Phase I Study of S-1 Combined with Irinotecan (CPT-11) in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer (OGSG 0002)

Second Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.02). 10/2005; 35(9):520-5. DOI: 10.1093/jjco/hyi148
Source: PubMed


A dose-escalation study of irinotecan (CPT-11) combined with S-1, a novel oral fluoropyrimidine, was performed to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), recommended dose (RD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in advanced gastric cancer.
S-1 was administered orally at 80 mg/m(2)/day for 21 consecutive days followed by a 2 week rest. CPT-11 was given intravenously on days 1 and 15 of each course, at an initial dose of 40 mg/m(2)/day, stepping up to 60, 80, 100 or 120 mg/m(2)/day depending on the DLT. Courses were repeated every 5 weeks, unless disease progression or severe toxicity was observed. At a level of the RD, five patients were added to conduct a pharmacokinetic (PK) study.
A total of 24 patients were entered in this study. The MTD of CPT-11 was considered to be 100 mg/m(2), because 50% of the patients (3/6) developed DLTs, diarrhea and rash. Therefore, the RD of CPT-11 was set at the dose immediately below 80 mg/m(2). The overall response rate (RR) by the criteria of the Japanese Research Society of Gastric Cancer was 58.3% (14/24) and the RR at the RD was 66.7% (6/9), suggesting promising clinical efficacy. There were no significant differences between the PK parameters of S-1 on days 10 and 15.
S-1 with CPT-11 can be combined safely without CPT-11 effect on S-1 PK data and holds promise as an effective regimen for advanced gastric cancer.

