Male genital tract infection: The point of view of the bacteriologist
Laboratoire de biologie médicale Magenta, 41, boulevard de Magenta, 75010 Paris, France.Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité (Impact Factor: 0.52). 10/2005; 33(9):691-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.gyobfe.2005.07.008
Male genital tract infection and inflammation have been associated to 8 to 35% of male infertility cases in various studies. Their investigation is part of a multi-disciplinary process including new techniques as DNA integrity study. Bacterial seminal infection can cause transient or chronic persistent inflammation, and the microbiological investigations, as well as leukospermia, secretory chlamydial IgA and inflammatory cytokines help to approach the responsibility of inflammation in infertility or pathological condition, leading to antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment. In Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART), bacteriospermia must be eradicated for a safe semen preparation to inseminate or to fertilize oocytes. Leukocytes cannot be completely eliminated by sperm preparation and the presence of antibiotics and antioxydants in the culture media is questionned.
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- "In birds, E. coli could be transmitted to the progeny through copulation. Microorganisms present in the seminal fluid or attached to spermatozoa are transmitted to females (Barnes and Gross, 1997; Jacobs et al., 1978; Poiani, 2010) causing reproductive tract infections (Askienazy-Elbhar, 2005) and embryonic mortality (Reid et al., 1961). Despite the numerous publications concerning sperm infection, to date, there are no data on the potential impact that could be related to resistant E. coli contamination. "
ABSTRACT: Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli have emerged worldwide in animal husbandry and they were reported from different ecosystems. The purpose of this study was firstly, to investigate the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the gastrointestinal (GIT) and reproductive (RT) tracts of broiler breeding roosters, and secondly to study the impact of an ESBL-producing E. coli on artificially infected semen. A total of seventeen ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated from the gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts of nine broiler breeding roosters. All isolates were identified to the species level by API 20E system and MALDI-TOF, serotyped, and genetically characterized for ESBL production. Semen was artificially infected with E. coli ATCC25922 or with an ESBL-producing E. coli strain recovered from the reproductive tract. A computer aided semen analyzer (CASA) was used to compare different spermatozoa motility parameters in each sample. All ESBL-producing E. coli isolates could not be typed with the currently used sera and they were harboring a blaCTX-M gene alone or in combination with a blaTEM gene. The semen quality was notably less affected in samples infected with ESBL-producing E. coli strain compared to the control and sample infected with E. coli ATCC25922. The present study revealed that ESBL-producing E. coli can be isolated from both reproductive and digestive tracts of broiler breeding roosters. Contamination of the reproductive tract with ESBL-producing E. coli could lead to contamination of semen and could be an important factor in the dissemination of ESBL-producing E. coli in poultry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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- "False negatives may result from the interference of pathogenic bacteria in the culture medium due to bactericide production by Gram-positive bacteria. To prevent false negatives, it is necessary to dilute the seminal fluid with saline before plating it onto agar media (Askienazy-Elbhar, 2005; De Francesco et al., 2011; Boitrelle et al., 2012). "
ABSTRACT: The role of inflammation and/or infection of the male accessory sex glands is very important for the potential effects that these conditions have on male fertility. The clinical Andrologist should be aware of the pathophysiological role of the main determinants of sperm damage when these conditions occur, in particular seminal leukocytes, oxidative stress, and cytokines. In addition, it is important to have a good knowledge of the methodologies to be used in the clinical practice. This article summarizes the methods used to look for and to identify the microorganisms responsible for male urogenital tract infections. These include sperm culture, urine culture, urethral swab, Meares-Stamey test, and balanopreputial swab. In the last part, we discussed the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in male infertility.
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- "The detection of C trachomatis in 4 patients and M genitalium in 1 patient only in semen may indicate that these organisms are harboured in the epididymis or seminal vesicles. Various studies conducted in industrialized countries proved the high prevalence of C trachomatis, genital ureaplasmas, and genital mycoplasmas among male partners of infertile couples and its important role in some cases in infertility (Upadhyaya et al, 1984; Paavonen and Wolner-Hassen, 1989; Vigil et al, 2002; Askienazy-Elbhar, 2005; Wang et al, 2006). Yet, in developing countries, the situation is not always clear. "
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was threefold: to compare semen and first void urine (FVU) specimens from asymptomatic infertile men for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, genital ureaplasma, and genital mycoplasma infections using in-house inhibitor-controlled polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-microtiter plate hybridization assay; to determine the prevalence of those organisms in infertile men in Tunisia; and to study the relationship between these bacteria and male infertility. Paired urine and semen specimens from 104 patients were examined by in-house PCR for the presence of DNA of Chlamydia trachomatis, genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) and genital mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium). Semen analysis was assessed according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization. Nominal scale variables, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance test were used for statistical analysis. There was a very high concordance (>95%) and a very good agreement (kappa > 0.9) between the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, genital ureaplasmas, and Mycoplasma hominis in semen and corresponding FVU specimens. Our findings also show a high concordance (81.1%) and a good agreement (kappa = 0.79) between the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in both specimens. C trachomatis, genital mycoplasmas, and genital ureaplasmas were found to be widespread among infertile male patients in Tunisia, as shown by their respective prevalences of 43.3%, 18.3%, and 14.4%. The mean values of seminal volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and leukocyte count were not significantly related either to the detection of C trachomatis DNA or to that of genital ureaplasma or mycoplasma DNA in semen specimens. Using our in-house PCR, both semen and FVU were found to be sensitive diagnostic specimens for the detection of C trachomatis, ureaplasmas, and mycoplasmas. The FVU, a less invasive and self-collected specimen, can serve as a marker for the presence of these organisms in the genital tract and can be used as a reliable way of detecting asymptomatic carriers of infection.