Morgan, D., Gordon, M. N., Tan, J., Wilcock, D. & Rojiani, A. M. Dynamic complexity of the microglial activation response in transgenic models of amyloid deposition: implications for Alzheimer therapeutics. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 64, 743-753

Department of Pharmacology, University of South Florida, Tampa, 33612, USA.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 10/2005; 64(9):743-53. DOI: 10.1097/01.jnen.0000178444.33972.e0
Source: PubMed


The presence of activated microglia in postmortem Alzheimer disease specimens is used to support the argument that inflammation contributes to Alzheimer pathogenesis. Transgenic mice overexpressing the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene form amyloid plaques that are accompanied by local activation of microglia/macrophages in a manner similar to the human disease. Many markers of microglial activation and inflammation increase in an age-dependent manner in these mice. However, manipulation of these inflammatory reactions can lead to unexpected outcomes with several instances of reduced pathology when microglia/macrophages are activated further. In particular, anti-Abeta immunotherapy in amyloid-depositing transgenic mice causes a complex series of changes in microglial markers, negating the implicit belief that such activation is monotonic and represented equally well by any of several "activation" markers. A survey of the peripheral macrophage literature identifies at least 2 distinct activation states of macrophages with different consequences for the surrounding tissue. These different activation states can often be distinguished by the markers that are expressed. Several markers are identified from studies outside the brain that neuroscientists might consider evaluating when attempting to more definitively describe the activation state of the monocyte-derived cells in the brain.

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    • "Subsequent evaluation of CpG ODN treatment effect on microglial activation was performed. Analysis of commonly used microglial and macrophage marker CD45, which is typically expressed in association with more mature plaques [23], indicated significant differences between groups. An overall hippocampal reduction in CD45 microglial activity in CpG ODN- treated mice was observed at the end of the study in both age groups (Figure 12A-D). "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer¿s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and currently, there is no effective treatment. The major neuropathological lesions in AD are accumulation of amyloid ß (Aß) as amyloid plaques and congophilic amyloid angiopathy, as well as aggregated tau in the form of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). In addition, inflammation and microglia/macrophage function play an important role in AD pathogenesis. We have hypothesized that stimulation of the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists, such as type B CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), might be an effective way to ameliorate AD related pathology. We have previously shown in the Tg2576 AD model that CpG ODN can reduce amyloid deposition and prevent cognitive deficits. In the present study, we used the 3xTg-AD mice with both Aß and tau related pathology. The mice were divided into 2 groups treated from 7 to 20 months of age, prior to onset of pathology and from 11 to 18 months of age, when pathology is already present. We demonstrated that immunomodulatory treatment with CpG ODN reduces both Aß and tau pathologies, as well as levels of toxic oligomers, in the absence of any apparent inflammatory toxicity, in both animal groups. This pathology reduction is associated with a cognitive rescue in the 3xTg-AD mice. Our data indicates that modulation of microglial function via TLR9 stimulation is effective at ameliorating all the cardinal AD related pathologies in an AD mouse model mice suggesting such an approach would have a greater chance of achieving clinical efficacy.
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    • "e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o ca t e / n e u a g i n g plaque deposition, or even lack a major impact on Ab load (reviewed in Aguzzi et al., 2013; Morgan et al., 2005). A substantial number of studies have investigated the astrocyte and microglia response to Ab, mainly using in vitro culture approaches and/or immunostainings of mouse and human AD tissue. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive astrocytes and microglia are associated with amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, not much is known about the molecular alterations underlying this reactive phenotype. To get an insight into the molecular changes underlying AD induced astrocyte and microglia reactivity, we performed a transcriptional analysis on acutely isolated astrocytes and microglia from the cortex of aged controls and APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice. As expected, both cell types acquired a proinflammatory phenotype, which confirms the validity of our approach. Interestingly, we observed that the immune alteration in astrocytes was relatively more pronounced than in microglia. Concurrently, our data reveal that astrocytes display a reduced expression of neuronal support genes and genes involved in neuronal communication. The microglia showed a reduced expression of phagocytosis and/or endocytosis genes. Co-expression analysis of a human AD expression data set and the astrocyte and microglia data sets revealed that the inflammatory changes in astrocytes were remarkably comparable in mouse and human AD, whereas the microglia changes showed less similarity. Based on these findings we argue that chronically proinflammatory astrocyte and microglia phenotypes, showing a reduction of genes involved in neuronal support and neuronal signaling, are likely to contribute to the neuronal dysfunction and cognitive decline in AD.
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    • "Apart from chronic infection, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, rheumatism, depression, stress, or type 2 diabetes are proposed as risk factors [6] [7] [8]. These factors are known to contribute to the downregulation of the innate immune response [9] and thus increase the risk for a bacterial infection [10] (Fig. 1). These infections lead to persistent inflammatory stimuli, regulated by cytokines that are known to induce stress and alter the immune response [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is thought to play a major role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Environmental influences, including chronic bacterial or viral infections, are thought to alter the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and thereby facilitate cerebral colonization by opportunistic pathogens. This may eventually trigger Aβ overproduction and aggregation. Host biomolecules that target and combat these pathogens, for instance, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as Aβ itself, are an interesting option for the detection and diagnostic follow-up of such cerebral infections. As part of the innate immune system, AMPs are defensive peptides that efficiently penetrate infected cells and tissues beyond many endothelial barriers, most linings, including the BBB, and overall specifically target pathogens. Based on existing literature, we postulate a role for labeled AMPs as a marker to target pathogens that play a role in the aggregation of amyloid in the brain.
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