Evaluating the role of desorption in bioavailability of sediment-associated contaminants using oligochaetes, semipermeable membrane devices and Tenax extraction

University of Joensuu, Department of Biology, Yliopistokatu 7, FIN-80100 Joensuu, Finland.
Environmental Pollution (Impact Factor: 4.14). 04/2006; 140(1):150-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2005.06.010
Source: PubMed


The success of the rapidly desorbing fraction as an available fraction was challenged by using sediment ingesting and non-ingesting oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) together with passive samplers (semipermeable membrane devices, SPMDs) in accumulation and kinetic modelling exercises for carbon-14 labelled model compounds (pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl). Passive samplers clearly produced lower uptake rate constants and steady state factors than either of the oligochaete treatments when residue concentrations were based on animal lipid or total SPMD weight. The rapidly desorbing chemical fractions in sediments did not show a significant relationship with the biota sediment accumulation factors or SPMD accumulation factors. A distinctly better relationship was observed between the accumulation factors and the desorption rate constants. The results support the assumption that desorption plays an important role in bioavailability, although animal behaviour and the diffusional limitations of hydrophobic contaminants in sediment together probably affect the actual available pool.

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    • "In particular such devices have been combined with specific in vitro bioassays for an integrative characterization of the contamination (Vermeirssen et al. 2005, Creusot et al. 2010, David et al. 2010, Harman et al. 2010). Moreover, in addition to surface water application, the use of passive sampling to assess bioavailable organic contaminants in sediments have been recently reported for more realistic risk characterization of environmental mixtures (Brack et al. 2009, Leppanen et Kukkonen 2006). The aim of this study was to assess spatial and temporal distribution of EDCs activities (estrogenic, anti-androgenic, PXR-like and dioxin-like) between sediment and surface water in order to highlight the source and fate of active chemicals. "
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    ABSTRACT: The contamination of aquatic systems by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is now a widely established fact. Nevertheless, there is still a scarcity of knowledge concerning the source, transport, fate and bioavailability of such active compounds. In the present study we assessed the distribution of estrogenic, (anti-)androgenic, pregnane X receptor-like (PXR) and dioxin-like activities between sediment and water compartments using a polar organic compound integrative sampler (POCIS) and a semi-permeable membrane device (SPMD) passive sampler in a river where sediment has been previously described as highly and multi-contaminated. We first confirmed the contamination pattern of this river sediment between 2004, 2009 and 2010 samples, suggesting that this river is subject to a constant high contamination level. However, we showed a different distribution pattern of these activities between compartments: estrogenic activity was mainly detected in POCIS extracts and to a lesser extent in sediment and SPMD extracts; anti-androgenic activities were mainly detected in SPMD and sediment extracts while no activity was detected in POCIS extracts; PXR-like activity was detected in all three investigated compartments, with POCIS > SPMD > sediment; dioxin-like activity was mainly found in the sediment and the SPMD extracts. Overall, partitioning of the biological activities was in accordance with physicochemical properties (e.g., log K ow) of typical known active chemicals in each bioassay. Furthermore, in order to establish whether the chemicals involved in these activities were similar between the compartments, we fractionated sediment, POCIS and SPMD extracts using a multi-step fractionation procedure. This highlighted differences in the nature of active chemicals between compartments. Altogether, our results support the need to consider different compartments in order to enhance exposure assessment.
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    • "Due to the fact, that L. variegatus unselectively ingests fine sediment particles (Kukkonen and Landrum, 1995), there is a high potential of ingesting toxic substances. For this species, the ingestion of particle-bound chemicals can be an important accumulation route of hydrophobic contaminants (Leppanen and Kukkonen, 2006). The uptake of these contaminants requires their bioavailability and depends on various factors like pH, humic acid and dissolved organic carbon content (Nikkila et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Tenax®-resin has been originally developed for grabbing volatile organic compounds from gases. The resin is a porous polymer (2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide) and it has low affinity for water (floats on the surface). It has high affinity for hy drophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), thus capturing them efficiently from water. On the other hand, the HOCs can be quite easily be extracted from Tenax. Due to these properties Tenax has been applied to m easure desorption of HOCs in sediment- (and soil-) water systems. The Tenax extraction has indicated that HOCs sorbed to sediments can be modeled to belong to 2 or more compartments on the basis of rate of desorption (for example rapid, slow and very slow fractions). Following this it has been anticipated that mainly the rapidly desorbing fraction, obviously containing also the freely dissolved fraction, would be bioavailable. Several studies have been conducted to determine if Tenax extraction based desorption could be used to predict bioavailable fraction in sediments. In many cases the laboratory studies indicated that there is a relationship between the size of rapidly desorbing fraction or rate constant for the rapid fraction and bioavailability. However, there are some issues that we must be aware when using Tenax extraction. For example, it appears that ecological factors, such as species life and feeding habits affect the bioavailability in ways that cannot be detected by Tenax extraction.
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