy density of foods was not associated with BMI z-score. In the model including energy intake, food intake and an interaction term, only energy intake showed a significantly positive effect on BMI z-score. In the full sample (N = 9,782), only energy intake was significantly but negatively associated with BMI z-score. Proxy-reporters are subject to misreporting, especially for children in the higher BMI levels. Energy intake is a more important predictor of unhealthy weight development in children than daily food intake.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · European Journal of Nutrition
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