HIV Transmission Behaviors in Jail/Prison Among Puerto Rican Drug Injectors in New York and Puerto Rico

National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., 71 West 23rd Street, New York 10010, USA.
AIDS and Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.49). 10/2005; 9(3):377-86. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-005-9011-4
Source: PubMed


This study examined HIV risk behavior in jail/prison among Puerto Rican drug injectors in New York (NY, n = 300) and Puerto Rico (PR, n = 200), and its relationship with later drug and sex risk behaviors. During 3 years prior to interview, 66% of NY and 43% of PR samples were incarcerated at least once. While incarcerated, 5% of NY and 53% of PR injected drugs. Few reported engaging in sex inside jail/prison (5% in both sites). Of those who engaged in risk behaviors in jail/prison, almost all reported having unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. The impact of jail/prison risk behaviors on risk behaviors after release differed between the two sites: they were more related to subsequent sex risk behaviors in NY, and subsequent injection risk behaviors in PR. The findings indicate a need for effective drug treatment programs inside jail/prisons to reduce HIV-related risk behaviors among drug injectors during incarceration and after release.

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    • "The incarceration of IDUs has shown to have major implications for individual prisoners and public health more generally due to the transmission of infections during incarceration periods (Kang et al., 2005; Wood et al., 2005;). HIV risky behaviors during incarceration include needle sharing among IDUs (Desai, Latta, Spaulding , Rich and Flanigan, 2002; Muller, Stark, Guggenoos-Holzman, Wirth, and Beinzle, 1995), the sharing of needles and equipment for tattoos, and unprotected sexual contact between men who have sex with men (Desai et al., 2002; Kang et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study explored whether place of birth and residence was associated with needle sharing for Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) (N = 348). In-person interviews were conducted in Puerto Rico and Massachusetts during 2005-2007. Multivariate regression analyses revealed IDUs born and living in Puerto Rico were four times more likely to have shared needles compared to those residing in Massachusetts. Respondents residing in Massachusetts were 76% less likely to have ever shared needles with an HIV-positive individual, controlling for covariates. Findings highlight the increased HIV-risk of Puerto Rican IDUs born and residing in Puerto Rico. Prevention and treatment needs are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Substance Use &amp Misuse
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    • "In 2002, 45% of Puerto Rican IDUs in New York City were infected with HIV along with 44% of Black IDUs and 32% of White IDUs [11]. Among Puerto Rican IDUs, access to sterile syringes [12], incarceration [13], residential status [14], drug scene roles [15], and sexual identity [16] have been previously identified as important factors that influence HIV transmission. Comparatively, Mexican Americans have been shown to have higher rates of drug injection and lower rates of sharing injection paraphernalia than Puerto Ricans [17, 18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Latinos in the United States are an ethnically diverse group disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. We describe HIV seroprevalence, HIV risk behaviors and utilization of health services among Mexican American injection drug users (IDUs) in California (n = 286) and compare them to White (n = 830) and African American (n = 314) IDUs. Study participants were recruited from syringe exchange programs (n = 24) in California. HIV seroprevalence among Mexican Americans (0.5%) was dramatically lower than Whites (5%) and African Americans (8%). Mexican Americans reported fewer sex-related risks than Whites and African Americans though injection-related risks remained high. Compared to Whites, Mexican Americans were more likely to participate in drug treatment during a 6 month period (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0) but less likely to receive any health care (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5, 0.8). Exploring cultural and structural factors among Mexican American IDUs may offer new insights into how to maintain low rates of HIV seroprevalence and reduce barriers to health care utilization.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · AIDS and Behavior
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    • "The relationship between incarceration and increased HIV transmission among injection drug users is a major area of debate for Canada and globally [18]. In this cross-sectional study, it is not possible to determine the date of HIV infection and its temporal relationship with prior incarceration, however there are risk behaviors that do occur during the time of incarceration and more efforts to reduce the harms to inmates are needed [19-21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: North America's first government sanctioned medically supervised injection facility (SIF) was opened during September 2003 in Vancouver, Canada. This was in response to a large open public drug scene, high rates of HIV and hepatitis C transmission, fatal drug overdoses, and poor health outcomes among the city's injection drug users. Between December 2003 and April 2005, a representative sample of 1,035 SIF participants were enrolled in a prospective cohort that required completing an interviewer-administered questionnaire and providing a blood sample for HIV testing. HIV infection was detected in 170/1007 (17%) participants and was associated with Aboriginal ethnicity (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR], 2.70, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI], 1.84-3.97), a history of borrowing used needles/syringes (aOR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.37-2.93), previous incarceration (aOR, 1.87, 95% CI, 1.11-3.14), and daily injection cocaine use (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.00-2.03). The SIF has attracted a large number of marginalized injection drug users and presents an excellent opportunity to enhance HIV prevention through education, the provision of sterile injecting equipment, and a supervised environment to self-inject. In addition, the SIF is an important point of contact for HIV positive individuals who may not be participating in HIV care and treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Harm Reduction Journal
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