Effect of Race on Cultural Justifications for Caregiving

Center for Aging and Diversity, University of North Carolina Institute on Aging, 720 Airport Road, Suite 100, CB 1030, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-1030, USA.
The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (Impact Factor: 3.21). 10/2005; 60(5):S257-62. DOI: 10.1093/geronb/60.5.S257
Source: PubMed


Our objective in this study was to explore the effects of caregiver characteristics on cultural reasons given for providing care to dependent elderly family members.
The sample included 48 African American and 121 White caregivers. Using multivariate analyses, we used caregiver characteristics (e.g., race, gender, education) to predict scores on the Cultural Justifications for Caregiving Scale (CJCS).
Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the CJCS was appropriate for both African American and White caregivers. African Americans had stronger cultural reasons for providing care than Whites, education levels were inversely related to CJCS scores, and the influences of gender and age on cultural reasons were moderated by race. Compared to females, African American males had lower CJCS scores, whereas White males had higher CJCS scores. Younger as compared to older White caregivers had higher CJCS scores.
This study supports the long-standing cultural tradition of African American families providing care to dependent elders. Cultural reasons for caregiving need to be interpreted within the context of race and gender socialization. Social roles, such as husband or wife, son or daughter, can also help determine how individuals within a particular cultural group experience cultural expectations and obligations. Information from this study can inform culturally appropriate caregiving interventions.

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    • "These inequalities are thought to lead to a greater need for support but a lesser ability to draw on financial resources to purchase alternatives to kin support. The cultural explanation argues that values such as familism or filial piety are responsible for ethnic group differences in support (Dilworth-Anderson et al., 2005; Pyke & Bengtson, 1996). The cultural explanation is mediated by the process of migration and change. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Minority ethnic groups are often assumed to exchange higher levels of informal support than the majority population, despite evidence that controlling for socioeconomic and health inequalities eliminates differences. Using a unique data set from England and Wales, we examined instrumental support across ethnic groups in mid and later life. Method: Employing data from the Home Office Citizenship Survey 2005 (N = 14,081), we investigated ethnic group differences in instrumental support among people aged 55 and older in England and Wales (n = 4,710). Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the determinants of support given and received, guided by the Andersen-Newman behavioral model. Results: Compared with the White British group, the Indian group reported significantly higher odds (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-4.7) of receiving instrumental support from household members but significantly lower odds of giving support to relatives outside the household (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9). Three other ethnic groups (Pakistani and Bangladeshi, Mixed, Other) reported significantly lower odds in unadjusted findings, but when adjusted, ethnic group differences were no longer significant. Discussion: Our analyses suggest few ethnic group differences in instrumental support once need and enabling factors were taken into account. Such findings are contrary to the belief that minority groups exchange more informal support and therefore have less need for formal services. The Andersen-Newman model is useful for guiding the analysis of support both given and received.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
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    • "To identify reviews, the publication type was limited to systematic reviews, literature reviews, or meta-analyses. The search identified 13 narrative literature reviews (Gonzales et al., 1995; Connell & Gibson, 1997; Aranda & Knight, 1997; Braun & Browne, 1998; Dilworth-Anderson & Gibson, 1999; Janevic & Connell, 2001; Dilworth-Anderson et al., 2002; Knight et al., 2002; Milne & Chryssanthopoulou, 2005; Chan, 2010; Knight & Sayegh, 2010; Botsford et al., 2011; Sun et al., 2012 "
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing prevalence of dementia highlights the continued importance of family caregiving to society. Increasing ethnocultural diversity of the older population means that it is important to understand how culture influences dementia caregiving. This paper reviews evidence about the influence of cultural values such as familism and filial piety on the process of caregiving. Three hypotheses based on the Sociocultural Stress and Coping Model (Knight & Sayegh, 2010) and stress, coping, and adaptation theory (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) are examined. It is hypothesized that cultural values influence caregiver well-being indirectly through their influence on: (1) burden appraisal; (2) social support; and (3) coping. A review of reviews, supplemented by recent research about cultural values and family caregiving revealed some support for the first and third hypothesis. Research about social support and cultural values was rare. Overall, research that measures cultural values is limited and further research is needed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
    • "In contrast, the White British participants referred to their own life experience or individual nature as a motivation, while others were unable to pinpoint a motivation. These findings are similar to those ofAnderson et al. (2005)where participants were all caregivers, but the African Americans attributed their motivations to culture, whereas the White caregivers did not. Therefore, I argue that the minority ethnic participants used their collectivist orientation to describe their motivation for behaviour, as well as to explain their ethnic identity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Britain is experiencing the ageing of a large number of minority ethnic groups for the first time in its history, due to the post-war migration of people from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. Stereotypes about a high level of provision of informal caregiving among minority ethnic groups are common in Britain, as in the US, despite quantitative studies refuting this assumption. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with older people from five different ethnic groups about their conceptualisation of their ethnic identity, and their attributions of motivations of caregiving within their own ethnic group and in other groups. It is argued that ethnic identity becomes salient after migration and becoming a part of an ethnic minority group in the new country. Therefore, White British people who have never migrated do not have a great sense of ethnic identity. Further, a strong sense of ethnic identity is linked with identifying with the collective rather than the individual, which explains why the White British participants gave an individualist account of their motivations for informal care, whereas the minority ethnic participants gave a collectivist account of their motivations of care. Crucially, members of all ethnic groups were providing or receiving informal care, so it was the attribution and not the behaviour which differed.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology
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