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    • "As an important measure of anti-tumor efficacy, ORR saw equivalence of S-1-based chemotherapy and capecitabine-based chemotherapy, which had a high degree of consistency with each included study. The pooled ORR (38.3%) and the ORR (20.0% to 50.0%) of S-1-based chemotherapy in the included studies were within the range of the results in the one-arm phase 1/2 clinical trials of S-1-based chemotherapy (40.0% to 54.0%) [37-42], the S-1-based arm of RCTs including FLAGS trial (29.1%) [17], SPIRITS trial (31%, 54%) [43] and the S-1-based arm of the meta-analysis comparing S-1 and 5-FU (31.3%) [19]. The dose intensity of S-1 in our included studies ranged from 168 to 560 mg/m2/week, between that of FLAGS trial (262.5mg/m2/week) and SPIRITS trial (doublet arm, 336 to 504 mg/m2/week) in most cases, conforming to that the ORR here is between that of FLAGS trial and SPIRITS trial (doublet arm). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although both oral fluoropyrimidines were reported effective and safe, doubts exist about whether S-1 or capecitabine is more advantageous in advanced gastric carcinoma (AGC). Herein, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively compare the efficacy and safety of S-1-based chemotherapy versus capecitabine-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment for AGC. PubMed/Medline, EmBase, Cochrane library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for articles comparing S-1-based chemotherapy to capecitabine-based chemotherapy for AGC. Primary outcomes were overall response rate (ORR), time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), progression-free probability, and survival probability. Secondary outcomes were toxicities. Fixed-effects model were used and all the results were confirmed by random-effects model. Five randomized controlled trials and five cohort studies with 821 patients were included. We found equivalent ORR (38.3% vs. 39.1%, odds ratio [OR] 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-1.24, P = 0.59), TTP (harzad ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.82-1.16, P = 0.79), OS (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.87-1.13, P = 0.91), progression-free probability (3-month OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.62-1.68, P = 0.94; 6-month OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.88-2.04, P = 0.18) and survival probability (0.5-year OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.61-1.31, P =0.57; 1-year OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.70- 1.33, P = 0.84; 2-year OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.61-2.17, P = 0.66). Equivalent grade 3 to 4 hematological and non-hematological toxicities were found except hand-foot syndrome was less prominent in S-1-based chemotherapy (0.3% vs. 5.9%, OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06-0.56, P = 0.003). There're no significant heterogeneity and publication bias. Cumulative analysis found stable time-dependent trend. Consistent results stratified by study design, age, regimen, cycle, country were observed. S-1-based chemotherapy was associated with non-inferior antitumor efficacy and better safety profile, compared with capecitabine-based therapy. We recommended S-1 and capecitabine can be used interchangeably for AGC, at least in Asia.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The present study, entitled GC0301/TOP-002, represents another of these attempts, exploring the efficacy of a combination of S-1 and irinotecan (IRI-S). The dose and schedule for this combination had been established by a phase I trial [21], and treatment at the recommended dose has shown a response rate of 47.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27.4–68.2%] with an MST of 394 days in a phase II study [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Irinotecan hydrochloride and S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, have shown antitumor activity against advanced gastric cancer as single agents in phase I/II studies. The combination of irinotecan and S-1 (IRI-S) is also active against advanced gastric cancer. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of IRI-S versus S-1 monotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. Patients were randomly assigned to oral S-1 (80 mg/m² daily for 28 days every 6 weeks) or oral S-1 (80 mg/m² daily for 21 days every 5 weeks) plus irinotecan (80 mg/m² by intravenous infusion on days 1 and 15 every 5 weeks) (IRI-S). The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints included the time to treatment failure, 1- and 2-year survival rates, response rate, and safety. The median survival time with IRI-S versus S-1 monotherapy was 12.8 versus 10.5 months (P = 0.233), time to treatment failure was 4.5 versus 3.6 months (P = 0.157), and the 1-year survival rate was 52.0 versus 44.9%, respectively. The response rate was significantly higher for IRI-S than for S-1 monotherapy (41.5 vs. 26.9%, P = 0.035). Neutropenia and diarrhea occurred more frequently with IRI-S, but were manageable. Patients treated with IRI-S received more courses of therapy at a relative dose intensity similar to that of S-1 monotherapy. Although IRI-S achieved longer median survival than S-1 monotherapy and was well tolerated, it did not show significant superiority in this study.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Gastric Cancer
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    • "with S-1 showed no change in any PK parameter as compared with the expected values for CPT-11 as a single agent (Yamada et al, 2003). Additionally, the PK results of S-1 combined with CPT-11 were similar to those obtained by S-1 single-agent treatment (Takiuchi et al, 2005). Taken together with these data, it appears there is no PK interaction between CPT-11 and S-1. "
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    ABSTRACT: A dose-escalation study of irinotecan (CPT-11) combined with S-1, an oral dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inhibitory fluoropyrimidine, was performed to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), recommended dose (RD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and objective response rate (RR) in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). S-1 was administered orally at 80 mg m-2 day-1 from day 1 to 14 of a 28-day cycle and CPT-11 was given intravenously on day 1 and 8 at an initial dose of 70 mg m-2 day-1, stepping up to 100 mg m-2. The treatment was repeated every 4 weeks, unless disease progression was observed. In the phase I portion, the MTD of CPT-11 was presumed to be 100 mg m-2, because 66.6% of patients (two of three) developed DLTs. All three patients at the initial RD of CPT-11 (90 mg m-2) experienced grade 4 haematological or grade 3 nonhaematological toxicities at second course, followed by the dose reduction of CPT-11 from the third course. Considering safety and the ability to continue treatment, the final RD was determined to be 80 mg m-2. In the phase II portion, 42 patients including seven patients in the final RD phase I portion were evaluated. The median treatment course was five (range: 1-13). The incidences of severe (grade 3-4) haematological and nonhaematological toxicities were 19 and 10%, respectively, but all were manageable. The RR was 62% (26 of 42, 95% confidence interval: 47.2-76.6%), and the median survival time was 444 days. Our phase I/II trial showed S-1 combined with CPT-11 is effective for AGC and is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity.
    Full-text · Article · May 2006 · British Journal of Cancer
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