Neuroendocrine Profiles Associated with Energy Intake, Sleep, and Stress in the Night Eating Syndrome

Department of Psychiatry, Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.21). 11/2005; 90(11):6214-7. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2005-1018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and frequent awakenings with ingestion of food. It is associated with obesity and depressed mood. Greater understanding of hormonal influences on NES is desirable.
Our objective was to evaluate 25-h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance, sleep, and stress in NES.
Blood assays for glucose, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, melatonin, cortisol, TSH, and prolactin were sampled repeatedly among NES and control subjects. Food intake and depressive symptoms were assessed.
Fifteen NES and 14 matched control participants stayed three nights in a General Clinical Research Center.
We assessed differences between NES and control participants in the 25-h profiles of eight hormones.
Nocturnal food intake was higher among NES participants, although their daily calorie intake was similar to that of controls. Reflecting their increased nocturnal intake, insulin (P < 0.001) and glucose levels (P = 0.07) among NES participants were higher than those of controls. Ghrelin levels were significantly lower in NES participants than in controls from 0100-0900 h (P = 0.003). Levels of plasma cortisol, melatonin, leptin, and prolactin did not differ between groups, but there was a trend for TSH levels (P = 0.07) to be higher during the 25 h in NES. NES participants had greater depressive symptoms than controls (P < 0.001). The differences in the levels of glucose, insulin, and ghrelin between NES and controls are closely associated with nocturnal food intake.

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    • "Therefore, the role of cortisol has been a focus in recent investigations (Allison et al., 2005). Appetite-related hormones like ghrelin, leptin, insulin and glucose (Allison et al., 2005; Birketvedt, Geliebter, Kristiansen, Firgenschau, Goll & Florholmen, 2012) have also been studied in NES patients, but the results are mixed. Lower levels of melatonin, a hormone that typically rises as it becomes dark and the sleep period is to begin, were found in one study (Birketvedt et al., 1999), but only a delay in the expression of melatonin during the sleeping phase (not a decrease in amplitude) was found in a more recent study (Goel et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The night eating syndrome (NES) has been included into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 as an example of an 'other-specified feeding or eating disorder'. The prevalence of NES has found to be higher in obese populations than in the general population and seems to rise with increasing body mass index. Recent studies suggest a prevalence of 2%-20% in bariatric surgery samples. Given that the core feature of this eating disorder may involve a shift in the circadian pattern of eating that disrupts sleep, and not the ingestion of objectively large amounts of food, it is a pattern that can continue after bariatric surgery. Nonetheless, symptoms of NES appear to decrease after weight loss surgery, and there is no evidence that pre-surgery NES negatively impacts weight loss following surgery. Prospective and longitudinal studies of the course of night eating symptoms are warranted using clear criteria and standardized assessment instruments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · European Eating Disorders Review
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    • "Additional factors that contribute to the NES and its night binging are leptin [7-9] (the hormone that is believed to suppress appetite and speed up metabolism), certain medications and highly restrictive and prolonged dieting among obese individuals. Even the regulation of ghrelin [9], an endogenous ligand receptor growth hormone (GH), which affects not only food but also control induction of sleep is altered in the NES [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The NES is an emerging disease in eating behavior that combines eating disorders, sleep, mood and stress. In recent years, the NES is becoming more interested in close association with obesity and depression. In the present study we have followed for 12 weeks 5 patients (2 males and 3 females) with NES and comorbid depression treated with agomelatine (25 mg / day for the first two weeks, then 50 mg / day), an antidepressant similar of melatonin. At the end of the three months of treatment, it was found an improvement in symptoms characteristic of the NES, as assessed by a reduction an average of the NEQ (from 31 to 22.8), improved mood, mean values reduced by 23, 2 to 13.2 on the HAM-D, weight reduction, an average of 3.6 kg reduction in average weekly awakenings from 12 to 6.4 and the time of snoring and motion detected polysomnography. The serum chemistry values remained stable and there were no reported adverse events. The present study showed that the treatment with agomelatine has improved the symptoms of NES and mood, decrease of body weight, reduce, albeit not in an optimal manner, the number of awakenings per night with a reduction of movement time and snoring . Of course, these preliminary data need to be confirmed by controlled trials on a larger sample.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · The Open Neurology Journal
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    • "Additional factors that contribute to the NES and its nocturnal ingestion are leptin [7–9] (the hormone that is believed to suppress appetite and speed up metabolism), certain medications, and highly restrictive and prolonged dieting among obese individuals. Even the regulation of ghrelin [9], an endogenous ligand receptor growth hormone (GH), which affects not only food but also control induction of sleep, is altered in the NES [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Night eating syndrome (NES) is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in eating disorders (ED) of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores) but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography), and the weight (-5.5 kg) and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Case Reports in Medicine
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